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3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL 60515 630.795.3200 1 Problems Associated with PPE Use –Heat stress –Dermatoses –Restricted vision and dexterity –Restricted.

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Presentation on theme: "3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL 60515 630.795.3200 1 Problems Associated with PPE Use –Heat stress –Dermatoses –Restricted vision and dexterity –Restricted."— Presentation transcript:

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2 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Problems Associated with PPE Use –Heat stress –Dermatoses –Restricted vision and dexterity –Restricted communication/hearing –Claustrophobia PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

3 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Review MSDS, safety supply catalogs to determine compatibility of gloves, boots and suits with chemicals to be encountered. NIOSH website (CDC.gov) Recommendations for chemical protective clothing (CPC) Prepare ahead! PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

4 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

5 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Respiratory protection should be used: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION When Engineering Controls Are Not Feasible or Sufficient During Emergencies When Exposures Are Unknown 3 2 1

6 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Why Respiratory Protection? –Minimize the Inhalation of Airborne Substances Dusts Mists Vapors/gases Fumes

7 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION If someone is wearing a respirator then Personal Air Monitoring should be conducted –Gives idea of airborne concentrations in ‘personal breathing zone’ –Helps select the right type of respirator Conduct end of service life cartridge calculations

8 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Respiratory Protection –Respiratory Hazards Oxygen deficiency Toxic contaminants Unknown atmosphere There is a lot to consider!

9 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Respiratory Hazards –Oxygen deficiency Atmospheric content by volume –Normal 20.9 % oxygen –Minimum allowable 19.5 % oxygen

10 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Respiratory Hazards –Toxic Contaminants Dust Fumes Mists Gases Vapors

11 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Respiratory Hazards –Unknown Atmosphere Typical spill situation Could be IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) Need highest level of protection

12 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Air-Purifying Respirators Atmosphere- Supplying Respirators Two types of respirators

13 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION A four-step process should be used to guide the selection of respiratory protection. Evaluate the Hazard Dete rmin e Phy sical Stat e of Sub stan ce Deter mine Pote ntial Expo sure 123 Ide ntif y App ropr iate Res pira tors 4

14 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL The nature of the contaminant (e.g., concentration, effects, exposure limits) Contaminant Workplace conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity Workplace Factors related to the wearer that may affect respirator performance User The nature of the activity to be conducted (e.g., duration) Activity Respirator Selection RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

15 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Employees required to wear respirators must receive training on the following: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, and maintenance can make the respirator ineffective The limitations and capabilities of selected respirators How to use the respirator in emergency situations, including when the respirator malfunctions How to inspect, put on and remove, and check the seals of the respirator Respirator maintenance and storage procedures How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent effective use of the respirator

16 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL THERMAL STRESS Heat Stress Cold Stress

17 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT STRESS Combination of workload and environmental heat Increases with temperature and humidity Aggravated by chemical protective clothing (CPC) CPC limits the dissipation of body heat and moisture

18 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT DISORDERS HEAT RASH HEAT CRAMP DEHYDRATION HEAT EXHAUSTION HEAT STROKE

19 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Signs of Heat Rash –Tiny red and patchy blisters –Skin rash over arms, shoulders, chest and behind knees –Tingling or pricking feeling on skin HEAT RASH (Prickly Heat)

20 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT RASH (Prickly Heat) With a Heat Rash –Stay away from hot environments and sunshine –Keep skin dry –Avoid scratching –See physician

21 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT RASH (Prickly Heat) To Avoid Heat Rash: –Take a shower after working in the heat –Dry skin thoroughly –Change underwear –Stay in a cool place after work

22 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT CRAMPS –Painful spasms of the arms, legs and stomach muscles –Caused by electrolyte imbalance by prolonged sweating without adequate fluid and salt intake

23 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT CRAMPS First Aid: –Drink 1 or 2 glasses of slightly salted fluids –Gently massage cramping muscle –Rest in cool place

24 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL DEHYDRATION Excessive fluid loss caused by sweating, illness, alcohol consumption, etc. No early symptoms Signs –Fatigue/weakness –Dry mouth –Loss of work capacity First Aid –Fluid and salt replacement

25 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Symptoms and Signs of Heat Exhaustion: –High pulse rate –Profuse sweating –Oral temperature normal or slightly elevated (add 1°F to estimate body temperature from oral temperature) –Pale, moist face –Dizziness –Nausea –Headache –Fatigue –Weakness –Unsteady Gait –Victim may collapse if warning signs are disregarded HEAT EXHAUSTION

26 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT EXHAUSTION Causes: –Dehydration –Low level of heat acclimation to the environment –Low level of fitness

27 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT EXHAUSTION First Aid: –Lie down flat on back in cool environment –Drink slightly salted fluids –Open clothing –In case of collapse, call ambulance –Victim must lie flat except when drinking

28 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT STOKE Symptoms and Signs of Heat Stroke: –Confusion –Hot dry skin (red, mottled or cyanotic) –Irrational behavior –Loss of consciousness –Convulsions –Extremely high body temperature (104°F and rising) –Condition is fatal if treatment is delayed –Partial or complete failure of sweating

29 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT STROKE Early Signs: –Body temperature is elevated (add 1°F to estimate body temperature from oral temperature) –Erratic behavior –Hot, dry, flushed –Weakness –Unsteady gait –Irritability –Call for medical help – this is an emergency!

30 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT STROKE Fully-Developed Symptoms: –Flushed –Dry skin –Convulsions –Loss of consciousness –Body temperature 105°F or above (add 1°F to estimate body temperature from oral temperature) –Start cooling immediately and call an ambulance

31 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT STROKE First Aid: –Call the ambulance –Bring body temperature down as fast as possible –If using cold bath, rub skin constantly to maintain skin circulation –Increase air movement –Place an ice bag on head –Keep towel and sheet wet –Stop cooling when body temperature is down to 101°F

32 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT ILLNESS PREVENTION Prevent excess loss of body water –Drink small amounts every 15 minutes Up to 1.5% body weight loss at the end or workday is okay More than 1.5% body weight loss increases risk of heat illness.

33 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT ILLNESS PREVENTION Replace salt loss due to sweating –When salt is needed, add it to food or water Unacclimated workers do not sweat enough. Their sweat contains large amounts of salt. Check with physician before increasing salt intake.

34 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT ILLNESS PREVENTION Acclimated workers have good sweating ability and their sweat contains only small amounts of salt – less extra salt is needed.

35 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL HEAT ILLNESS PREVENTION Acclimation to Heat: –Increased heat tolerance while decreasing risk of heat illness –Gradually introduce new workers to heat exposure –An acclimated worker can sweat more, has less increase of pulse rate and temperature Control Conditions

36 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Cold Stress Cold-Related Disorders –Hypothermia –Frostbite –Frostnip –Trench Foot –Chilblain –Raynaud’s Disorder

37 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Hypothermia Signs and Symptoms: –Chills –Pain in extremities –Fatigue –Euphoria –Slow, weak pulse –Slurred speech –Collapse –Shivering –Unconsciousness –Body temperature < 95°F

38 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Hypothermia Causes –Excessive exposure to the cold –Exhaustion or dehydration

39 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL PROGRESSION OF HYPOTHERMIA Core (Body) Temperature (°F) Clinical Signs 98.6“Normal” oral temperature 96.8Metabolic rate increases in an attempt to compensate for heat loss 95.0Maximum shivering 93.2Victim conscious and responsive with normal blood pressure 91.4Severe hypothermia below this temperature 84.2 – 86.0Progressive loss of consciousness; muscular rigidity increases; pulse and blood pressure difficult to obtain; respiratory rate decreases

40 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Hypothermia First Aid –Move to warm area and remove wet clothing –Modest external warming (heat pack, blanket) –Drink warm, sweet fluids –Call for medical assistance

41 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL FROSTBITE Sign and Symptoms –Burning sensation at first –Coldness, numbness and tingling follows white –Skin color white or grayish yellow to reddish violet to black –Blisters –Response to touch depends on the depth of freezing

42 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL FROSTBITE

43 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL FROSTBITE Causes –Exposure to cold –Vascular disease First Aid –Move to warm area and remove wet clothing –External warming (e.g. warm water) –Drink warm, sweet fluids –Call for medical assistance

44 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL FROSTNIP Signs and Symptoms white –Skin turns white –Possible itching pain Causes –Exposure to cold above freezing First Aid –Similar to Frostbite

45 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL TRENCH FOOT Signs and Symptoms –Severe pain –Tingling, itching –Edema (swelling) –Blisters –Response to touch depends on depth of freezing Causes –Exposure to cold above freezing and dampness First Aid –Similar to Frostbite

46 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CHILBLAIN Signs and Symptoms: –Recurrent localized itching of the skin –Painful inflammation –Swelling

47 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CHILBLAIN Causes –Inadequate Clothing –Exposure to cold and dampness –Vascular disease First Aid –Remove to warm area –Get medical assistance

48 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RAYNAUD’S DISORDER Signs and Symptoms –Fingers blanch with cold exposure –Fingers tingle –Intermittent blanching and reddening Causes –Exposure to cold and vibration (jackhammer) First Aid –Remove to warm area –Get medical assistance

49 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RAYNAUD’S DISORDER

50 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL COLD STRESS PREVENTION Exposed Skin: –Not permitted when air speed and temperature equate to a chill temperature of –25.6°F.

51 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL COLD STRESS PREVENTION Exposed Skin: –Superficial or deep local tissue freezing will occur at 30.2°F, regardless of wind speed

52 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL COLD STRESS PREVENTION Exposed Skin: –If workers are immersed in water or wet, immediately provide a change of clothing and treat for hypothermia.

53 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL COLD STRESS PREVENTION HAND PROTECTION REQUIRED: –If working with bare hands for dexterity for more than minutes in a temperature below 60.8°F. –Provide warm air jets, radiant heaters or warming plates. –Metal handles on tools, control bars should be insulated.

54 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL COLD STRESS PREVENTION HAND PROTECTION REQUIRED: –If dexterity is not required, gloves should be used: For sedentary work below 60.8°F For light work below 39.2°F For moderate work below 19.4°F

55 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL COLD STRESS PREVENTION PROTECTIVE CLOTHING REQUIRED: –In environments at or below 39.2°F

56 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES

57 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES The OSHA Standard was written to ensure the health and safety of those entering a confined space Applicability –All activities where persons may enter a confined space DANGER PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE DO NOT ENTER Authorized Entrants Only! DANGER

58 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL A Confined Space... –Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter. –Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit. –Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy. CONFINED SPACES

59 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL A Permit-Required Confined Space …. –Is a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant CONFINED SPACES

60 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES A Permit-Required Confined Space …. –Is a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics (cont’d) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard

61 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL

62 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Entry: – The action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. – Entry includes ensuring work activities in the space and is considered to occur as soon as any part of the body (including your head) breaks the plane of the opening into the space.

63 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES All Confined Spaces –Trenches & Excavations –Crawl Spaces –Sewer & Manholes –Storm Drains –Pipelines –Pits –Vaults –Silo & Storage Tanks All Potentially Permit-Required

64 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Confined Space Hazards –Atmospheric – Physical Configuration – Mechanical – Electrical – Thermal – Noise – Vibration – Engulfment or Entrapment

65 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Hazardous Atmospheres – Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres – Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres – Flammable Atmospheres – Toxic Atmospheres – Corrosive Atmospheres – Asphyxiating Atmospheres

66 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Oxygen-Deficient –Less than 19.5% 0 2 –Reduction of oxygen in a confined space may be the result of either consumption, displacement or absorption. Oxygen-Rich –Greater than 21% 0 2 –Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited, such as: –Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.

67 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Flammable Atmosphere Required Factors: –Oxygen –Flammable Gas, Vapor or Dust –Ignition Source Welding Electric Tools Sparks Smoking

68 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Flammable Atmospheres Caused by… –Enriched oxygen atmospheres –Vaporization of flammable liquids –By-products of work –Chemical reactions –Concentrations of combustible dusts –Fumes from chemicals on inner surfaces

69 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Toxic Atmospheres –Most substances should be considered hazardous in a confined space. –Toxic substances can come from the following: The product stored in the space Work performed in the space Areas adjacent to the space

70 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Five Basic Questions: –What did the space previously contain? –What reactions could have occurred? –What operations will be performed? –What materials will be brought into the space? –What materials may have inadvertently entered the space?

71 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Space large enough to enter, and Limited or restricted entry or exit, and Not designed for continuous worker occupancy Not a confined space Confined space Hazardous atmosphere Engulfment hazard Configuration hazard Any other recognized serious hazard Permit required confined space Not a permit required confined space Yes No Yes

72 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Testing the air inside a confined space Required for two purposes: –Evaluation of the hazards of the permit space –Verification that the acceptable entry conditions for entry into the space exist Must be conducted by a qualified, trained person CONFINED SPACES

73 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL CONFINED SPACES Methane (lighter than air) Carbon Dioxide (same as air) Hydrogen Sulfide (heavier than air) Test all layers of the atmosphere for suspected chemical hazards.

74 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Roles and responsibilities Identification and evaluation of confined spaces Acceptable entry conditions Preparation, issuance, and cancellation of entry permits Atmospheric testing Safe entry procedures Measures to prevent unauthorized entry Measures to eliminate or control hazards Use of protective equipment Emergency rescue procedures You should have a written confined space entry program that addresses the following: CONFINED SPACES

75 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS

76 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Ergonomics strives to improve the match between the worker and the workplace.

77 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Goals of Ergonomic Programs: –Reduce injuries –Improve efficiency (work smarter not harder) –Increase comfort and minimize fatigue –Compliance with existing laws and regulations OSHA General Duty Clause

78 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) –Wear and tear on joints and surrounding tissue, often associated with long hours of repetitive movement Cumulative Trauma Disorders Repetitive Motion Syndromes

79 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Acute vs. Cumulative Affected body parts: –wrist, arm, hand –upper back, shoulder –low back

80 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Symptoms of MSDs –Fatigue, pain, tingling, burning sensation, discomfort can lead to permanent injury Importance of early reporting Learn to identify risk factors

81 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Risk Factors Posture Repetition/Frequency Force Duration Contact pressure Temperature Vibration

82 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Repetition - number of times an activity is performed without a break Repetitive activities often place stress on a specific joint or muscle group –stress not distributed evenly across body –may restrict tissue repair Repetitive tasks may be of particular concern if combined with a significant jump or increase in workload

83 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Static postures - muscle contraction without movement –increases muscular fatigue –impairs blood flow

84 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Force - amount of muscular activity required to perform a task –heavy lifting –pushing/pulling carts –hand tools –operating equipment

85 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Factors that increase lifting hazards –Weight –Size –Repetition –Twisting –Bending –Reaching –Method

86 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Contact Pressure - prolonged impact of hard objects against body parts –resting against work surface edges –metal tools digging into palms –poorly fitting furniture Restricts blood flow Damages soft tissue Presses on nerves

87 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Neutral postures - tissue under least amount of stress and joints are in strongest position

88 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Non-neutral postures increase fatigue and susceptibility to injury Posture is affected by: –tools and furniture –environment/work area setup –work habits

89 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Vibration –Excessive vibration causes pain to muscles, joints and internal organs –Soft tissue trauma to the hands, arms, feet and legs.

90 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Heat effects blood circulation & causes cramps, burns/rashes and general discomfort. Cold effects the body's blood circulation, causes hypothermia, loss of flexibility, distraction and poor dexterity. Comfortable temperature range 68 to 74 degrees Humidity 20 to 60%

91 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Standing Work Options for improvement –Standing mats to reduce fatigue

92 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Work Surface Heights Ideal work surface height will depend on type of work Detail work - typically higher than elbow height to reduce neck strain –visually intensive tasks –electronic assembly Physical exertion - typically lower than elbow height to allow for application of body weight/force

93 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Lifting and Transporting Back injuries are some of the most common and costly work-related injuries Tools and equipment solutions –carts –conveyors –vacuum lifts –hand trucks –scissor lifts

94 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Hand Tools Bend the tool, not the wrist Keep wrist in handshake posture Use the correct tool for the task Spread out the workload –triggers vs. finger bar –double-handled tools Reduce tool weight Improve tool padding

95 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL ERGONOMICS Listen to your body Report symptoms early Communication - share ideas among departments

96 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RADIATION

97 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RADIATION Many refineries are licensed by the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) to use radioactive materials in sealed devices for process and analytical measurements.

98 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RADIATION Radiation is energy given off by unstable atoms. Everything - your hand, a desk, a piece of paper - is made up of atoms. Particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons are the building block of atoms.

99 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Health Hazards Ionizing radiation can alter the atoms in DNA molecules, thereby causing cell death, mutations and cancer Some non-ionizing radiation can heat the material it passes though causing burns and cell death. –Microwave oven

100 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RADIATION Limit radiation exposure to “As Low As is Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA).

101 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL RADIATION Best methods of reducing radiation exposures. –Reduce the amount of Time exposed to the source material –Increase the Distance between you and the source material –Put appropriate Shielding between you and the source material

102 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Radiation Safety Do not operate or disturb a source If working around a source for an extended period inform the site Radiation Safety Officer and add to JSA Fire, Explosion, Accident, involving a radioactive device –Immediately notify the RSO or designate. –Follow site Emergency Evacuation Plans.

103 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL Discussion Questions

104 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL What airborne hazard is present and how could it be reduced?

105 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL What is the potential hazard associated with this entry?

106 3140 Finley Road Downers Grove, IL What hazardous atmosphere(s) could develop in this space with decomposing organic mater?


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