Presentation on theme: "1 Strategies that Support Emergent Literacy Dr. Debra J. Coffey and Dr. Alice F. Snyder."— Presentation transcript:
1 Strategies that Support Emergent Literacy Dr. Debra J. Coffey and Dr. Alice F. Snyder
2 Reflections of the Past Quickwrite—What do you remember about your literacy experiences (reading and writing) during your… *Pre-kindergarten years? *Kindergarten-first grade years? *Second-third grade years?
3 Your Predictions ► What would you consider the top three predictors of early success in reading? ► How would you rank the top three factors of early success in reading for young children?
4 Sociocultural Considerations in Literacy Development Piaget ► infant’s schemata developed by responding to his environment (sensory) and those around him ► children create own knowledge by forming and reforming concepts in their minds ► child’s view of the world changes and is different from adults’, thus, their concepts about reading and writing are different from adults’ concepts about them ► concepts of reading/writing are shaped by what they learned in previous developmental stages, not necessarily by imitating adults
5 Sociocultural Considerations Vygotsky □ Learning takes place in a social context □ Language comes out of a need to communicate with others □ Language and cognition emerge at the same time □ Learning is a matter of internalizing language and actions of others □ Family, social, and cultural contexts support learning to read, speak, and write
6 Sociocultural Considerations Heath; Teale; Morrow; Strickland and Taylor Early literacy experiences in the home (B-5) can have an impact on the child’s development as a reader and writer in school; storybook reading and talking about pictures, words; writing for real purposes modeled by caregivers, parents, older siblings, etc.
7 “Stages” of Literacy Development Stages relate to how a child’s concepts about written and spoken language develop over time “Stages” give us a sense of what readers have accomplished, what they can do now, what they can potentially do, and what we can do to plan for their needs at any given time Generally speaking, each “stage” characterizes the average child at that point “Stages” aren’t discrete—readers may move back and forth from “stage” to “stage”, occasionally reaching a plateau, staying awhile, and moving ahead
8 Emergent (Birth to 5-6 yrs) Logographic (Ehri, 1991: Juel, 1991) Egocentric; sensory contact, fast language growth based on need May “read” signs, labels when associated with the object, but not when isolated in print (McDonald’s, Lucky Charms)
9 Emergent (Birth to 5-6 yrs) Logographic (Ehri, 1991: Juel, 1991) Very young may have experienced books & writing materials but don’t find meaning in printed symbols on their own May scribble and make letter-like forms on paper without intention to communicate a message Later, uses mostly information from pictures to “read”
10 Emergent (Birth to 5-6 yrs) Logographic (Ehri, 1991: Juel, 1991) Begins to name & write some letters Becomes aware that printed texts convey messages Writes for purpose of communicating meaning, but reads & writes in unconventional ways Associates word(s) with picture clues Likes rhyme, repetition, alliteration, magic and personification; likes to hear their favorite stories repeated many times
11 Early Reading (K-1, 5-7 yrs) Alphabetic (Ehri, 1991; Juel, 1991) Realize that meaning is mapped onto print in systematic ways Use some letter-sound correspondences Later alphabetic readers do cipher reading (decoding phoneme by phoneme) Can segment words
12 Early Reading (K-1, 5-7 yrs) Alphabetic (Ehri, 1991; Juel, 1991) Realizes that letters represent sounds so that: ► words may be read by saying the sounds represented by the letters ► words may be spelled by writing the letters that represent the sounds in a word [a.k.a. The Alphabetic Principle] Often spells words the way they are articulated when spoken such as ‘V’ for the PH in ‘phone’ and or ‘HAN’ for ‘chain’ (manner of articulation or identity of sound); also with affrication (‘DR’ spelled ‘JR’ and ‘TR’ spelled ‘CHR’); Continues to spell in the way words are formed in the mouth, such as ‘gowing’ for ‘going’
13 Early Reading (K-1, 5-7 yrs) Alphabetic (Ehri, 1991; Juel, 1991) Become “glued to print” which hinders comprehension Later, can recognize 100s of sight words Begins to develop awareness of audience Can monitor own reading and writing and begins to use strategies such as searching, cross-checking, self-correction Reads familiar texts with phrasing and fluency
14 Assessing Emergent Literacy Development Concepts of Print (Marie Clay—Reading Recovery) ► assesses child’s understanding of book and print awareness Yopp-Singer Segmentation Test ► assesses child’s ability to isolate individual phonemes (speech sounds) in words
15 Assessing Emergent Literacy Development Alphabet Letter-Sound Recognition Test ► assesses child’s ability to identify letter-sound relationships Basic High Frequency Word Recognition Test ► assesses child’s ability to recognize the first 25 Fry high frequency words in isolation
16 Stages of Writing Development Blackburn-Cramp Developmental Writing Scale ► “ Stages” are not discrete ► Levels do not represent grade or age levels ► Children can demonstrate characteristics from more than one “stage” at a time ► These are tendencies/descriptors
17 Stages of Spelling Development Gentry Developmental Spelling Test ► Assesses a child’s understanding and knowledge about letter-sound correspondences ► It is not a spelling test to determine what words a child can or cannot spell correctly
18 Strategy Instruction Five Essential Elements of Reading 1.Phonemic Awareness/Phonological Awareness 2.Phonics 3.Fluency 4.Vocabulary 5.Comprehension
19 Components of Phonemic Awareness Instruction Identifying Sounds in Words Categorizing Sounds in Words Substituting Sounds to Make New Words Blending Sounds to Form Words Segmenting a Word into Sounds **not related to print!
21 Strategy Activities: Phonemic/Phonological Awareness Onset and Rime Activities ► “I Can Hear”—”This is the Grinch. I can hear the /gr/ part in grinch--/gr/, /gr/--and I can hear the /inch/ part--/inch/, /inch/”. Then teacher goes on to read How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (Seuss, 1957). ► Word Play Books—specially designed to highlight sounds in words, such as Each, Peach, Pear, Plum (Janet & Allan Ahlberg, 1978), such as rhymes and alliteration ► I Spy—”I spy something that rhymes with…” ► Rounding Up the Rhymes ► Nursery Rhymes and Alphabet Books
23 References Heath, S.B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Heath, S.B. (1991). The sense of being literate: Historical and cross- cultural features. In P.D. Pearson, R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2) (pp.3-25). New York: Longman. Morrow, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Family literacy: Connections in schools and communities. New Brunswick, NJ: International Reading Association, Inc. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Strickland, D.S., & Taylor, D. (1989). Family storybook reading: Implications for children, families, and curriculum. In D.S. Strickland & L.M. Morrow (Eds.). Emergent literacy: Young children learning to read and write (pp.27-34). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Teale, W.H. (1982). Toward a theory of how children learn to read and write naturally. Language Arts, 59, Vygotsky, L.S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.