Presentation on theme: "Ergonomics Awareness Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ergonomics Awareness Training Navy Ergonomics ProgramErgonomics Awareness TrainingCathy Rothwell, PE Ergonomic Program ManagerMindy Smith, MEng, AEP Ergonomic Technical Support - East CoastTheresa Stack, MS, AEP Ergonomic Technical Support- West Coast
2 What is Ergonomics? er·go·nom·ics \, ûrg-go-'näm-iks ‘Ergonomics’ is derived from two Greek wordsErgon meaning workandNomos meaning principles or lawsErgonomics = The Science of WorkErgonomics is not a new science, although the term has become more common lately. The phrase was first coined in 1857.are aliases for WMSDs?
3 What is Ergonomics? er·go·nom·ics \, ûrg-go-'näm-iks Common Definitions“Ergonomics is essentially fitting the workplace to the worker. The better the fit the higher the level of safety and worker efficiency.” Fitting the Task to the Human ~ Grandjean 1990“Ergonomics removes barriers to quality, productivity and human performance by fitting products, tasks, and environments to people.” ErgoWeb.comare aliases for WMSDs?
4 What are the consequences of poor Ergonomics? Why are we hearing about ergonomics now? Are there new hazards at work? No!Consequences of poor workplace design were first documented in the 17th century.Have you ever heard of these?Historic Occupational Disorders - house-maid’s knee, washer woman’s thumb, writer’s cramp, data-processing disease, clergyman’s knee, nun’s bursitis, weaver’s bottom, dustman’s shoulder, tailor’s ankleare aliases for WMSDs?
5 Do these historic occupational disorders still exist? Yes! They are part of a broad category of injuries and disorders called Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). MSDs are not usually caused by acute trauma, but occur slowly over time due to repetitive injuries to the soft tissues (muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage) and nervous systemMSDs can happen to anyone from office workers and industrial employees to athletes and hobbyists
6 Do these historic occupational disorders still exist? Yes! Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are MSDs that are caused or made worse by work methods and environment. They occur when the physical capabilities of the worker do not match the physical requirements of the jobCommon MSDs:Tendonitis, Epicondylitis (Tennis or Golfer’s Elbow), Bursitis, Trigger Finger, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Back Strainare aliases for WMSDs?
7 What are aliases for WMSDs? Work-related MSDs go by many other names:Repetitive Strain or Stress Injury (RSI)Repetitive Motion Injury (RMI)Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD)Overuse SyndromeActivity-related Pain SyndromeErgonomics can help prevent MSDs that are caused or aggravated by working conditionsare aliases for WMSDs?
8 What characteristics of your job put you at risk for MSDs? Prolonged, repeated or extreme exposure to multiple WMSD risk factors can cause damage to a worker’s body. Risk Factors include:Excessive ForceVibrationCompressionInadequate RecoveryRepetitionAwkward PosturesStatic PosturesCold Temperaturesare aliases for WMSDs?
9 Repetition = Performing the same motion or group of motions excessively. Examples of RepetitionRepeating the same motion every few seconds or repeating a cycle of motions involving the same body parts more than twice per minute for more than 2 consecutive hours in a rowUsing a tool or an input device, such as a keyboard in a steady manner for more than 4 hours total in a work dayExcessive repetition of movements can irritate tendons and increase pressure on nervesThe first risk factor is repetition which isare aliases for WMSDs?
10 Awkward Postures = Postures outside of neutral. Neutral is the optimal position of each joint that provides the most strengthand controlBefore: Lab technician tilts his neck forward to view the screen into a non-neutral posture. He also bends over resting on his forearms to write on the documents.Ergonomic Improvement: Sailor easily views the screen from a neutral posture. The workstation adjusts to accommodate different working heights and users. When standing, work should be about elbow height.Awkward or unsupported postures that stretch physical limits, can compress nerves and irritate tendonsare aliases for WMSDs?
11 Awkward Postures = Postures outside of neutral. Examples of Awkward Postures:Repeatedly raising or working with the hand(s) above the head or the elbow(s) above the shoulder(s) for more than 2 hours per dayKneeling or squatting for more than 2 hours total per dayWorking with the back, neck or wrist bent or twisted for more then 2 hours per daySitting with feet unsupportedare aliases for WMSDs?
12 Neutral Posture for Computer Use Position the monitor about an arm’s length away directly in front of you. The top of the screen no higher than eye level (Unless the user wears bi-focal glasses)Adjust the seat height so upper arms hang vertically, elbows bent about 90 degrees, shoulders relaxed and wrists fairly straightUse a document holder close to the monitor rather than laying papers flatAdjust the back rest to provide firm support to the small of the backMouse should be next to keyboard both at a height equivalent to the user’s seated elbow heightKnees comfortably bent with feet resting on the floor. If the chair is raised so the keyboard height equals elbow height, use a footrest .are aliases for WMSDs?
13 Static Postures = Holding the same position or using the same muscles for extended periods of time Static postures, or positions that a worker must hold for long periods of time, can restrict blood flow and damage musclesBefore: Mechanic maintains a static posture holding arms and hands elevated while repairing aircraftErgonomic Improvement: Creeper supports mechanic and brings him closer to the taskare aliases for WMSDs?
14 Cold TemperaturesWorking in environments below 68 degrees can cause nerve damage.Working in cold temperatures can adversely affect a worker’s coordination and manual dexterity and cause a worker to use more force than is required to perform a task
15 Force = A strong physical exertion Exertion = the tension produced by muscles and transmitted through tendonsBefore: Three sailors climb on refuse bin to dump laundry cart full of waste. They risk back strain and lacerations while tipping cart over to empty it.Excessive muscle tension can contract muscles to their maximum capability which can lead to fatigue and possible damage to the muscles and other tissues.Ergonomic Improvement: One worker easily dumps waste in half the time.are aliases for WMSDs?
16 Force = A strong physical exertion Examples of forceful exertions:Lifting:more then 75 pounds at any one time;more then 55 pounds more than 10 times per day;more then 25 pounds from a height below the knees, above the shoulders, or at arms length more than 25 times per day.Pushing / pulling with more than 20 pounds of initial force for more than 2 hours per dayPinching (pencil type grip) an unsupported object weighing 2 or more pounds per hand for more than 2 hours per dayGripping an unsupported object weighing 10 pounds or more per hand for more than 2 hours per dayare aliases for WMSDs?
17 Vibration - Single Point Hand and Arm exposure results from vibrating objects such as power tools.Examples of vibrating toolsUsing vibrating tools or equipment that typically have high vibration levels for more then 30 minutes a day (chain saws, jack hammers, percussive tools, riveting or chipping hammers).Using tools or equipment that typically have moderate vibration levels for more then 2 hours total per day (jig saws, grinders or sanders).Before: Sailor is exposed to vibration above ACGIH TLV guidelinesErgonomic Improvement: Lower vibration tool reduces vibration to safe levelsare aliases for WMSDs?
18 Vibration - Whole BodyWhole Body exposure to vibration results from vehicles such as forklifts, cranes, trucks, buses subways and aircraft.High or prolonged exposure to whole body vibration can affect the skeletal muscles and cause low- back painare aliases for WMSDs?
19 Compression = soft tissue is compressed between the bone and a hard or sharp object Compression, from grasping or contacting edges like tool handles, can concentrate force on small areas of the body, reduce blood flow and nerve transmission and damage tendons and tendon sheathsBefore: Worker rests his wrists on the sharp tray edges. His wrist is extended into a non-neutral posture.Ergonomic Improvement: Worker rests her wrists and forearms on a padded surface. Wrist and forearms are in a neutral position.are aliases for WMSDs?
20 Compression = soft tissue is compressed between the bone and a hard or sharp object Compression, from grasping or contacting edges like tool handles, can concentrate force on small areas of the body, reduce blood flow and nerve transmission and damage tendons and tendon sheathsBefore: Tool handles are small and angular requiring the worker to grasp tightly against sharp edgesErgonomic Improvement: Tool handle is formed to fit the worker’s hand which requires less grip strength or force and a more user-friendly toolare aliases for WMSDs?
21 Can Other Factors Contribute to MSDs? Not all ergonomic risk factors are physical, some are related to the work environment.Stress on the job, peer pressure, boredom, conflicts with co-workers and supervisors, deadlines, and even a lack of control over what you do can contribute to (but not cause) MSDs
22 Can Personal Factors Contribute to MSDs? Some people are at greater risk of developing MSDs due to personal factorsAge and GenderHobbiesPrevious InjuriesPhysical ConditionMedical conditions (diabetes and arthritis)ObesityMedicationsSmokingFatigueare aliases for WMSDs?
23 What are MSD Signs and Symptoms? Painful aching joints, musclesPain, tingling or numbnessFingers or toes turning whiteShooting or stabbing painsSwelling or inflammationStiffness or difficulty movingBurning sensationPain during the nightare aliases for WMSDs?
24 What should you do if you experience a MSD Sign or Symptom? If you experience signs or symptoms of MSDs, report it to a supervisor, industrial hygienist or safety professionalIf pain or discomfort does not go away when you leave work or interferes with you carrying out normal activities, see an occupational health physicianare aliases for WMSDs?
25 How do you Avoid MSDs? Work Smarter, Not Harder! Work in neutral posturesReduce excessive force & repetitionKeep everything in easy reach and at proper heightsKeep warmMinimize static unsupported postures and pressure pointsUse proper lifting techniques and lift aidesAsk for assistance with difficult tasksTake micro-breaks (stand, stretch, change tasks)Maintain a comfortable environmentare aliases for WMSDs?
26 What can ergonomics do for you? The anticipated benefits of good workplace designImproved health and safety by reducing work-related injuries and disordersImproved comfort, morale and job satisfactionImproved productivity and reduced workers’ compensation costs and employee turnoverare aliases for WMSDs?Before Improved
27 Where to go for more information NAVFAC web site – contains ergonomic tools, resources, guides, training and awareness material(Select - Program Categories - Ergonomics)NAVOSH website- Contains success stories of ergonomic interventions throughout the NavyDoD Ergonomic Working Group - Contains Guide to Setting up an Ergonomics Program and many other toolschppm-www.apgea.army.mil/ergowg/index.htmNIOSH- order many free ergonomic documents including Elements of Ergonomics Programs and Cumulative Trauma Disorders in the WorkplaceNavy Policy G Chapter 23 – Ergonomic Programare aliases for WMSDs?