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Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration. Section 1: Glycolysis and Fermentation Objectives: Identify the two major steps of cellular respiration Identify the two.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration. Section 1: Glycolysis and Fermentation Objectives: Identify the two major steps of cellular respiration Identify the two."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

2 Section 1: Glycolysis and Fermentation Objectives: Identify the two major steps of cellular respiration Identify the two major steps of cellular respiration

3 Cellular Respiration The process in which cells make ATP (energy) by breaking down organic compounds (glucose). BOTH plants AND animals undergo cellular respiration. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O

4 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=97f84673-df0f-4d40- 95ba-0ab8c33f0799 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=97f84673-df0f-4d40- 95ba-0ab8c33f0799

5 Photosynthesis and Respiration

6 2 Stages of Cellular Respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Aerobic Respiration

7 Stage 1:Glycolysis A pathway in which one six carbon molecule of glucose is broken down to produce 2 three carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. Takes place in the CYTOPLASM of the cell

8 Step 1: 2 phosphates supplied by 2 molecules of ATP attach to a glucose (6 carbons) 2 ATP→2 ADP

9 Step 2 Glucose is split into 2 three carbon molecules. Each takes one of the phosphates. 2 new phosphates are added to the other end.

10 Step 3 ALL of the phosphates that were added are now removed to make ATP The 3 carbon molecules are now pyruvic acid.

11 Step 4 The 4 phosphates that were removed now join with ADP to make ATP. 4 ADP→4 ATP

12 2 ATP were used in the beginning but 4 were made. NET PROFIT: 2 ATP’s

13 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=1B3D08A3-F6F0-459A- A99C- AE1CB38E8FC4&blnFromSearch=1&prod uctcode=US http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=1B3D08A3-F6F0-459A- A99C- AE1CB38E8FC4&blnFromSearch=1&prod uctcode=US

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15 Where do the pyruvic acids go next???? It depends on the type of cell and whether oxygen is present or not. -Fermentation if there is no oxygen -Aerobic respiration if there is oxygen

16 Fermentation Anaerobic (without oxygen) process that produces energy when there is a shortage of oxygen Ex) when you exercise There are many different fermentation pathways but we will only cover two: Lactic acid Lactic acid Alcoholic Alcoholic

17 Lactic Acid Fermentation Converts the 2 pyruvic acids into lactic acid Can make many dairy products (controlled fermentation) like cheese, yogurt, sour cream

18 Accumulates in your muscles Hard exercise uses oxygen faster than it can be taken to your muscles Hard exercise uses oxygen faster than it can be taken to your muscles Cells switch to lactic acid fermentation Cells switch to lactic acid fermentation It builds up in your muscles making you sore or cramp up It builds up in your muscles making you sore or cramp up Eventually it diffuses into the blood and gets filtered out by the liver Eventually it diffuses into the blood and gets filtered out by the liver

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20 Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast changes the pyruvic acid into a two carbon molecule, ethyl alcohol Gives off a CO 2 Used by the beer and wine industry Used also to make bread

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22 Jack Daniels distillery http://www.5min.com/Video/Jack-Daniels- Tour-Fermenter-Room-101844060\ http://www.5min.com/Video/Jack-Daniels- Tour-Fermenter-Room-101844060\

23 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=597FC9B1-6147-431B- AB45-33F0DA310CCE http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=597FC9B1-6147-431B- AB45-33F0DA310CCE

24 7-2 Aerobic Respiration Objectives: Summarize the events of the Krebs cycle. Summarize the events of the Krebs cycle.

25 Aerobic Respiration Most cells do not go to fermentation, they go to aerobic respiration. Takes place in the mitochondria When a pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria it reacts with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) 2 Stages: Krebs Cycle Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Electron Transport Chain

26 Krebs Cycle Breaks down the acetyl CoA, producing CO 2, hydrogen and ATP. Draw the Krebs Cycle:

27 2 Times through the Krebs cycle to break down 1 glucose You “make”: 6 CO 2-diffuses out as waste 6 CO 2-diffuses out as waste 2 ATP-energy 2 ATP-energy Hydrogen-protons, electrons (NADH, FADH etc..) Hydrogen-protons, electrons (NADH, FADH etc..)

28 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=1B3D08A3-F6F0-459A- A99C-AE1CB38E8FC4 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=1B3D08A3-F6F0-459A- A99C-AE1CB38E8FC4

29 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=E8B01BA9-AEA0- 4BF0-8B42-1CB0D3E81AB1 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=E8B01BA9-AEA0- 4BF0-8B42-1CB0D3E81AB1

30 Electron Transport Chain ATP is produced by the electron transport chain when NAD and FAD release hydrogen in the chain. Oxygen is the final acceptor of the chain. Hydrogen, electrons and oxygen make WATER molecules (product of respiration)

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32 How many ATPS?? Glycolysis-2 ATP Krebs Cycle-2 ATP Electron Transport Chain-up to 34 ATP TOTAL: 38 ATP

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34 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=4ABD3147-0B0E-4765- BC2A-624B11DF8AE2 http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=4ABD3147-0B0E-4765- BC2A-624B11DF8AE2


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