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Chap. 7 : Cellular Respiration -- the making of ATP by breaking down organic compounds (mostly glucose) -- the making of ATP by breaking down organic compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Chap. 7 : Cellular Respiration -- the making of ATP by breaking down organic compounds (mostly glucose) -- the making of ATP by breaking down organic compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chap. 7 : Cellular Respiration -- the making of ATP by breaking down organic compounds (mostly glucose) -- the making of ATP by breaking down organic compounds (mostly glucose) I. Glycolysis -- glucose splits into 2 pyruvic acids -- glucose splits into 2 pyruvic acids -- occurs in the cytoplasm -- occurs in the cytoplasm -- requires 2 ATPs but produces 4 so net gain of 2 ATPs -- requires 2 ATPs but produces 4 so net gain of 2 ATPs -- also produces 2 NADH molecules -- also produces 2 NADH molecules

2 II. Fermentation – occurs in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic)  1. Lactic Acid Fermentation -- changing of pyruvic acid from glycolysis into lactic acid -- changing of pyruvic acid from glycolysis into lactic acid -- does not produce ATP so no energy but produces NAD+ that is used to continue glycolysis -- does not produce ATP so no energy but produces NAD+ that is used to continue glycolysis **** We can intentionally use to make things like yogurt and cheese **** We can intentionally use to make things like yogurt and cheese **** Lactic acid builds up in muscles causing them to cramp,fatigue, and pain **** Lactic acid builds up in muscles causing them to cramp,fatigue, and pain

3 2. Alcoholic Fermentation – converts pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol.  Accomplished by yeast – used to make beer and wine and if CO 2 stays trapped then champagne.  In bread making the escaping of CO 2 makes air bubbles, the alcohol evaporates while baking *** Anaerobic respiration only produces enough energy for unicellular or small multicellular organisms to survive.

4 III. Aerobic Respiration – occurs when O 2 is available for pyruvic acid after glycolysis  Occurs in cytoplasm in prokaryotes and in mitochondria of eukaryotes.  3 parts : 1.changing pyruvic acid into Acetyl CoA with the use of CoA enzyme. Makes 2 NADH 1.changing pyruvic acid into Acetyl CoA with the use of CoA enzyme. Makes 2 NADH 2. Krebs Cycle-p Krebs Cycle-p.138

5 The end result of Krebs Cycle – 1 glucose molecule makes : The end result of Krebs Cycle – 1 glucose molecule makes :  6 NADH, 2 FADH 2, 2 ATP, and 4 CO 2 (everything doubled because it started with 2 pyruvic acids from glucose so goes through Krebs Cycle twice)  3. Electron Transport Chain (chemiosmosis)-changing ADP into ATP by reducing NADH to NAD+ and FADH2 to FAD IV. Electron Transport Chain IV. Electron Transport Chain *** most important step for making energy (ATP) for cell. *** most important step for making energy (ATP) for cell. --- occurs in cristae of mitochondria. ATP synthase molecules line membrane. Chemiosmosis (changing ADP into ATP) occurs here by proton concentration differences. --- occurs in cristae of mitochondria. ATP synthase molecules line membrane. Chemiosmosis (changing ADP into ATP) occurs here by proton concentration differences.

6 A. Overall Energy Output from Respiration  1 NADH = 3ATP  1 FADH 2 = 2 ATP Glycolysis = 2 ATP + 2NADH Glycolysis = 2 ATP + 2NADH = 8 ATP total = 8 ATP total making Acetyl CoA = 2 NADH making Acetyl CoA = 2 NADH = 6 ATP = 6 ATP Krebs Cycle = 6 NADH, 2 FADH 2, 2ATP Krebs Cycle = 6 NADH, 2 FADH 2, 2ATP = = 24 = = 24 Total ATP from the splitting of one glucose molecule = 38 ATP Total ATP from the splitting of one glucose molecule = 38 ATP


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