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A hydrostatic skeleton would be found in a(an) _____. 1.lizard 2.cockroach 3.earthworm 10.

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Presentation on theme: "A hydrostatic skeleton would be found in a(an) _____. 1.lizard 2.cockroach 3.earthworm 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 A hydrostatic skeleton would be found in a(an) _____. 1.lizard 2.cockroach 3.earthworm 10

2 Which of the following is not one of the three basic types of skeletons? 1.endoskeleton 2.exoskeleton 3.hydrocarbon skeleton 4.hydrostatic skeleton 10

3 Which of the following is not one of the three basic types of skeletons? 1.endoskeleton 2.exoskeleton 3.hydrocarbon skeleton 4.hydrostatic skeleton

4 All vertebrates have a(an) _____. 1.exoskeleton 2.endoskeleton 3.bony skeleton 4.cartilaginous skeleton 10

5 Bone-forming cells that secrete matrix minerals are _____. 1.osteoblasts 2.osteoclasts 3.osteocytes 4.osteopores

6 Yellow marrow contains mostly _____. 1.blood cells 2.osteoblasts 3.compact bone 4.fat cells

7 When osteoblast activity decreases and bone density severely declines, the result is _____. 1.osteocytes 2.osteoporosis 3.spongy bone 4.rickets

8 The dense connective tissues that strap the bones of joints together and permit movement are _____. 1.tendons 2.ligaments 3.matrix 4.marrow

9 A degenerative disorder in which the cartilage in joints wears away is _____. 1.osteoporosis 2.osteoblastitis 3.osteoarthritis 4.osteocystitis

10 Biceps and triceps are an example of _____. 1.leg muscles 2.opposing muscle groups 3.smooth muscle 4.cardiac muscle

11 In order for skeletal muscles to produce body movement, they _____. 1.must contract 2.must be near joints 3.must be attached to bones 4.all of the choices

12 How do skeletal muscles contract? 1.tendons pull on muscles and shorten them 2.nerves pull on muscles and shorten them 3.proteins shorten individual muscle cells 4.the outer sheath pulls on the tendons

13 Muscle bundles, fibers and filaments all run in the same parallel direction because _____. 1.contraction pulls a bone in one particular direction 2.they form flat sheets allows them to connect to bones and tendons 4.the muscle sheath is long and thin

14 During exercise, _____ provides the energy for muscle contraction. 1.ADP 2.ATP 3.phosphate 4.lactic acid

15 A muscle twitch _____. produced by a motor unit 2.consists of a brief contraction and relaxation stimulated by a motor neuron 4.all of the choices

16 A temporary decrease in a muscle's ability to generate force is called _____. 1.muscle fatigue 2.cramp 3.tetanus 4.twitch

17 Muscular dystrophy _____. a genetic disorder 2.causes muscles to weaken and degenerate 3.cannot be cured 4.all of the choices

18 The vertebrae of the vertebral column _____. 1.surround the spinal cord 2.are cushioned by cartilaginous disks 3.are attached to paired muscles 4.all of the choices

19 The circulatory system _____. 1.consists of the heart and blood vessels 2.circulates blood through the body 3.maintains the body's internal environment 4.all of the choices

20 Which of the following has a two-chambered heart? 1.amphibians 2.birds 4.mammals

21 In blood, oxygen is carried primarily by _____. 1.plasma 2.platelets blood cells 4.white blood cells

22 In the human cardiovascular system, _____ carry blood away from the heart and _____ carry blood toward the heart. 1.arteries, capillaries 2.coronary arteries, veins 3.veins, arteries 4.arteries, veins

23 The heart chamber that pumps blood to the systemic circulation is the _____. 1.left ventricle 2.right ventricle 3.left atrium 4.right atrium

24 What is the function of a heart valve? supply the heart muscle with oxygen separate the heart into left and right chambers keep blood moving in one direction make the heart contract

25 Which type of blood vessel has the strongest, thickest walls? 1.artery 2.arteriole 3.capillary 4.vein

26 Which process would tend to lower blood pressure? 1.vasodilation 2.vasoconstriction 3.atherosclerosis 4.stress

27 Most exchange of materials between blood and tissues occurs through _____. 1.arteries 2.arterioles 3.capillaries 4.veins

28 Which types of blood vessels have valves? 1.arteries 2.arterioles 3.capillaries 4.veins

29 The main function of the respiratory system is _____. 1.gas exchange 2.breathing production 4.transportation of oxygen to tissues

30 To supply their higher metabolic needs, the respiratory system of _____ provides a constant flow of fresh air across the respiratory surfaces. 1.reptiles 2.birds 3.mammals 4.amphibians

31 Lungs are the only respiratory organs in all of the following animals, except _____. 1.reptiles 2.birds 3.mammals 4.amphibians

32 In addition to gas exchange, the respiratory system also _____. 1.helps blood in veins return to the heart 2.helps dispose of excess heat and water 3.helps maintain acid- base balance 4.all of the choices

33 The vocal cords are located in the _____. 1.pharynx 2.larynx 3.trachea 4.oral cavity

34 In the respiratory cycle, the main muscles used are the _____. 1.intercostal and diaphragm 2.pharynx and larynx 3.bronchiole and alveoli 4.oral and pleural

35 Oxygen that enters the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs is bound and transported by _____. 1.hemoglobin 2.platelets 3.plasma 4.carbon dioxide

36 Carbon dioxide is mostly produced in _____ and transported to the lungs as ____. 1.cells of body tissues, bicarbonate 2.alveoli, gas 3.blood, carbohydrates 4.veins, hemoglobin

37 Red marrow _____. found in long bones 2.fills spaces in spongy bones 3.produces red blood cells 4.all of the choices

38 The cells that secrete substances that dissolve matrix and break down bone are _____. 1.osteoblasts 2.osteoclasts 3.osteocytes 4.osteopores 10

39 What factor increases the risk of osteoporosis? 1.menopause 2.smoking 3.alcohol or steroid use 4.all of the choices 10

40 A sprain is the result of a torn or broken _____. 1.long bone 2.ligament 3.matrix 4.cartilage 10

41 In paired, opposing muscle groups _____. 1.forces are equalized so the joint cannot move 2.the action of one reverses the action of the other group is smooth muscle and the other striated muscle 4.pairs are mirror images on the left and right sides of the body 10

42 The purpose of a tendon is to _____. 1.attach bone to bone 2.attach skin to bone 3.attach muscle to bone 4.all of the choices 10

43 The molecules that work together to shorten muscles are _____. 1.myofibrils and fibers 2.sarcomeres and Z bands 3.actin and myosin 4.filaments and the outer sheath 10

44 Actin is _____, and myosin is _____. 1.a globular protein, a motor protein 2.part of a thin filament, part of a thick filament 3.formed into a coiled strand, formed into a club shape 4.all of the choices 10

45 The sliding-filament model for contraction of a sarcomere requires _____. 1.formation of cross- bridges between actin and myosin filaments 3.calcium ions released form the sarcoplasmic reticulum 4.all of the choices 10

46 ATP that provides energy for muscle contraction is produced by _____. 1.motor neurons 2.aerobic respiration 3.regular exercise 4.sunlight 10

47 Brief stimulation of muscle fibers by a motor neuron produces _____. 1.a muscle twitch 2.muscle fatigue 3.muscle cramp 4.tetanus 10

48 Tetanus _____. 1.results from rapidly repeated muscle stimulation a sustained contraction a disease caused by a bacterial toxin 4.all of the choices 10

49 Blood mixes with interstitial fluid in _____. 1.animals with open circulatory systems 2.the heart 3.capillaries 4.all vertebrates 10

50 In blood, the _____ defend the body against pathogens. 1.plasma 2.platelets blood cells 4.white blood cells 10

51 In the human cardiovascular system, which blood vessel carries the most oxygen? 1.aorta 2.vein 3.pulmonary artery 4.capillary 10

52 As the cardiovascular system regulates blood flow throughout the body, which organ requires an unvarying blood supply? 1.heart 2.liver 3.lungs 4.brain 10

53 Systolic blood pressure is defined as _____. 1.the blood pressure in capillaries 2.the average systemic blood pressure 3.the highest pressure contracting ventricles exert against the wall of the artery 4.the lowest arterial blood pressure of a cardiac cycle 10

54 If fluid from capillaries accumulates in interstitial spaces, the result is called _____. 1.osmosis 2.edema 3.diffusion 4.interstitial fluid 10

55 Atherosclerotic plaque that can cause thrombus, embolus or stroke is the result of _____ in arteries. 1.hypertension 2.buildup of lipids and tissues 3.hemostasis 4.angioplasty 10

56 Gas exchange across the respiratory surface requires rapid diffusion, which is increased by _____. 1.increasing the area of the respiratory surface 2.decreasing the partial pressure 3.increasing the metabolic activity 4.decreasing ventilation 10

57 Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in the _____. 1.pharynx 2.trachea 3.bronchioles 4.alveoli 10

58 In the respiratory cycle, _____ is active and _____ is passive. 1.inhalation, exhalation 2.breathing, speech 3.exhalation, inhalation 4.speech, breathing 10

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