Presentation on theme: "Hazard management in Power Sector: Techniques for Hazard Identification & Risk Mitigation By Dr. Rohit Verma Dy.Director NPTI Dr. Manisha Rani Fellow,NPTI."— Presentation transcript:
1Hazard management in Power Sector: Techniques for Hazard Identification & Risk Mitigation ByDr. Rohit Verma Dy.Director NPTIDr. Manisha Rani Fellow,NPTI
2DEFINATIONSHAZARDSource or situation with a potential for harm in term of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to workplace environment, or combination of these.
3HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Process of recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristic
4RISKCombination of likelihood & consequences of a specified hazardous event
5RISK ASSESSMENTOverall process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding weather or not the risk is tolerable
6ACCIDENTUnplanned & unexpected event which results into injury or property damage is known as accident.
7Unsafe conditions Unsafe act Causes of accidents unsuitable clothing for a particular jobuntidy work areatools in poor conditionpoor lighting in work areaUnsafe actusing equipment without having received proper training in its usefailing to use the appropriate protective equipment distracting others from their work or allowing yourself to be distractedusing tools or equipment incorrectly.
8Types Of Occupational Hazards · Physical hazards· Chemical hazards· Biological hazards· Mechanical / Electrical hazards· Psychosocial hazards
9Types Of Occupational Hazards Physical hazardsHeatColdLightVibrationRadiationNoiseChemicalBiologicalMechanical-electricalPsychological
10Physical Hazards HEAT COLD Heat exhaustion heat stroke [civil works] The direct effects of heat exposure areHeat exhaustion heat stroke [civil works]Burns [boiler area, electrical flash over]Heat cramp [civil works, boiler area]COLDImportant hazards associated with cold work[[[[[[Frost biteChilblainsImmersion footGeneral hypothermia as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction
11Physical Hazards HEAT- As a hazard in power stations can cause Heat stress-it is the aggregate of environmental & physical work factor i.e. Total heat imposed on the body.Heat strain- it is the physiological responses to the heat stress.Heat disorders-these result in heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke.Heat cramps: painful intermittent spasms of voluntary muscles after hard physical work in hot environment. Cramps usually occur after heavy sweating.Heat exhaustion: profuse sweating, weakness, rapid pulse, dizziness, nausea & headache. Skin is cool/pale. Body temperature is normal, nausea, vomiting and unconsciousness may occur.
12Physical Hazards Light as a hazard in working condition can be due to: Less lighted areaswhen the light is insufficient person strains his eyes to see the work object/area. Light requirements are increasing with age of a person to see and work on the object.Excessive light-it is dangerous for eyes when light in work area is excessive since it causes glare.
13Physical Hazards LIGHT Effect of poor illuminations are :- Headache Eye painLachrymationCongestion around the corneaEye strainEye fatigueExposure to excessive brightness is associated with discomfort, visual fatigue, blurring of vision and may lead to accidents.
14Physical HazardsVIBRATION Vibration especially in the frequency of 10 to 500 Hz, can affect hand and arm after month of years of exposureIll effects:The fine blood vessel of finger becomes increasingly sensitive to spasm (white fingers).Injuries of the joints, of the hands elbow and shoulders may take place
15Physical Hazards NOISE Industrial noise can give rise to deafness Non auditory effects are irritation, nervousness, annoyance, fatigue, inefficiency etc.Hearing impairment due to Noise is, as per the schedule of the Factories act, is reportable as well as compensable.Hearing loss in most cases is not sudden but increases with the length of the work time in the noisy zone.
16Physical Hazards NOISE Threshold Limit Value for noisy working conditions:(An 8 hour shift in all following cases)8 hours work – 90 dBA4 hours working – 95 dBA2 hours working – 100 dBA1 hour working – 105 dBAhalf hour work – 110 dBAThreshold of hearing – 125 dBASudden deafness/rupture of ear drum can occur at 140 dBA
17Physical HazardsRADIATION A. Ultraviolet Radiation hazard- Seen in work with arc welding and mainly affects the eyes. Exposure to such radiation may lead to Conjunctivitis and Keratitis (Welder’ s flash) B. Ionizing radiation hazards[X room USG CT] Anemia Leukemia Cancer Sterility Fetal Malformation in case of pregnancy Ulceration In extreme cases death can take place
19Electrical Hazards Injury from direct contact Injury by shock Injury from internal burnsInjury without current flow through bodyDirect burns from electrical arcsRadiation burns from very heavy arcsInjury from fire & explosion from electrical arcPhysical injury from false starting of machinery, failure of controlsEye injury from electrical arc welding
20Chemical Hazards Chemical hazards – liquid and gaseous hazards Dust SmokeFumesPoisonous gasesAcidsAlkalis
21Chemical Hazards They enter our body through Skin Inhalation Mouth They can cause internal as well external injuriesSkin diseasesLung diseasesInternal blood and other diseases
22Biological Hazards Exposure to infective and parasitic agents Inset biteDog biteSnake bite
23Psychosocial Hazards FACTORS - Maladjustment with work environment. Lack of job satisfactionInsecurityEmotional tensionPoor human relationshipsHealth problemsFatigueHeadacheHypertensionHeart diseasePeptic ulcerBehaviors changesAnxiety/DepressionSickness absentees
25Mechanical Hazard PREVENTION Preventive maintenance Adequate job trainingEnsuring safe working environmentsEstablishment of safety department with qualified safety engineerPeriodic survey for finding out hazardsApplication of ergonomics
26Physical Hazards NOISE Noise can be controlled by; Reducing vibrations Enclosing the noise producing equipmentEnclosing the operatorMoving away from the noisy areaUse of personal protective equipments
27Physical HazardsEffective temperature and heat effect in an environment can be controlled by:Increasing air changesReducing radiated heat by insulationReflection of heatDrinking plenty of water and intake of saltUse of personal protective equipments
28Physical Hazards VIBRATION Continuous working should be avoided and rest pauses after some time of work must be allowed to workers.The driving force of vibrating surfaces may be reduced by;1. Reducing the forces2. Minimizing rotational speed3. IsolatingThe response of vibrating surfaces may be reduced by1. Damping2. Additional3. Increasing mass of vibrating surfaces4. Changing size to change resonance frequency
29Mechanical Hazards MACINERY HAZARDS: These are due to revolving parts of the machines.These can be controlled by providing machine guards which are a statutory requirements under Sections 21 to 26 of the Factories Act 1948.As per section 21 of the Factories Act- provide guards at following;Moving parts of the machinery including fly wheelsTransmission machineryPoint of operationAny other dangerous part
30SAFETY OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL Mechanical HazardsSAFETY OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNELSafety precautions are required to safe guard the maintenance personnel from getting involved in machinery accidents owing to inadvertent starting of machinery by;Design of control switchesSafe guards for the operating leversInterlocking of power system
31PREVENTION Physical hazards Application of ergonomics Maintenance of temperature- 69 to 80 deg. F is the comfortable zoneProper ventilationGood housekeepingProper illuminationPersonal protectionPersonal hygieneHealth educationJob rotationPeriodic health Check up
32PREVENTION Personal Protection Post Control Biological HazardsPREVENTIONPersonal ProtectionPost Control
33Psychosocial Hazards PREVENTION Good induction program. Management by participation.Establishment of Proper communication channel.Establishment of Healthy personnel policiesEstablishment of healthy HR relationship.Regular stress management program.
34Chemical Hazards Chemical Safety There are thousnands of chemical compounds, which presents some form of hazards either major or minor incidents usually termed as chemical accidents.To avoid chemical accidents some points to be kept in mind.knowledge of chemicalsknowledge of pocessing plantknowledge of operator
35Chemical Hazards in power plant Coal/silica dust is major health hazard in power stationThese dusts enter our body through inhalationRespirable dust particles can enter our lung sacks and reduce our breathing capacity since this reparable dust settles there,Normally coal dust particle less than 1 micron only can enter in our lung sacks.Bigger dust particles either remain in our nose or get stuck in throat. Then they go into stomach and get removed from our body system in natural way.Coal dust is non toxic and as such no effects are caused on body due to the particles of dust in stomach.
36Chemical HazardsRespirable dust particle which enter into our lungs can not be removed and they remain settled there.Disease which can occur due to inhalation of coal dust is known as “pneumoconiosis” and is irreversible till person is shifted from jobSilica dust can cause “silicosis”Both are reportable as well as compensable diseases under the schedule of the factories act
37Chemical Hazards Control of coal dust by Reduction of dust emission by suppression by wetting coal in wagons, at the time of tippling, water spray in coal conveyors.Suction of coal dust from environment in above areas.Use of personal protective equipments like filter respirators which can filter out reparable coal dust particles.Continuous monitoring of environment by measuring and keeping it below.
38Chemical Hazards 2. Gases Gases are the common hazards in many industries leads to suffocation and asphyxia.Asphyxiating gases are – CO, Cyanide, SO2, Chlorine etc.Smoke: inhalation of smoke which can contain poisonous gaseous fumes also and can have effects on our health;Fumes: fumes emanating from liquid chemicals can cause ill effects on our health when inhaled;Vapor: vapors of chemicals liquids are also dangerous to our health when inhaled. Vapours of hydrazine hydrate can cause unconsciousness when inhaled.
39Chemical Hazards 3.Metals and compounds 4.Chemicals Toxic hazards are seen from Lead, Mercury, Chromium, Arsenic etc4.ChemicalsAcid (water treatment/ chemistry), Alkali and Pesticides.Hazardous chemicals used in thermal power stations:ChlorineHydrochloric acidEuphoric acidHydrazine hydrateLiquor ammoniaSodium hydroxide
40Chemical Hazards Chlorine It is the most hazardous chemical used It is used in water treatment plantIt is procured in toners for use in chlorinationationWhen more than 10 tons of chlorine is stored/ handled/used in any industry, a Disaster Management Plan (DMP) is required to be prepared and submitted to statutory authorities.This DMP is required to be practiced through mock drills periodically and review meeting are to be conducted for checking discrepancies.
41Chemical Hazards Chlorine Chlorine vapor is poisonous when inhaled Will cause burn in eyesChlorine liquid can cause burn on skin and eyesThreshold Limit Value (TLV) for chlorine is 1 ppmAt 100 ppm it can be fatal.
42Plant / sections which are prone to emergencies Coal handling plantMain plantWater treatment plantHydrogen generation plantMgr transpiration system
43Prevention of Chemical Hazard (Pneumoconiosis) 1.Dust control- · Proper Ventilation · Exhaust · Enclosed apparatus · Good house keeping 2.Personnel protection · Mask, clothing, cloves, apron, boots barrier cream etc 3.Personal hygiene 4.Health education about respiratory evolvement and personal protection 5.Medical control Periodic medical check up for early detection 6. Bagasse control- · Spraying with 2% propionic acid- · Keep the moisture content around 20%
44Fire hazardFire is a chemical reaction or series of chemical reaction accomplished by heat, light, smoke or other gases.
45Fire Hazards In Power Plants Coal handling plant:coal dust accumulation on conveyor decks, cable trays, head & tail pulleys, jamming of idlers and pulleys, belt sway, belt tension, dust & coal deposited at tops, crusher house and vibrating scene floors, bunker house , failure of belt joints, snapping of belts, partially damaged belt in operation, smoldering fire in bunkers
46Fire Hazards In Power Plants Cables in cable galleries and on trays in all plant sections, coal dust deposited on cable trays in mill areaFuel oil handling and oil tanks (hsd,hfo,lshs, naphtha, petrol, diesel oil )Transformer oil, turbine oil, control fluid, seal oil,Natural gasElectrical systemHeat path damaged insulationGrassAccumulation of waste material etc.
47Explosion Hazard In Power Plant Hydrogen plantTurbo generators where hydrogen is used for cooling of Generator.Boilers
51Hazard Identification Techniques Safety auditA systematic & independent examination of all or part of a total operating system to determine whether safety activities comply with planned arrangements for ensuring safety and health of workers and other interested parties who may be affected and whether these arrangements are effective and are suitable to achieve objectives.
52Hazard Identification Techniques Safety surveySafety survey is a detailed & in-depth examination of a narrow field of activity eg...Major key areas revealed by safety audit,Individual plants,Procedures orA specific problem.
53Hazard Identification Techniques Safety inspectionA routine scheduled inspection of a department or unit which may be carried out by personnel within the unit. During inspection deviations from safety standards, employee’s unsafe work practices and unsafe conditions are checked.
54Hazard Identification Techniques Safety tourSafety tour is an unscheduled examination of a work area, carried out by any personnel from manager to safety committee members to ensure that company’s safety standards and procedures are being observed.
55Hazard Identification Techniques Safety samplingA specific application of safety inspection / tour designed for random sampling of any activity posing serious accident potential. During safety sampling number of defectsAre observing for immediate corrective actions.
56Hazard Identification Techniques Hazard and operability studiesHazop is essentially a examination procedure takes full description of the process, systematically questioning of every part of process to discover how deviations from the intention of the design can occur and decides whether these deviations can give rise to hazard.
57Hazard Identification Techniques Principles of examinationFull description of the process, systematically questions on every part of the processDiscover deviations from the intention of the design can occurDecides weather these deviations can give rise to Hazards
58Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Failure or Malfunction of each component is consideredEffect or Consequences of failure tracedFrequency of Occurrence, Severity of Failure and detecting the problemImpact on the System Functioning is evaluatedRemedial method for Possible Impact
59Fault Tree Analysis Starts with Undesired event. All possible happenings contributing Undesired event is listed.Put these happenings in the form of tree with logic signals OR and AND.
60JOB SAFTEY ANALYSIS (JSA) JSA is a procedure used to review job methods at the design stage itself to ensure safe working at the site places and to adopt the safe working practices.However, it may also be used successfully to uncover hazards that may have developed after production started: or that resulted from change in work procedures.The procedure of job safety analysis is simple and consists of 4 basic steps.a) Jobs with potential for more frequent accidents,b) Severity of injuryc) New jobs in which the accident potential is unknown should beselected first from the entire job list.d) Proper Care for analyzing the job condition.
61PLANT SAFETY INSPECTION Inspections are that monitoring function conducted in the organization to locate and report existing and potential hazards which have the capacity to cause accidents in the work place.Inspections are not primarily aimed at unearthing new types of hazards; though that may be achieved also; but rather at locating and correcting known hazards.Continuous InspectionPeriodic Inspection:
62Steps to Control Hazard Step 2. List, rank and set priorities for hazardous jobs -List jobs with hazards that present unacceptable risks, based on those most likely to occur and with the most severe consequences. These jobs should be your first priority for analysis.
63Steps to Control Hazard Step 3. Controlling HazardsSolutions to the Control of Hazard are identified and measures are executedHazard can be eliminated(i) At the Source(ii) Along the path from hazard to the Worker(iii) At the level of the worker
64Hazard Removal at the Source Elimination - Getting rid of a hazardous job, tool, process, machine or substance is perhaps the best way of protecting workers.Substitution - Sometimes doing the same work in a less hazardous way is possible.Redesign - Jobs and processes can be reworked to make them safer.Isolation - If a hazard cannot be eliminated or replaced, it can sometimes be isolated, contained or otherwise kept away from workers.Automation - Dangerous processes can be automated or mechanized.
65along the path from Hazard to Worker Hazard Removalalong the path from Hazard to WorkerBarriers - A hazard can be blocked before it reaches workers. Proper equipment guarding will protect workers from contacting moving parts.Absorption - Baffles can block or absorb noise.Dilution - Some hazards can be diluted or dissipated. For example, ventilation systems can dilute toxic gasses before they reach operators.
66Hazard Removal at the Level of Worker Work procedures, supervision and trainingAdministrative controlsJob rotations and other procedures can reduce the time that workers are exposed to a hazardHousekeeping, repair and maintenance programsHygiene - Hygiene practices can reduce the risk of toxic materials being absorbed by workers or carried home to their families.Personal protective equipment (PPE) and clothing - This is used when other controls aren’t feasible and where additional protection is needed. Workers must be trained to use and maintain their equipment properly.
67Risk managementRisk Management is the Identification, Analysis and Economic control of those risks which can threaten the assets, human being or earning capacity of an enterprise
68Stages in Risk Management Identifying the hazardsEvaluating the associated risksThe likely effect of a hazard may for Example be rated: Major, Serious, Slight-The likelihood of harm may be rated: High, Medium, LowControlling the risks
69Controlling Risk Risk Avoidance Risk Retention Risk Transfer Risk Reduction
70ConclusionsThe thought process behind selecting hazard evaluation techniques is complex, and a variety of factors can influence the decision-making process.Hazards identification, hazards categorization, and hazards analysis are key components of integrated safety management for facilities and activities in industries.Each hazard evaluation technique has unique strengths and weaknesses.These techniques can provide the industrial hygienist with the tools needed to protect both workers and the community from both major and small-scale hazards.Probability of occurrence of hazard increases the risks associated with an industry.A risk management proposal has been given for the ready reference in this paper.
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