Presentation on theme: "Short and long term effects of exercise"— Presentation transcript:
1Short and long term effects of exercise Adaptations of training
2Immediate effects of exercise Your heart will beat faster and strongerYour breathing will quicken and deepen (we become breathless eventually)Body temperature will riseYou will start to sweatMuscles will begin to ache more oxygen needed to working muscles.
3Faster heart rateOur heart rate will be raised by the release of adrenalineThis is why our heart rate can quicken in stressful situations.More blood is pumped to the lungs faster so that more oxygen can be circulated around the body.Fitter bigger heart and can deal with situations better
4Quicker and deeper breathing respiratory system The harder we exercise the deeper and quicker we will breatheIncrease in breathing means more oxygen to the musclesIf we cant and there does come a point it results in crampHigh red blood cell count, therefore high haemoglobin will allow athletes to cope better
5Rise in body temperature When we exercise our muscles generate heat.Therefore body temp rises above the normal range (between 36.4 and 37.2 degrees)We regulate our body temperature by sweating when hot and shivering when cold.
6SweatingSome energy is turned into heat and is lost from body through sweat.Two problems which are caused by this are loss of water and loss of salt.
7Muscle ache Energy is carried in our blood as the form of glucose Also muscles need oxygen and this is gained via our respiratory system and again I carried in are blood to working muscles.Also waste products are exchanged in the blood such as carbon dioxide.If the muscles cannot get sufficient oxygen the muscles will cramp and lactic acid will form causing muscles to ache.
8Aerobic and anaerobic training and exercise Exercise for cardiovascular fitness can be both aerobic and anaerobic or a combination of bothEffects that will take place will includeHeart will pump more blood per beat (stroke volume)Heart will recover quickerHeart will beat slower at rest (reduced resting pulse rate)Number of capillaries will increaseCardiovascular system will become more efficient thus improve performance
9Aerobic and anaerobic Aerobic fitness will help in endurance events Anaerobic will help in events with short fast bursts of energy examples include up to 400m sprint.Anaerobic can lat up to 40 seconds even then athletes are gasping for oxygenHave to repay oxygen debut which means replace oxygen to respiratory system and get rid of waste.
10Long term benefits of exercise training Long term physiological adaptations are those that occur in the body as the result of a long term training programme.There are certain long term effects of exercise on the heart, blood, and the blood vessels.Long term adaptations will include changes to the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate response, capillary density, lung volumes and capacities, gaseous exchange. Muscular system will change Hypertrophy, neuromuscular, mitochondrial density and ATP re-synthesis.
11Cardiovascular fitness and health Cardiovascular fitness has many benefits to health and they are:Reduce blood pressureReduce stressBurn off excess calories, improving our body compositionIncrease our heart in size thickness and strengthIncrease the size of the chambers of the heart.
12Aerobic muscular adaptations Slow twitch muscle fibres will enlarge by up to 22% in size.this gives greater potential for aerobic energy production. (larger fibres means greater mitochondrial activity).There is an increase in size and also mitochondriaActivity of oxidative enzymes is increased which helps break down food quickly thus therefore more glycogen can be stored in muscles.With hypertrophy of slow twitch muscles more continuous energy.Increase of up to 80% myoglobin (myoglobin is the substance within the muscle that carries oxygen to the mitochondria).
13Anaerobic adaptations Muscle hypertrophy of fast twitch muscle fibresIncreases levels of ATP and PC within the muscle. Therefore increase in capacity of the ATP-PC energy system.Increased enzyme activity results in quicker break down of ATPIncrease in the glycolytic capacity of musclesBuffering system in muscles is improved.
14Cardiovascular adaptations to training (heart) Cardiac hypertrophy size of heart increases.Stroke volume increases both at rest and during exercise (per minute) resting heart rate will be decreased.When resting heart rate reaches below 60 beats per minute Bradycardia results.As stroke volume increases so does cardiac out put. By up to min in trained athletes.
15Cardiovascular adaptations to training (vascular and circulatory) Increased capillarisation more efficient new capillaries may even develop which means more blood flow to muscles.Improvements in vasculature efficiency (especially arteries) to vasoconstrict and vasodilate.Decreased resting blood pressureIncrease in blood plasma this controls viscosity and allows blood to flow easier.An increase in red blood cell and haemoglobin.
16Respiratory adaptations to training Respiratory system is responsible receiving Oxygen into the body and dealing with waste products.There is an increase in lung volumeVital capacity is increased (max inspiration)Tidal volume increases during exerciseRespiratory muscles get stronger become more efficient lungs get bigger.Pulmonary diffusion becomes more efficient more O2 can enter the blood.
17Body's energy sources for movement All movement requires a series of muscle contractionsstored Chemical energy must be transfer to mechanical energy this involves break down or splitting of ATP and this allows movement.Limited amount of this high energy compound in muscle cells (only produce few seconds).ATP must continually be resynthesised in order to produce energy.
18ATP energyATP resynthesis occurs via aerobic metabolism break down of fat and carbohydrates in the presence of O2.Slow process, cant produce quick enough during high intensity.Body has therefore adapted three ways to resynthesis ATP to ensure a continuous supply of energy.
19Pathways/ energy systems There are three basic pathways or energy systems which help replenishes ATP.The alactic or ATP-PC systemThe lactic acid systemThe aerobic systemAnaerobic energy production will rely on the first two systems the ATP-PC or lactic acid system and aerobic will rely on the aerobic system.
20The alactic/ATP-PC System Rapid regeneration of ATP through another rich compound called phosphocreatineThis phosphocreatine helps rebuild ATPUsed during very intense exercise but once again this substance is very limited within muscles.Its levels start to fall as it uses energy to replenishes also.Fatigue normally occurs when ATP can no longer resynthesis (about 8-10 seconds).
21Equation Adenosine p p p (high energy bond) Adenosine p p ENERGY P 1. ATP ADP----+ P + ENERGY (results in muscle contraction)Creatine pCreatine ENERGY P2. CP C + P + ENERGY (For ATP resynthesis)Adenosine p p + pAdenosine p p p ( high energy bond)3. ENERGY + ADP + P ATP
22The lactic acid pathway Once phosphocreatine has been deleted ATP must be resynthesised through Glycogen.Glycogen stored in muscles transferred from starch/ glucose.Before glycogen or glucose can be used it must be converted into a compound glucose 6 phosphate. A process which itself requires one ATP.The breaking down of this molecule is called glycolysis.
23GlycolysisGlycotic enzymes work on breaking down the glucose molecules in a series of reactions 12 in total.In the cytoplasm of the cell glucose-6-phosphate is downgraded to form pyruvic acid.In the absence of oxygen this is converted into lactic acid by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, LDH.This process helps resynthesis 3 molecules of ATP but uses one.This energy system can be used for a 400m runner 10 seconds – 3 minutes.