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Short and long term effects of exercise Adaptations of training.

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Presentation on theme: "Short and long term effects of exercise Adaptations of training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Short and long term effects of exercise Adaptations of training

2 Immediate effects of exercise Your heart will beat faster and stronger Your heart will beat faster and stronger Your breathing will quicken and deepen (we become breathless eventually) Your breathing will quicken and deepen (we become breathless eventually) Body temperature will rise Body temperature will rise You will start to sweat You will start to sweat Muscles will begin to ache more oxygen needed to working muscles. Muscles will begin to ache more oxygen needed to working muscles.

3 Faster heart rate Our heart rate will be raised by the release of adrenaline Our heart rate will be raised by the release of adrenaline This is why our heart rate can quicken in stressful situations. This is why our heart rate can quicken in stressful situations. More blood is pumped to the lungs faster so that more oxygen can be circulated around the body. More blood is pumped to the lungs faster so that more oxygen can be circulated around the body. Fitter bigger heart and can deal with situations better Fitter bigger heart and can deal with situations better

4 Quicker and deeper breathing respiratory system The harder we exercise the deeper and quicker we will breathe The harder we exercise the deeper and quicker we will breathe Increase in breathing means more oxygen to the muscles Increase in breathing means more oxygen to the muscles If we cant and there does come a point it results in cramp If we cant and there does come a point it results in cramp High red blood cell count, therefore high haemoglobin will allow athletes to cope better High red blood cell count, therefore high haemoglobin will allow athletes to cope better

5 Rise in body temperature When we exercise our muscles generate heat. When we exercise our muscles generate heat. Therefore body temp rises above the normal range (between 36.4 and 37.2 degrees) Therefore body temp rises above the normal range (between 36.4 and 37.2 degrees) We regulate our body temperature by sweating when hot and shivering when cold. We regulate our body temperature by sweating when hot and shivering when cold.

6 Sweating Some energy is turned into heat and is lost from body through sweat. Some energy is turned into heat and is lost from body through sweat. Two problems which are caused by this are loss of water and loss of salt. Two problems which are caused by this are loss of water and loss of salt.

7 Muscle ache Energy is carried in our blood as the form of glucose Energy is carried in our blood as the form of glucose Also muscles need oxygen and this is gained via our respiratory system and again I carried in are blood to working muscles. Also muscles need oxygen and this is gained via our respiratory system and again I carried in are blood to working muscles. Also waste products are exchanged in the blood such as carbon dioxide. Also waste products are exchanged in the blood such as carbon dioxide. If the muscles cannot get sufficient oxygen the muscles will cramp and lactic acid will form causing muscles to ache. If the muscles cannot get sufficient oxygen the muscles will cramp and lactic acid will form causing muscles to ache.

8 Aerobic and anaerobic training and exercise Exercise for cardiovascular fitness can be both aerobic and anaerobic or a combination of both Exercise for cardiovascular fitness can be both aerobic and anaerobic or a combination of both Effects that will take place will include Effects that will take place will include Heart will pump more blood per beat (stroke volume) Heart will pump more blood per beat (stroke volume) Heart will recover quicker Heart will recover quicker Heart will beat slower at rest (reduced resting pulse rate) Heart will beat slower at rest (reduced resting pulse rate) Number of capillaries will increase Number of capillaries will increase Cardiovascular system will become more efficient thus improve performance Cardiovascular system will become more efficient thus improve performance

9 Aerobic and anaerobic Aerobic fitness will help in endurance events Aerobic fitness will help in endurance events Anaerobic will help in events with short fast bursts of energy examples include up to 400m sprint. Anaerobic will help in events with short fast bursts of energy examples include up to 400m sprint. Anaerobic can lat up to 40 seconds even then athletes are gasping for oxygen Anaerobic can lat up to 40 seconds even then athletes are gasping for oxygen Have to repay oxygen debut which means replace oxygen to respiratory system and get rid of waste. Have to repay oxygen debut which means replace oxygen to respiratory system and get rid of waste.

10 Long term benefits of exercise training Long term physiological adaptations are those that occur in the body as the result of a long term training programme. Long term physiological adaptations are those that occur in the body as the result of a long term training programme. There are certain long term effects of exercise on the heart, blood, and the blood vessels. There are certain long term effects of exercise on the heart, blood, and the blood vessels. Long term adaptations will include changes to the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate response, capillary density, lung volumes and capacities, gaseous exchange. Muscular system will change Hypertrophy, neuromuscular, mitochondrial density and ATP re-synthesis. Long term adaptations will include changes to the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate response, capillary density, lung volumes and capacities, gaseous exchange. Muscular system will change Hypertrophy, neuromuscular, mitochondrial density and ATP re-synthesis.

11 Cardiovascular fitness and health Cardiovascular fitness has many benefits to health and they are: Cardiovascular fitness has many benefits to health and they are: Reduce blood pressure Reduce blood pressure Reduce stress Reduce stress Burn off excess calories, improving our body composition Burn off excess calories, improving our body composition Increase our heart in size thickness and strength Increase our heart in size thickness and strength Increase the size of the chambers of the heart. Increase the size of the chambers of the heart.

12 Aerobic muscular adaptations Slow twitch muscle fibres will enlarge by up to 22% in size. Slow twitch muscle fibres will enlarge by up to 22% in size. this gives greater potential for aerobic energy production. (larger fibres means greater mitochondrial activity). this gives greater potential for aerobic energy production. (larger fibres means greater mitochondrial activity). There is an increase in size and also mitochondria There is an increase in size and also mitochondria Activity of oxidative enzymes is increased which helps break down food quickly thus therefore more glycogen can be stored in muscles. Activity of oxidative enzymes is increased which helps break down food quickly thus therefore more glycogen can be stored in muscles. With hypertrophy of slow twitch muscles more continuous energy. With hypertrophy of slow twitch muscles more continuous energy. Increase of up to 80% myoglobin (myoglobin is the substance within the muscle that carries oxygen to the mitochondria). Increase of up to 80% myoglobin (myoglobin is the substance within the muscle that carries oxygen to the mitochondria).

13 Anaerobic adaptations Muscle hypertrophy of fast twitch muscle fibres Muscle hypertrophy of fast twitch muscle fibres Increases levels of ATP and PC within the muscle. Therefore increase in capacity of the ATP-PC energy system. Increases levels of ATP and PC within the muscle. Therefore increase in capacity of the ATP-PC energy system. Increased enzyme activity results in quicker break down of ATP Increased enzyme activity results in quicker break down of ATP Increase in the glycolytic capacity of muscles Increase in the glycolytic capacity of muscles Buffering system in muscles is improved. Buffering system in muscles is improved.

14 Cardiovascular adaptations to training (heart) Cardiac hypertrophy size of heart increases. Cardiac hypertrophy size of heart increases. Stroke volume increases both at rest and during exercise (per minute) resting heart rate will be decreased. Stroke volume increases both at rest and during exercise (per minute) resting heart rate will be decreased. When resting heart rate reaches below 60 beats per minute Bradycardia results. When resting heart rate reaches below 60 beats per minute Bradycardia results. As stroke volume increases so does cardiac out put. By up to min in trained athletes. As stroke volume increases so does cardiac out put. By up to min in trained athletes.

15 Cardiovascular adaptations to training (vascular and circulatory) Increased capillarisation more efficient new capillaries may even develop which means more blood flow to muscles. Increased capillarisation more efficient new capillaries may even develop which means more blood flow to muscles. Improvements in vasculature efficiency (especially arteries) to vasoconstrict and vasodilate. Improvements in vasculature efficiency (especially arteries) to vasoconstrict and vasodilate. Decreased resting blood pressure Decreased resting blood pressure Increase in blood plasma this controls viscosity and allows blood to flow easier. Increase in blood plasma this controls viscosity and allows blood to flow easier. An increase in red blood cell and haemoglobin. An increase in red blood cell and haemoglobin.

16 Respiratory adaptations to training Respiratory system is responsible receiving Oxygen into the body and dealing with waste products. Respiratory system is responsible receiving Oxygen into the body and dealing with waste products. There is an increase in lung volume There is an increase in lung volume Vital capacity is increased (max inspiration) Vital capacity is increased (max inspiration) Tidal volume increases during exercise Tidal volume increases during exercise Respiratory muscles get stronger become more efficient lungs get bigger. Respiratory muscles get stronger become more efficient lungs get bigger. Pulmonary diffusion becomes more efficient more O2 can enter the blood. Pulmonary diffusion becomes more efficient more O2 can enter the blood.

17 Body's energy sources for movement All movement requires a series of muscle contractions All movement requires a series of muscle contractions stored Chemical energy must be transfer to mechanical energy this involves break down or splitting of ATP and this allows movement. stored Chemical energy must be transfer to mechanical energy this involves break down or splitting of ATP and this allows movement. Limited amount of this high energy compound in muscle cells (only produce few seconds). Limited amount of this high energy compound in muscle cells (only produce few seconds). ATP must continually be resynthesised in order to produce energy. ATP must continually be resynthesised in order to produce energy.

18 ATP energy ATP resynthesis occurs via aerobic metabolism break down of fat and carbohydrates in the presence of O2. ATP resynthesis occurs via aerobic metabolism break down of fat and carbohydrates in the presence of O2. Slow process, cant produce quick enough during high intensity. Slow process, cant produce quick enough during high intensity. Body has therefore adapted three ways to resynthesis ATP to ensure a continuous supply of energy. Body has therefore adapted three ways to resynthesis ATP to ensure a continuous supply of energy.

19 Pathways/ energy systems There are three basic pathways or energy systems which help replenishes ATP. There are three basic pathways or energy systems which help replenishes ATP. 1. The alactic or ATP-PC system 2. The lactic acid system 3. The aerobic system Anaerobic energy production will rely on the first two systems the ATP-PC or lactic acid system and aerobic will rely on the aerobic system. Anaerobic energy production will rely on the first two systems the ATP-PC or lactic acid system and aerobic will rely on the aerobic system.

20 The alactic/ATP-PC System Rapid regeneration of ATP through another rich compound called phosphocreatine Rapid regeneration of ATP through another rich compound called phosphocreatine This phosphocreatine helps rebuild ATP This phosphocreatine helps rebuild ATP Used during very intense exercise but once again this substance is very limited within muscles. Used during very intense exercise but once again this substance is very limited within muscles. Its levels start to fall as it uses energy to replenishes also. Its levels start to fall as it uses energy to replenishes also. Fatigue normally occurs when ATP can no longer resynthesis (about 8-10 seconds). Fatigue normally occurs when ATP can no longer resynthesis (about 8-10 seconds).

21 Equation Adenosine p p p (high energy bond) Adenosine p p p (high energy bond) Adenosine p p ENERGY P Adenosine p p ENERGY P 1.ATP ADP----+ P + ENERGY (results in muscle contraction) Creatine p Creatine p Creatine ENERGY P Creatine ENERGY P 2.CP C + P + ENERGY (For ATP resynthesis) Adenosine p p + p Adenosine p p + p Adenosine p p p ( high energy bond) Adenosine p p p ( high energy bond) 3.ENERGY + ADP + P ATP

22 The lactic acid pathway Once phosphocreatine has been deleted ATP must be resynthesised through Glycogen. Once phosphocreatine has been deleted ATP must be resynthesised through Glycogen. Glycogen stored in muscles transferred from starch/ glucose. Glycogen stored in muscles transferred from starch/ glucose. Before glycogen or glucose can be used it must be converted into a compound glucose 6 phosphate. A process which itself requires one ATP. Before glycogen or glucose can be used it must be converted into a compound glucose 6 phosphate. A process which itself requires one ATP. The breaking down of this molecule is called glycolysis. The breaking down of this molecule is called glycolysis.

23 Glycolysis Glycotic enzymes work on breaking down the glucose molecules in a series of reactions 12 in total. Glycotic enzymes work on breaking down the glucose molecules in a series of reactions 12 in total. In the cytoplasm of the cell glucose-6-phosphate is downgraded to form pyruvic acid. In the cytoplasm of the cell glucose-6-phosphate is downgraded to form pyruvic acid. In the absence of oxygen this is converted into lactic acid by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, LDH. In the absence of oxygen this is converted into lactic acid by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, LDH. This process helps resynthesis 3 molecules of ATP but uses one. This process helps resynthesis 3 molecules of ATP but uses one. This energy system can be used for a 400m runner 10 seconds – 3 minutes. This energy system can be used for a 400m runner 10 seconds – 3 minutes.


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