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Chapter 8 Muscle Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Muscle Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Muscle Review

2 Neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles within…
Myofibrils Motor units Motor end plate Motor nerve ending

3 Motor nerve ending

4 The synaptic vesicles contain…
Acetylcholine Calcium ions Myoglobin actin

5 The process by which a motor neuron releases acetylcholine is
Exocytosis Simple diffusion Active transport filtration

6 What structures meet at the neuromuscular junction?
T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum The sarcolemma and the T-tubules The axon of the motor neuron and the sarcolemma The axon of the motor neuron and myosin

7 Motor nerve ending

8 The enzyme cholinesterase causes acetylcholine to…
Bind to actin Be secreted Decompose Form crossbridges

9 The time following a stimulus when a muscle is unable to respond…
Refractory period Relaxation period Latent period Summation Not in notes check over in book.

10 Amount of oxygen required to convert lactic acid to glucose.
Refractory period Oxygen debt Anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration

11 A motor unit includes Muscle fibers only Motor neurons only Several motor neurons and one muscle fiber Several muscle fibers and one motor neuron

12 one several

13 Creatine phosphate serves to
Cause the decomposition of ATP Cause the decomposition of ADP Supply energy for the synthesis of ATP Supply energy for the change of ATP to ADP

14 The all-or-none response means…
All the muscles in a region contract together All of the muscle fibers/cells within a muscle contract together When a muscle fiber contracts, it contracts completely

15 Rigor mortis occurs because of
Excessive ATP, which prevents muscle relaxation Lack of ATP, which prevents muscle relaxation (no ATP to release crossbridge between actin & myosin) Excessive ATP which causes muscle contraction

16 The botulinus toxin that causes botulism acts by
Preventing the release of acetylcholine Promoting the release of acetylcholine Causing acetylcholine to be decomposed Preventing the decomposition of acetylcholine

17 Smooth muscle is found Attached to bones Lining hollow organs and tubes In the wall of the heart

18 Muscle tissue that is striated and involuntary
Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Both cardiac and smooth

19 A muscle cramp is likely due to a lack of
Actin Myosin ATP ADP

20 Which of the following is the smallest
Myofilament Myofibril Myofiber fascicle Myofibril is the organelle within the muscle cell/fiber and the myofilaments (actin & myosin) are the proteins within the myofibril.

21 Multiunit smooth muscle
Is composed of sheets of muscle cells Tends to display rhythmicity Occurs in the walls of the stomach and intestines None of these a, b, & c are all characteristics of visceral smooth muscle.

22 Striations are seen in…
Osseous tissue Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle cells Tendons and ligaments

23 Striations

24 Branching muscle cells with a single nucleus/cell and intercalated disks are found in…
Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

25

26 Thick myofilament Actin Myosin

27 Myoglobin… Stores oxygen in the muscle tissue Binds to actin to shorten the myofibrils Stores ATP Separates one sarcomere from another

28 Connective tissue that separates the fascicles in skeletal muscle is called the
Epimysium Endomysium Perimysium

29 Connective components
Epimysium Perimysium Endomysium Fascicle Muscle fiber Connective components of muscle organ

30 The sarcolemma is the Storage site for calcium Cell membrane of a myofiber Cytoplasm of myofiber

31 The function of the intercalated disks in cardiac muscle tissue is to
Separate one sarcomere from another Store ATP Slow the rate at which calcium ions are returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum Provide a mechanism by which all of the cells in a network can contract as a functional unit

32 The sliding filament theory states that when a muscle fiber shortens…
Actin filaments become shorter when they combine with myosin Thin myofilaments are pulled toward the center of the sarcomere Myosin heads rotate when they attach to actin, causing them to fold.

33 The function of calcium ions in skeletal muscle cell contraction is to
Bind to receptors on the sarcolemma Bind to oxygen; for cellular respiration Bind to the thin myofilament (actin) changing its shape so that the thick myofilament (myosin) can bind.

34 Skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract when…
Calcium ions bind to the sarcolemma Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the sarcolemma, causing the stimulus to spread through out the muscle cell ATP is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum Oxygen binds to the hemoglobin

35 Sarcomeres are separated from one another by
I bands H zone A bands Z lines

36 The region of the sarcomere that contains thin myofilaments, but not thick myofilaments is the
A band I band Z line T-tubule

37

38 The aerobic processes of cellular respiration occur in the
Sarcoplasm Mitochondria T-tubules nucleus

39 The purpose of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to
Generate ATP Store calcium ions Break down acetylcholine exocytosis

40 In the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted to
Creatine Lactic acid ADP Oxygen

41 Acetylcholine and ____ are the two neurotransmitters that affect smooth muscle.
Norepinephrine

42 Rhythmic motion produced by smooth muscle is called?
Peristalsis

43 Muscle fatigue is due to an accumulation of _____
Lactic acid

44 The minimal stimulus needed to elicit a muscle contraction is _____
Threshold stimulus

45 A broad fibrous sheet of connective tissue covering adjacent musces is called?
Aponeurosis

46 The enlargement of muscle fibers as a result of physical exercise is called?
Hypertrophy


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