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PLAN OF ACTION Discussion of previous exercise of perception Log on to and take the personality Long on to.

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Presentation on theme: "PLAN OF ACTION Discussion of previous exercise of perception Log on to and take the personality Long on to."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLAN OF ACTION Discussion of previous exercise of perception Log on to and take the personality Long on to to find out what learning style do you possess. Explanations would be there on the Business game on Learning by Association

2 LEARNING Concept of learning Definition of learning Cramp –learning Theories of learning Principle of Learning Learning Styles Simple rules of learning

3 Learning “Any relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience.” In simple terms learning is understood as modification of behavior through practice, training and experience

4 We learn 70% on the job and experiences that we face, 20% feedback and 10 % by formal training and development

5 CRAMP TAXONOMY Industrial Training Research Unit took the work of Belbins to develop the CRAMP taxonomy. COMPREHENSION – It involves learning theoretical subject matter. It is knowing how, why & when things happen. Eg – Science, Maths REFLEX LEARNING – It involves acquiring skilled movements or perceptual skills. Eg- Typing ATTITUDE DEVELOPMENT – It involves people to change their attitude and social skills, very difficult sort of learning. Eg Mgmt leadership course. MEMORY TRAINING- It involves learning information by heart. Eg. Actors learning their dialogues, Medical students learning the names of the bones. PROCEDURAL LEARNING –It involves understanding the location of items and the items need not be memorized. Eg. Engineers knowledge about closing the plant for maintenance.


7 THEORIES OF LEARNING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Pavlov discovered this theory An important behavioural process was identified An experiment conducted on dog and tried to relate its salivation and the ringing of the bell. Eg – Police Dept – Traffic Eg – If an individual is struck by a pin, he would flinch, – if he is tapped below the knee he would flex his – lower leg, if he hears loud surprising noise he would scream / jump, if he gets an electric shock then he would scream / jump

8 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Bell No Response Unconditioned Stimulus Food Unconditioned Response (UR ) Salivation Conditioned Stimulus (Bell ) During Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Food Unconditioned Response (salivation ) CS Bell After Conditioning CR (salivation Before Conditioning

9 THEORIES OF LEARNING Operant conditioning / Instrumental Conditioning “ A type of learning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.” It emphasizes on voluntary behaviours. Researchers called them operant because they operate on the environment. Eg – Inserting one rupee coin in the coffee vending machine, we learnt from the past experience how to cause environment (machine) to deliver a cup of coffee. Eg - A small child would beg for sweets, he is successful if eventually he gets sweets.` Behaviour is a function of consequences

10 Operant Behaviour & Consequences BehavioursConsequences WorksIs paid Talks to othersMeets more people Enters a restaurantObtains food Enters a libraryFinds a book Increase productivityReceives merit pay Completes difficult assignment Receives praise and promotion AN Individual

11 THEORIES OF LEARNING COGINITIVE CONDITIONING People are conscious active participants in how they learn This theory assumes that the organism learns the meaning of various objects and events & learned responses depending on the meaning assigned to stimulus. People draw on their experiences & use past learning as the basis for present behaviour. Eg- An Employee when faced with job assignment will use previous experience in deciding which one to accept.


13 THEORIES OF LEARNING Social learning / Observational Learning “ A theory that says people can learn through observation and direct experience.” The important role models include Parents, Teachers, Peers, Motivational Pictures or sayings, bosses and Social Circles An individual acquires new knowledge by observing what happens to his or her model vicarious learning The learner must pay attention to the model, observer must have good retention, the observers must practice the behaviour and the learner must have motivation. Eg – A toddler or a new hire

14 Transfer of learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in response. Generalization (repetition of initial behaviour) No two situations are alike. Responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. The individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of previous learning experience. Eg- the plant mgr of mfg co. who has a history of effective troubleshooting Discrimination -(choosing new behaviour) It is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences Eg- The plant mgr is assigned new plant which runs smoothly.

15 PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING MOTIVATION Without inner drive or innate desire we would not able to learn. REINFORCEMENT- It is the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behaviour Positive – strengthens and enhances behaviour by presentation of positive reinforcers. Primary reinforcers – satisfy primary needs like basic biological needs Secondary reinforcers – These include status, grades, money, trophies, appreciation etc. Negative – strengthens and increases behaviour by the threat of and the use of an undesirable consequence PUNISHMENT- Is the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behaviour. For eg – An athlete who is very offensive on the sports ground is ejected from the game. Eg Corporal Punishments in school, a fear of school children for not completing the homework and class work. EXTINCTION - Is the weakening of behaviour by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced. It needs time and patience to be effective.

16 Reinforcement schedule


18 LEARNING STYLE Thinking Feeling ObservingDoing AccomodatorDiverger ConvergerAssimilator Eg. Action oriented careers like politics, mktg, public relations, and mgmt Eg-Careers in entertainment, arts and service sector Eg-Seeks technical careers, in various fields of scientific mgmt, work at engineering, production supervision, IT & managerial jobs EG- Careers in Education, information and science

19 Simples Rules of Learning The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it The order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning The rate of learning tends to be very rapid immediately after learning Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations

20 Learning in NUTSHELL Attention makes us receptive to information, which we, process together with prior knowledge, until we arrive at, conclusions and understanding, which we then apply and test for confirmation


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