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Female Reproductive System, Neonatology. Bovine Reproductive tract.

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Presentation on theme: "Female Reproductive System, Neonatology. Bovine Reproductive tract."— Presentation transcript:

1 Female Reproductive System, Neonatology

2 Bovine Reproductive tract

3 Meso metrium suspends the uterus to the abdominal roof- in dogs and cats

4 Uterus anatomy Perimetrium- outer lining Myometrium- muscular layer Endometrium- inner vascular lining Clitoris- just inside the vagina on the floor Vaginal Fornix- lateral separation of the distal vagina that creates difficulty in A.I. of unaware

5 Canine female

6 Hymens do occur in dogs and mares and can increase dystocia if a fibrous band is maintained  When the vaginal canalization is complete, the fetal hymen is formed from the proliferation of the sinovaginal bulbs (where müllerian ducts meet the urogenital sinus), and becomes perforate before or shortly after birth  Due to similar reproductive system development, many mammals, including chimpanzees, elephants, manatees, whales, and horses, retain hymens

7 Factors that affect puberty Genetic factors- smaller breeds reach puberty earlier Nutritional factors-poor nutrition delays onset Environmental factors- presents of males enhances puberty, confinement and close grouping of gilts hastens puberty

8 Reproductive tract dilates for delivery

9 Sow Uterus- ovaries with follicles

10 Mare

11 Graffian follicle- fully developed which is producing Estrogen from it fluid Corpus Hemorrhoragicum- the fill site after rupture of follicle

12 Graffian (mature) follicle A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.somatic cellgameteoocyte ovary mammals

13 Also FSH stimulates granulosa cells to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells) to estradiol. However, after ovulation the granulosa cells produce progesterone. The progesterone may maintain a potential pregnancy and causes production of a thick cervical mucus that inhibits sperm entry into the uterus androgensthecal cells estradiolprogesterone

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15 The theca folliculi are responsible for the production of androstenedione, and indirectly the production of estradiol by supplying the neighboring granulosa cells with androstenedione a substrate for estradiol.androstenedioneestradiolgranulosa cells androstenedioneestradiol

16 From the Anterior pituitary Gland Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone. It is synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. FSH and Luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction hormoneanterior pituitary glandLuteinizing hormonereproduction

17 From the Anterior Pituitary Gland  Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland.hormone anterior pituitary gland  In females, an acute rise of LH called the LH surge triggers ovulation( with Estrogens and Prostaglandin F 2 alpha) ovulation   Prostaglandin F 2 alpha stimulates breakdown of the Tunica albiginea at the potential rupture sight on the ovary  development of the corpus luteum.corpus luteum  In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell- stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.Leydig celltestosterone 

18 Corpus Luteum- progesterone

19 Progesterone steroid hormone involved in the female reproductive cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of mammals. Progesterone belongs to a class of hormones called progestogens.steroidhormonefemalereproductive cyclepregnancygestationembryogenesisprogestogens Progesterone is commonly manufactured from the yam family, Dioscoreayam familyDioscorea

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21 Corpus Hemorrhoragicum- the fill site after rupture of follicle- Corpus Luteum fills – production of Progesterone to maintain pregnancy

22 Degeneration of C.l. to Corpus albicans in the ovary Here is an ova in ovarian tissue surrounded by theca cells and waiting for appropriate hormonal stimulation to begin to develop. FSH, Estrogen, Prostaglandin, Progesterone

23 Ova to zygote   Females are born with all the ova they will ever produce, ovulating one (moniprrous) or several (pleuriparous) from puberty until menopause. When it's time for the egg's great adventure, the ovarian tissue that encases eggs proliferates and becomes differentiated into granulosa and theca cells, producing the much larger, cystic Graafian follicle. When mature, the follicle ruptures, and the egg explodes from the torn surface of the ovary (occasionally producing a pain) and is swept up into the nearby fallopian tube, where, if sperm, fertlize and converted it into a zygote that begins dividing. This early embryo continues its way down the tube and into the uterus, where it implants itself into the uterine wall

24 At Ovulation the Fimbria (funnel) gathers the ova to begin the migration down the fallopian tube Fertilization occurs in the Fallopian Tube(oviduct) 5-human-ovulation-captured-on-video.html

25 Estrouse Cycle (from one heat to the next)

26  Proestrus  One or several follicles of the ovary are starting to grow. Their number is specific for the species. Typically this phase can last as little as one day or as long as 3 weeks, depending on the species. Under the influence of estrogen the lining in the uterus (endometrium) starts to develop. Some animals may experience vaginal secretions that could be bloody. The female is not yet sexually receptivefolliclesovaryendometrium

27  Estrus  "Estrus" redirects here. For other uses, see Estrus (disambiguation).Estrus (disambiguation)  Estrus refers to the phase when the female is sexually receptive ("in heat," or "on heat"). Under regulation by gonadotropic hormones, ovarian follicles are maturing and estrogen secretions exert their biggest influence. She then exhibits a sexually receptive behavior [9], a situation that may be signaled by visible physiologic changes. A signal trait of estrus is the lordosis reflex, in which the animal spontaneously elevates her hindquarters.gonadotropic hormones ovarian follicles [9]lordosis reflex  In some species, the labia are reddened. Ovulation may occur spontaneously in some species (e.g. cow), while in others it is induced by copulation (e.g. cat). If there is no copulation in an induced ovulator, estrus may continue for many days, followed by 'interestrus,' and the estrus phase starts again until copulation and ovulation occur.labiaOvulationcowcopulationcatcopulation

28 Metestrus During this phase, the signs of estrogen stimulation subside and the corpus luteum starts to form. The uterine lining begins to secrete small amounts of progesterone. This phase typically is brief and may last 1 to 5 days. In some animals bleeding may be noted due to declining estrogen levelscorpus luteumuterine

29 Diestrus Diestrus is characterised by the activity of the corpus luteum that produces progesterone. In the absence of pregnancy the diestrus phase (also termed pseudo-pregnancy) terminates with the regression of the corpus luteum. The lining in the uterus is not shed, but will be reorganised for the next cycle corpus luteumpregnancypseudo-pregnancyregression

30  Anestrus  Anestrus refers to the phase when the sexual cycle rests. This is typically a seasonal event and controlled by light exposure through the pineal gland that releases melatonin. Melatonin may repress stimulation of reproduction in long-day breeders and stimulate reproduction in short-day breeders. Melatonin is thought to act by regulating hypothalamic pulse activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Anestrus is induced by time of year, pregnancy, lactation, significant illness, chronic energy deficit, and possibly agepineal glandmelatoninhypothalamicgonadotropin-releasing hormonepregnancylactationillness

31  Frequency  Some species, such as cats, cows and domestic pigs, are polyestrous and can go into heat several times a year. Seasonally polyestrous animals or seasonal breeders have more than one estrous cycle during a specific time of the year and can be divided into short-day and long-day breeders:catscowsdomestic pigs seasonal breeders  Short-day breeders, such as sheep, goats, deer, foxes, elk—are sexually active in fall or winter.sheepgoatsdeerfoxeselkfall  Long-day breeders, such as horses and hamsters, are sexually active in spring and summer.horseshamsters  Species that go into heat twice per year, such as most dogs, are diestrous.dogs  Monoestrous species, such as bears, foxes, and wolves, have only one breeding season a year, typically in spring to allow growth of the offspring during the warm season to survive the next winter.bearsfoxeswolvesoffspring  A few mammalian species, such as rabbits do not have an estrous cycle and are able to conceive at almost any arbitrary momentrabbits

32  Cats  The female cat in heat has an estrus of 14–21 days and is an induced ovulator. Without copulation she may enter interestrus before reentering estrus. With copulation and in the absence of pregnancy, cycles occur about every three weeks. Cats are polyestrous but experience a seasonal anestrus in autumn and late wintercat

33  Dogs diestrous proestrus estrus anestrus  A bitch is diestrous and goes into heat typically twice every year, although some breeds typically have one or three cycles a year. The proestrus is relatively long at 5–10 days, while the estrus may last 5-21 days. With a diestrus of 5-10 days, a typical cycle lasts about 3 weeks followed by about 150 days of anestrus. They bleed during this time, which will usually last from 7–13 days, depending on the size and maturity of the dog. Ovulations occur at the end of the estrus period, therefore this is the best time to begin breeding. Proestrus bleeding in dogs is common and is caused by diapedesis of RBCs from the blood vessels due to sudden withdrawal of estrogen hormone.bitch

34  Horses  diestrus anestrus  A mare may be 4 to 10 days in heat and about 14 days in diestrus. Thus a cycle may be short, i.e. 3 weeks. Horses mate in spring and summer, autumn is a transition time, and anestrus in winter.mare  A feature of the fertility cycle of horses and other large herd animals is that it is usually affected by the seasons. The number of hours daily that light enters the eye of the animal affects the brain, which governs the release of certain precursors and hormones. When daylight hours are few, these animals "shut down," become anestrous, and do not become fertile. As the days grow longer, the longer periods of daylight cause the hormones from the anterior pituitary (FSH) which activate the breeding cycle. There is economic advantage, given a gestation period of about eleven months, it prevents them from having young in winter which forage, and nutrition is in minimum supply. This is why these animals reproduce during certain times of the year.

35  Rats  Rats typically have rapid cycle times of 4 to 5 days. Although they ovulate spontaneously, they do not develop a fully functioning corpus luteum unless they receive coital stimulation. Fertile mating leads to pregnancy in this way, but infertile mating leads to a state of pseudopregnancy which lasts about 10 days. Mice and hamsters have similar behaviour. The events of the cycle are strongly influenced by lighting periodicity. proestrus estrus proestrus metestrus  A set of follicles start to develop near the end of proestrus and grow at a nearly constant rate until the beginning of the subsequent estrus when the growth rates accelerate eightfold. They then ovulate about 109 hours after starting growth. Oestrogen peaks at about 11am on the day of proestrus. Between then and midnight there is a surge in progesterone, LH and FSH, and ovulation occurs at about 4am on the next, estrus day. The following day, metestrus, is called early diestrus or diestrus I by some authors. During this day the corpora lutea grow to a maximal volume, achieved within 24 hours of ovulation. They remain at that size for 3 days, halve in size before the metestrus of the next cycle and then shrink abruptly before estrus of the cycle after that. Thus the ovaries of cycling rats contain three different sets of corpora lutea at different phases of development. OestrogenprogesteroneLHFSHcorpora lutea

36 Estrus frequencies of some other mammals: Ewe: 17 days Ewe Bovine: 21 days Goat: 21 days Sow: 21 days Sow Elephant: 16 weeks Elephant

37 Estrus in the cow (polyestrous)  Estrus lasts 16 hrs (Estrous cycle is 21 days)  standing to be mounted  Mounting other cows  Mucous smeared on the buttocks  Nervous  Seeks the bull  Roughening hair at the tailhead  Chin resting on rumps of other ocws, tail raised, urination. elated standing heat elated   Super cattle

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39 Estrus in the ewe seasonally polyestrus (17 days cycle) Standing to be mounted\search out ram Vulva swells Nervous Vibrating, agitating movement of tail Length of estrus ( 30 hrs) EeRw&feature=related sheep mating EeRw&feature=related

40 Estrus in the Sow- polyestrus  Estrus 44 hrs (Estrous cycle- 21 days)  Stands to be mounted  Nervous  Tries to mount others  Swollen red vulva/ mucous dischg rarely  Ak&feature=related mating pigs- note ear Ak&feature=related  notching for identification

41 Estrus in the mare- seasonally polyestrus Estrus- 6 days ( Estrous cycle 21 days) Nervous Interst in stallion Vaginal winking, and urine excretion M mare winking, in heat

42 Estrus in the Bitch- diestrus  Estrus – 6-21 days  Bleeding begins at proestrus and decreases or stops at estrus ( Diapedesis because of increasing thickness and vascularization of the endometrium ( not shedding of mucosa as in menstration in humans)  Fertility is highest 48 hrs prior to the end of estrus.  Many develop pseudocyesis (false pregnancy) during C.L. production of progesterone.  Metestrus – regression of the C.L.  Anestrus-

43 Ovulation occurs 2 days after LH spike

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45 Are these cornified or non- cornified epithelial cells- what stage of Estrous cycle does this most likely represent?

46 Uterine changes in Estrous Cycle -Rising Estrogen in prosestrus- edema and thickening of uterine wall- additional blood vessels -Estrogen makes endothelium fragile -Bleeding may occur in proestrus -Great media for growing excessive amounts of bacteria

47 Increase in Progesterone at metestrus and diestrus- glands develop in the uterine wall and secrete Uterine Milk which nourishes the embryo until a placenta is formed As the C.L. is killed and stops producing progesterone, the uterus lining sloughs and is reabsorbed- effects of PGF 2 alpha A. From the uterus at the end of Diestrus B. From pregnant uterus a parturition C. From drugs (Estrumate, Lutalyse) at post estrus

48 Prostaglandin F2 alpha destroys the C.L which allows initiation of new cycle

49 Prostagland stops C.L. and commenses a new cycle

50 Male system Female system

51 GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) -produced by the pituitary gland (to induce it to produce FSH and LH GnRH is turned off by Progesterone (so that no new follicles are produced during pregnancy) Factrel and Cystorelin to stimulate follicle development and create a LH spike

52 Cystic ovaries-ovulation

53 Estrogen Produced by Graffian follicle/induces sexual receptivity Causes uterine edema, increased vascularity and blood vessel fragility Used in Ear implant growth promotants- inhibits hypothalmus to produce GnRH and shuts off the pituitary gland production of FSH/LH, animals stay settled and gain better

54 Progesterone Produced by CH and CL and placenta in some species Uterine wall glandular development for pregnancy Inhibits hypothalamus from producing GnRH, therefore no FSH and LH Megestrol acetate (MGA) to arrest cycle until it is removed Ovaban- for dogs

55 Double muscling and infertility Homozygous for myostatin growth differential factor 8

56 Homozygous for Myostatin (GDF8) Animals lacking myostatin do not have the ability to inhibit muscle growth. It is a genetic mutation that inhibits regulation of differentiation of muscle fibers It is closely liked with genes associated with fertility, thus there can be a combination of these abnormal genes feature=related human double muscle or drugs feature=related

57 Some facts as a guide for studying all species Iength of estrous cycle in cows- 21 days Length of each of the 4 stages of cycle- Estrus hrs Metestrus- 2-5 days Diestrus days Prosestrus 3-5 days Ovulation hrs postestrus Sexual maturity mo, smaller is earlier First bull breeding 14 mo., mature bull=12 cows Bull sperm declines at 7 yrs How long does breeding act take- one thrust What is the semen volume – 6-10 mls

58 Study guide for cow reproduction What is the trade name of synthetic PGF 2 alpha at what stage of the cow cycle will these preps Effective- Diestrus- why? Gestation length- 285 days Cows should be re-bred by 60 days pp (three heats pp) Cows should be dry for 60 days prior to delivery Lochia- discharge of clear fluid a couple of weeks prior to calving 7% have Retained Placentas

59 Study guide for cattle reproduction Silent heats are unusual and occur most often at -the first heat after calving (most are unobserved) Why is GnRH sometimes given at estrus of repeat breeders (pathophysiology of hormones and cycles) Rectal palpation for pregnancy is 3 wks gestation

60 Capacitation of sperm and the female reproductive tract storage ated capaciation- the acrosome of the sperm heat becomes leaky- releases enzymes which break down the outer coating of the egg. ated Sperm in the reproductive tract of cows, pigs and sheep travel to the oviduct isthmus( a sperm reservoir (like the epididymis) There is a lower temperature, nutrients that are stimulated by the ovary and the follicle, and seminal fluid matrix is processed for nutrients Stores sperm for impending ovulation( what is the implication of this new information? ted to egg with capacitation and “love” ted

61 Reproductive pattern Horses Anovulatory Phase(seasonally anestrous) Induced by lengthening photoperiods Resistant to drug manipulation at this time because Ant. Pit is not receptive to GnRH unless lengthening photoperiod Cycles every 22 days Transition Phase Spring increasing FSH but lacking adequate LH( can use Altrenogest- Regu-Mate- progesterone analog daily x 7)

62 Breeding on “Foal Heat” 6-15 days post partum -First ovulation cycle post partum -Foal Heat diarrhea -Usually hand bred because of danger to the foal and danger to the stallion -Mare is often very anxious around the foal (diploid)

63 Teasing procedure in equine breeding Bring the stallion near and watch the mare response- violent or winking Tease daily until mare is standing Use breeding hobbles/ twitch Encourage stallion until full erection Mounting is along side- intromission Vigorous pelvic thrust (10-sec) 8 seminal jets (70 mls of semen) Stallions may hold mare’s withers with teeth Horse breeding video

64 Equine reproduction cycle variations May ovulate without showing estrus May show estrus without ovulating CL may persist up to 2 months “Split heat” is common ( in heat a few days, then out, then back in) Estrus- often multiple follicles (ovary is kidney shaped), uterus is soft and edematous, not turgid like a cow, cervix is relaxed and open

65 Equine reproduction variables Late Estrus- LH surges over several days with 20 % multiple ovulations (follicles are 5 cm diameter), One twin is usually absorbed Best breeding time- 2 days pre-ovulation( three days after the beginning of estrus, and alternate days (sperm survives 2 days in the uterus

66 Metestrus in the mare - LH fades, estrogen fades, progesterone rises Corpus hemorrhagicum forms inside the ovary Uterus is toned Rejects the Stallion Diestrus in the Mare Progesterone dominates, C.L. is present Can use Lutalyse to shorten the cycle- go to proestrus Cervix tightly closed

67 Proestrus in the mare PGF 2alpha kills C.L. Gestation Period- 340 days (11 months) Light horse have longer gestation than heavy horse breeds Male fetuses have a slightly longer gestation

68 Caprine reproduction Puberty 6-8 mo, bucks- 3 mo Does need the scent emitted from the buck to stimulate her to cycle (scent glands are medial and caudal to the horns) Female bleats, flags, vulva swollen Increase in milk production Breed as soon as estrus occurs Gestation 145 days (5 months)

69 Ovine Reproduction Estrus- tail twitch Often use teaser rams (vasectomized) with a marking harness “Flushing”- increasing plane of nutrition prior to breeding season Breed ASAP when estrus occurs 1 ram= 30 ewes (synchronized using progesterone tampons (14 days then remove)

70 Pregnancy toxemia in ewes and does When a pregnant ewe takes ill, a likely cause is pregnancy toxemia. Pregnancy toxemia goes by several other names including pregnancy disease, twin lamb disease, lambing paralysis, and ketosis. Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disorder caused by low glucose concentrations in the blood and excessive breakdown of body fat to compensate. "Ketones" are the toxic by-product produced during this rapid breakdown of fat, and it is possible to test for their presence in the ewe's urine. Inadequate nutrition during the last one-third of pregnancy is the primary cause of low blood sugar/pregnancy toxemia, as ewes cannot consume enough feed (energy) to meet the demands of their growing fetus(es).

71 Pregnancy toxemia in ewes and does Successful treatment of pregnancy toxemia requires early detection and steps to quickly meet the energy (glucose) needs of the affected ewe. The most common treatment is to drench ewes with 2 to 3 ounces of propylene glycol 2 to 3 times daily. Yogurt mixed with water will also provide energy and bacteria to stimulate the rumen. Intravenous glucose is another possibility, but harder for producers to do on the farm.

72 Porcine reproduction-population Breeding Originally were seasonally polyestrous

73 Gilts mature at 5-8 month of age ( lbs) Hastens puberty if they visit the boar each day at 150 days -Estrus- 2.5 day -Estrous cycle- 21 days -Stands for mounting which Can be tested by hand -Pressure on their back or Riding them -Estrus occurs 5days after Weaning and is fertile _Batch breeding of sow all Weaned at the same time- Gestation- 3mo, 3wks,3days (115 days)

74 Boars can’t smell females in EStrus Females respond to Saliva of Boars champing which contains pheromones Boar ejaculation min mls 1 st fraction-clear prostatic fluid 2 nd fraction- sperm rich 3 rd fraction- thick gel from bulbourethral gland

75 Estrus Synchronization in Animals Cattle - cycle 21 days practised most often in dairy cattle- batch breeding in pigs- shorten the Calving interval in for beef cattle can be shortened. 2/3 of cows will be in diestrus PGf 2alpha lyses CL only works in Diestrus (Estrumate), can repeat in 11 days Sheep- Cycle days Estrumate as in cows or use Veramix progesterone sponges- prevents Ovulation and no new cycles can begin. CL present will mature and be eliminated Goats- Cycle 21 days- Estrumate Horses- Cycle 21 days- Lutalyse Sow - Cycle 21 days Estrumate has no effect until 12 days post partum and they cycle 2-5 days post weaning- use wean- as the synchronization method.

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77 Disturbances of Estrus in Large animals cow- Retained C.L. and pyometra- anestrus after parturition (15-60 days) C.L. normally dies at 17 days pp. Cervix is open and uterine manipulation reveals large amount of purulent material from vagina Ttt – Estrumate kills C.L.

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79 Pyometra bovine

80 Follicular cysts cattle Enlarged follicular structure greater than 25 mm persisting for 10 days or more in the absence of a corpus luteum. Follicular cysts are thin walled, fluid filled, and anovulatory. These cows can have anestrus type behavior or have nymphomania behavior (always standing to – be mounted). The uterus is – generally flaccid, and they – may have a constant clear – discharge from the vulva. – Most of the time there are – multiple follicular cysts. – Progesterone concentrations are low.

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83 Relative size of C.L. and Follicular cyst

84 Follicular cysts- horses Most common reason for anestrus during the breeding season Purulent material does not accumulate because the cervix is NOT partially open like in the cow Treat with Lutalyse (Estrumate is not for horses)

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87 Corpus luteal cysts - cattle

88 Canine Reproductive patterns Onset of Puberty- great variation Silent heat- no outward signs of estrus Ideal breeding age: after 2 year of age After genetic screening for defects Estrus- every 7 mo. ( Shepherds every mo) - once per year- Basenji ology-5361/the_normal_canine.htm ology-5361/the_normal_canine.htm

89 Non-cornified epithelial cells in vagina Non-cornified Parabasal cells have a large stippled nucleus and a rounded cytoplasm The nucleus is large compared to the cytoplasm.

90 Non-Cornified epithelial cells of the vagina Intermediate cells have a have a stippled nucleus and more cytoplasm than parabasal cells. The cytoplasm may even become angular.

91 Cornified epithelial cells of the vagina Superficial cells have a pyknotic nucleus and angular cytoplasm. There is no stipling in the nucleus.

92 Cornified epithelial cells of the vagina Anuclear cells have no visible nucleus and angular cytoplasm.

93 Interestrus Interestrus consists of diestrus (60 days) plus anestrus (a variable time). Average duration is 7 months. G. Shepherd dogs average about 6.5 months interestrus. Dachshunds average about 8.3 months interestrus. Basenjis average about 12 months interestrus. Therefore, larger dogs tend to have shorter interestrus intervals than small dogs (contrary to popular opinion) The variation of the interestrus interval within a bitch was actually found to be greater than that between bitches in a research study done by Dr. Guy Bouchard. Interestrus tends to become longer as bitches are greater than 8 yrs

94 Anestrus Anestrus is not the same as interestrus. Anestrus is a variable time after diestrus. Interestrus (diestrus + anestrus) averages months. Anestrus lasts days (anestrus does not include diestrus). Anestrus is a time of mandatory endometrial repair that has been documented in Beagles The endometrium is being 'repaired' after the progesterone effects during diestrus for the preceding 60 days

95 Anestrus Intermediate and parabasal cells predominate in smears taken during anestrus. Superficial cells are absent or found in very small numbers. Neutrophils may also be present or absent.

96 Anestrus Progesterone is at baseline concentrations (<1 ng/ml). Even spayed bitches run basal levels of progesterone. This baseline progesterone is probably of adrenal origin. Prolactin secretion by the pituitary may promote anestrus, because prolactin inhibitors can be used to terminate anestrus (i.e. induce estrus).

97 Proestrus Serum concentrations of estrogen rise during proestrus, leading to capillary breakage and leakage of red blood cells through uterine epithelium, as well as proliferation of the vaginal epithelium. Examination of vaginal smears from early to late proestrus will reveal a gradual shift from intermediate and parabasal cells to superficial cells. Typically, red blood cells are present in large numbers and neutrophils are commonly observed. Large numbers of bacteria are also often present.

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99 proestrus In some bitches, proestrus can persist for two to three weeks. In such cases, prolonged lack of receptivity may suggest the need to artificially inseminate or force-breed the animal. Examining vaginal smears in such cases will alleviate such concerns - certainly, if more than a very small percentage of cells are parabasals and small intermediates, breeding is a waste of time.

100 Estrus The defining characteristic of cytologic estrus is the predominance of superficial cells. Most, but not all, bitches will undergo full cornification, and the smear will reveal a monotonous pattern composed almost exclusively of anucleate superficial cells.

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103 Estrus

104 If the bitch has been bred within a day of preparing a vaginal smear, it is quite likely that sperm will be observed among the epithelial cells. Indeed, careful examination for sperm in a smear taken within a few hours of an alleged breeding is a fairly reliable means of confirming or denying such an incident.

105 In the image below, an intact sperm (left panel) and a sperm head (right panel) are present next to superficial cells.

106 Diestrus The onset of diestrus is marked by a precipitous decline in the number of superficial cells and reappearance of intermediate and parabasal cells. Most commonly, the cellular profile changes within a single day from essentially 100% superficial cells to less than 20% superficial cells. However, it is best to confirm the onset of diestrus by examining a smear prepared on diestrus day 2.

107 Diestrus The significance of identifying the onset of diestrus is that it is a considerably more accurate predictor of the time of ovulation, and hence gestation length, than sexual behavior.

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111 Dogs ovulate 5-7 days prior to the onset of diestrus (7-9 days after the preovulatory LH surge), and hence, gestation length is usually day from the onset of diestrus day. The period of behavioral estrus is variable, and often extends up to several days before and/or after cytologic estrus. Gestation lengths calculated from the onset or cessation of receptivity are correspondingly inaccurate. The onset of diestrus also correlates well with loss of fertility, and breedings after the diestrus shift are rarely fertile.

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113 Normally, LH is present in the bitch's blood in very small amounts. Just prior to ovulation there is a significant increase in the serum LH value. LH will then return to the baseline level within a 24- hour time period. It is this surge of LH that triggers ovulation and therefore determines the fertile period of the bitch. The LH surge may occur any time from 3-28 days after the first signs of heat (swelling of and bleeding from the vulva). The average is 8-12 days. Ovulation will occur approximately 2 days after the LH surge. The eggs will require an additional 2-3 days to mature so that fertilization may take place. The eggs are viable from 48 to 72 hours after maturity. Therefore the fertile period of the bitch averages 4-7 days or 5-6 days after the LH surge.

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116 When do you progesterone test?

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121 Typical morphological features of the vaginal mucosa and endometrium in anestrus (A), proestrus (P), estrus (E), and early diestrus (D). H&E. Original magnification 200X.

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123 · Nipples Nipples on Pregnant dog Frequently the first change noticed in a pregnant dog is in the breast. Before pregnancy takes place, a dog goes through a cycle called Estrus. This is the period of time in which a dog can conceive. If the female becomes pregnant hormones cause the breast to enlarge. More specifically, the nipples become swollen soon after the pregnancy occurs. These growth and swelling changes will continue throughout the pregnancy in preparation of feeding the puppies when they arrive.

124 Appetite Feed More Often Many dogs lose their appetite during very early pregnancy. They may eat less or sometimes not at all. After approximately 2 weeks their hunger comes back to the point that the dog may seem to want to eat all the time. Their bodies are using the food at a much faster rate to support themselves and however many puppies that are developing. Dogs should be fed almost double the amount of their usual food before pregnancy

125 Morning Sickness Sick Dog Like humans, pregnant dogs can suffer from morning sickness early in the pregnancy. Some dogs won't experience it at all and others will vomit intermittently. It rarely lasts longer than 2 weeks or causes problems as long as the dog does not become dehydrated from vomiting.

126 Stomach Pregnant Stomach Besides the nipple changes, a pregnant dog will experience other changes in the stomach as the puppies grow. The stomach becomes visibly extended mid-pregnancy. As the process continues the puppy's movements can be seen under the belly. The mother gains body weight as well as the weight of the puppies and placenta. A very pregnant dog with a large litter will look like she's about to pop. Dogs with short legs may actually have trouble walking during the last week or so of pregnancy.

127 Nesting As the pregnancy draws to a close the dog will start seeking a place to give birth away from everything else. This is called nesting. They may start crunching rugs together with their paws or start resting in a particular corner that's out of the way. Some dogs may choose something familiar that represents security to them, like your bed. For that reason, it is best to arrange an out of the way place for her with an old blanket, familiar toys and extra food and water bowls. Doing this early in the pregnancy helps the dog become familiar enough with that spot so she will feel safe giving birth there.toys

128 Behavioral One sign of pregnancy, through the pregnancy and birth, are behavioral changes. A friendly dog may suddenly exhibit a need to stay away from people, even those she knows. On the other hand, a dog that has never been that friendly may suddenly love to be petted and be playful. While giving birth, some dogs will want to be left alone and some will need a reassuring voice or hand. It all depends on the dog. Be aware that dogs and animals in general are very protective of their young, so the new mother should be allowed to get to know her new family without anyone handling the puppies or making unnecessary visits until they are older.animalsfamily

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131 Diestrus Intermediate cells and a few neutrophils Sheets of cells are often Seen on the first day of Diestrus

132 Nucleated and anucleated superficial vaginal cells

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134 Feline reproductive cycle

135 Domestic cat reproductive cycle 2-4 estrous periods every year, each lasting days. If she is bred, estrus seldom lasts more than 4 days. If successful mating does not occur, a heat cycle may last for 7-10 days and recur at day intervals. It is possible for an unmated female to cycle every 3-4 weeks indefinitely. Cats also have an estrous period 1-6 weeks after giving birth, so a female may be nursing one litter while pregnant with another.

136 Domestic cat Estrous Cycle Females will not ovulate unless her cervix is stimulated by copulation or by artificial means(moist Q-tip) Rabbits, ferrets are the same If not stimulation in heat 10 days, follicles regress, then again in 10 days Estus 3-40 hrs post ovulation, metestrus 2 days, then diestrus 30 to 50 days.

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138 start howling and this can go on for several minutes at a time. Some females can even spray urine in the same manner that is usually associated with tomcats - lifting the tail and squirting urine on a vertical surface. The female cat may adopt postures suggestive of a desire to mate - tail raised, rear end held high

139 Seasonally polyestrous- induced by lengthening daylight Inducted ovulators- gestation days

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141 queens kept under a minimum of 10 hours (12 to 14 hours is better) of artificial light per day may cycle all year round. Cats kept in eight hours of daylight (and 16 hours of dark) will virtually stop cycling queens are described as induced ovulators

142 Reproduction and life cycle Female margays are in estrus for four to ten days overestrus a cycle of 32 to 36 days, during which they attract males with a long, moaning call. The male responds by yelping or making trilling sounds, and also by rapidly shaking his head from side to side, a behavior not seen in any other cat species. Copulation lasts up to sixty seconds, and is similar to that in domestic cats; it takes place primarily in the trees, and occurs several times while the female is in heat. [4]domestic cats [4] Gestation lasts about 80 days, and results in the birth of only a single kitten (or, very rarely, two), usually between March and June. The kittens weigh 85 to 170 grams (3.0 to 6.0 oz) at birth. This is relatively large for a small cat, and is probably related to the long gestation period. The kittens open their eyes at around two weeks of age, and begin to take solid food at seven to eight weeks. [4] [4] Margay

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144 Gamete Transport Fertilization depends upon the two gametes bumping into one another. In species with internal fertilization, which includes all mammals and birds, both sperm and egg must be transported into the oviduct, which serves as the site of fertilization. Sperm survive up to 6 days in the uterine horn Sperm survive up to 6 days in the uterine horn

145 Placentation in Dogs and Cats Dogs and cats are well-known members of the group of species that have zonary placentae. Other examples of animals with this type of placentation include mustelids (ferrets, skunks), bears, seals and elephants

146 Implantation transuterine migration transuterine migration Dogs and cats are litterbearing species, and prior to fixation and implantation, the blastocysts become evenly spaced throughout the uterine horns. In both species, there appears to be efficient transuterine migrationtransuterine migration Gestation days Gestation days

147 In dogs, implantation occurs roughly 18 to 20 days after the preovulatory LH surge (about diestrus day 8 to 10). In cats, implantation has been reported to occur 12 to 14 days after mating.

148 Gross Structure of the Placenta The zonary placenta takes the form of a band that encircles the fetus. In dogs and cats, it is complete, while in species like ferrets and raccoons, it is incomplete (i.e. two half bands).

149 Cats typically have 3 to 8 fetuses. It is not unusual for one or more to die in utero and the others survive to be born. This image shows the end of one uterine horn. The zonary placentae of two fetuses are clearly visible through the uterine wall.

150 Dissecting the uterus away from the conceptuses reveals the chorioallantois as an ovoid structure modified circumferentially to form the zonary placenta.

151 In this image, the chorioallantois has been dissected away to show the fetus, encased in its amnion

152 When the placenta is opened up, its rich vasculature and the umbilical vessels of the fetus are evident. (Note: the amniotic fluid is crystal clear, but looks dark due to the background.)

153 The canine placenta looks very similar to that of cats. A feature usually seen in the placentae of both species is marginal hematomas (hematophagus zones). These are bands of maternal hemorrhage at the margins of the zonary placenta. The products of hemoglobin breakdown give them a distinctly green coloration in dogs, whereas in cats they are brownish and usually less obvious

154 Microscopic Structure of the Placenta Dogs and cats have an endotheliochorial type of placenta. In this type of placenta, the endometrial epithelium under the placenta does not survive implantation, and fetal chorionic epithelial cells come to be in contact with maternal endothelial cellstype of placenta syncytium surrounding the central third of the chorioallantois proliferate to form a syncytium

155 erodes through the endometrial epithelium and flows around maternal capillaries. Initially, the invading fetal cells are in the form of villi

156 Placental Endocrinology significant gaps remain in our understanding of the source of these hormones, that is, precisely what contribution is made the the corpora lutea versus the fetoplacental unit. corpora lutea appear to be the exclusive source of progesterone in the bitch. Luteal secretion of progesterone is, in turn, dependent on secretion of luteinizing hormone and probably prolactin from the anterior pituitary.luteinizing hormoneprolactin

157 cats Maintenance of Pregnancy in cats elevation of progesterone in pregnancy reflects placental synthesis or enhanced luteal synthesis. Apparently, the ovaries can be removed after about day 45 in cats without interupting the pregnancy, which might suggest that the placenta can indeed synthesize progesterone.

158 Both dogs and cats produce the hormone relaxin during pregnancy. In pregnant bitches, relaxin is first detected in serum about 4 weeks into gestation, and increases substantially during the remainder of gestation. The placenta is known to be the primary site of secretion of relaxin in dog

159 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development The union of two haploid gametes the one-cell embryo rapidly cleaves into 2, 4, 8 and more develop a discrete inside and an outside start to secrete hormones that ensure their survival - a process called maternal recognition of pregnancy

160 sperm must overcome a series of barriers, each of which eliminates a substantial proportion of the original population of sperm The cervix connects the vagina to the uterus. The cervical canal follows an irregular, tortuous route, and the epithelium contains many deep crypts mucus mucus endowed with mucus-secreting cells, and, as a consequence, the lumen is filled with mucusmucus

161 mucus The consistency and viscosity of cervical mucus is under endocrine control When estrogen levels are high and progesterone levels low, as occurs prior to ovulation, cervical mucus becomes watery and its mucin strands assume a parallel orientation. This state apparently greatly facilitates passage of sperm through the cervical canal

162 Studies in several species have shown that sperm are able to get from the distal uterus to the oviducts in times as short as a few minutes while eggs remain for three days sperm transport in the uterus is largely a result of uterine contractions In other cases, sperm can remain viable in the uterus for several days

163 The uterotubal junction The uterotubal junction is the region joining the tip of the uterine horn to the oviduct. The morphology of this region varies considerably among species, and and this structure appears to be a significant barrier to sperm especially in animals like rodents and pigs where huge numbers of sperm are deposited directly in the lumen of the uterus.

164 Egg Transport The oviduct provides the appropriate environment not only for fertilization, but for early embryonic development The embryo remain there for a period of about three days The highest probability of becoming pregnant was seen when breeding occurred during the two days preceeding

165 Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation The product of fertilization is a one-cell embryo with a diploid complement of chromosomes blastocyst formation of a hollow sphere of cells known as a blastocyst the embryo moves out of the oviduct, into the lumen of the uterus.

166 Unfertilized oocytes four cell embryo is shown here. The cells in cleavage stage embryos are known as blastomeres signals formation of the blastocyst the blastocyst then undergoes implantation in the uterine wall implantation in the uterine wall implantation

167 Implantation= Nidation Embryo wanders freely before nidation

168 trophoblast, the image to the left shows an expanded blastocyst from a dog. This embryo was stained to accentuate the trophoblast and inner cell mass.

169 Trophoblast

170 Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy it is a process in which some type of signal prevents luteal regression, allowing the corpus luteum to persist and continue to secrete progesterone. This concept can be illustrated by looking at blood progesterone concentrations over time in a cycling sheep that becomes pregnant.

171 Early Embryonic Death 10% EED in mares 15-30% EED in cattle and sows Occurs in the first 30 days Clients see it as a “return to heat” assuming that that female did not conceive Genetic abnormalities account for a majority of EED

172 Although the end result is the same, several different mechanisms for maternal recognition of pregnancy have evolved in different groups of mammals. Some of this diversity can be appreciated by looking at humans, cows and dogs chorionic gonadotropin luteinizing hormone Blastocysts of humans and other primates secrete large quantities of a protein hormone called chorionic gonadotropin (CG), which is very similar to luteinizing hormone. CG binds to luteinizing hormone receptors in the corpus luteum and stimulates continued secretion of progesterone. It may also block signals in the corpus luteum that cause luteal regression. luteinizing hormone Blastocystsluteinizing hormone

173 In cattle and other ruminants, the corpus luteum regresses at the end of the non-pregnant cycle as a result of secretion by the endometrium of prostaglandin F 2- alpha (PGF). The early ruminant embryo secretes copious quantities of a protein called interferon tau. Exposure of the endometrium to this hormone dampens the secretion of PGF, thereby blocking the signal for luteolysis. As a result, the corpus luteum survives and progesterone levels are maintained.ruminants

174 Dogs do not have multiple, sequential cycles like women or cows. Rather, they have a single cycle roughly every 4 to 6 months. Following ovulation, the pattern of progesterone secretion is essentially the same regardless of whether the bitch is pregnant or not. Consequently, dogs do not have a need for maternal recognition of pregnancy and apparently no mechanism for this process. Last updated on December 16, 2000 Author: R. Bowen Colorado State University Colorado State University

175 Adhesion/ attachment adhesion or attachment. Nidation occurs at 7 days Implantation is the first stage in development of the placenta. In most cases, implantation is preceeded by a close interaction of embryonic trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells that is known as adhesion or attachment. Nidation occurs at 7 days attachment involves a tight intertwining of microvilli on the maternal and embryonic cells. Following attachment, the blastocyst is no longer easily flushed from the lumen of the uterus. In species that carry multiple offspring, attachment is preceeded by a remarkably even spacing of embryos through the uterus

176 effect of implantation in all cases is to obtain very close apposition between embryonic and maternal tissues however, substantial differences among species in the process of implantation, particularly with regard to "invasiveness," or how much the embryo erodes into maternal tissue

177 implantation in humans involves the embryo eroding deeply into the substance of the uterus Horses and Pigs have a similar attachment

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180 Centric: the embryo expands to a large size before implantation, then remains in the center of the uterus. Examples include carnivores, ruminants, horses, and pigs Eccentric: The blastocyst is small and implants within the endometrium on the side of the uterus Examples include rats and mice. Interstitial: The blastocyst is small and erodes through endometrial epithelium into subepithelial connective tissue. Examples include primates, including humans, and guinea pigs.

181 In some species Estrogen and Progesterone are required for Implanation, species having highly invasive embryos have systems for prenatal transfer of antibodies from the mother to the fetus.

182 Monotremes and marsupials In some species, progesterone alone appears to be adequate, while in others, estrogen and progesterone are required for implantation. All mammals except monotremes and marsupials which unlike monotremes are born only about one month after mating. They emerge from the womb no larger than the size of a cherry and immediately climb into the mother's pouch to nurse

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184 Echidna Platypus Opossum Kangaroo Kangaroo

185 Placental Structure and Classification The gross shape of the placenta and the distribution of contact sites between fetal membranes and endometrium. The number of layers of tissue between maternal and fetal vascular systems.

186 Diffuse: Almost the entire surface of the allantochorion is involved in formation of the placenta. Seen in horses and pigs.horsespigs ruminantsruminants. Cotyledonary: Multiple, discrete areas of attachment called cotyledons are formed by interaction of patches of allantochorion with endometrium. The fetal portions of this type of placenta are called cotyledons, the maternal contact sites (caruncles), and the cotyledon-caruncle complex a placentome. This type of placentation is observed in ruminants. ruminants

187 Discoid: A single placenta is formed and is discoid in shape. Seen in primates and rodents.primates rodents Zonary: The placenta takes the form of a complete or incomplete band of tissue surrounding the fetus. Seen in carnivores like dogs and cats, seals, bears and elephants dogs and cats

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192 Summary of Species Differences in Placental Architecture Type of Placenta Diffuse, epitheliochorial Cotyledonary, epitheliochorial Zonary, endotheliochorial Discoid, hemochorial Common Examples Horses and pigs Ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, deer) Carnivores (dog, cat, ferret) Humans, apes, monkeys and rodents

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194 Equine pregnancy and associated hormones

195 endometrial cup cells. Beginning on days 36 to 38 of gestation, blastocyst cells begin to destroy underlying endometrium. In this process they denude surface endometrial epithelial cells and migrate down into endometrial glands, eventually breaking through the basement membrane and invading into the underlying tissue. Within 2 to 3 days after entering the uterine tissue, they round up and differentiate into mature eCG-secreting endometrial cup cells.

196 Endometrial cups At about days, fetal tissue along the chorionic girdle begin to invade the endometrium and form the endometrial cups. Endometrial cups secrete eCG...Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (formerly PMSG...Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin). This acts to luteinize the normal follicular waves that are occurring and results in formation of the secondary corpora lutea. The cups remain, even if the pregnancy is lost, and are then sloughed at the normal time (120 days).

197 Equine endometrial cups The images below show endometrial cups (EC) at three stages of gestation. In the rightmost image, umbilical vessels are seen at the bottom.

198 This response is initially seen as A. accumulation of T lymphocytes at the periphery of the cups, and progresses to a massive accumulation of T cells, B cells, macrophages surrounding the cups. B. After day 70 to 80, these leukocytes begin to invade / destroy the cup (the time of this event varies significantly among mares, but usually occurs between days 100 and 140).

199 It turns out that eCG is actually equine luteinizing hormone, and is encoded by the same gene responsible for pituitary LH. In contrast to LH from most other species, equine LH/eCG possesses considerable follicle stimulating hormone-like bioactivity.pituitary LH

200 Hormones from the Equine Placenta The high blood levels of eCG during this time stimulate development of ovarian follicles. These follicles ovulate or luteinize, resulting in development of so-called secondary and accessory corpora lutea. In concert with the primary corpus luteum, these structures secrete sufficient progesterone to maintain pregnancy until placental progerone synthesis is adequate.

201 Hormones produced by the Equine Placenta Progestins: The equine placenta maintains pregnancy. Toward the end of gestation, blood levels of these progestins are typically 100 times the maximal level of progesterone. The placenta maintains pregnancy without any ovarian input of hormones

202 Hormones from the Equine placenta Estrogens: In has been known for many decades that mare urine contains high concentrations of estrogens during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Indeed, a large industry has developed for collection of pregnant mare urine, which is used to produce Premarin, an estrogen replacement therapy used widely by post-menopausal women.

203 Estrogen levels in the serum and urine of pregnant mares begins to rise around day 60 of gestation, peaks at about day 200 then declines during the remainder of gestation. Estrogens are synthesized in the equine placenta from androgens that are produced by the fetal gonads.

204 Hormones from the Equine Placenta Relaxin: a hormone that, in various species, is thought to act synergistically with progesterone to maintain pregnancy and to promote loosening of pelvic ligaments at the time of parturition. In horses, relaxin appears to be produced by the fetoplacental unit rather than the corpus luteum. It is detected in mare serum starting at about day 80 of pregnancy, and remains at high levels until term

205 enology-5361/equine%20pregnancy_2.htm enology-5361/equine%20pregnancy_2.htm Reproduction in equine

206 Secondary CLs The secondary CLs result in progesterone rise about day The endometrial cups regress (they are sloughed from the uterus by an immunologic response). ovulatory or anovulatory follicles produce C.L.,s

207 The second rise is associated with the formation of accessory and secondary CL. Progesterones rise from mid gestation to term. The fetal placenta produces sufficient progesterone, that ovariectomy can be performed after d progestins rises (last month of pregnancy) From fetal adrenal glands

208 The Early Embryo At about 24 hours post ovulation the embyro is at 2 cell stage 4-5 days forming a hollow ball 5-6 days blastocyst 5-6 days enters uterus Capsule forms around the blastocyst – Protective covering – Origin not clearly known - may be embryonic, may have endometrial contribution – Lost at 21 days

209 Embryo development of neurotube

210 yo+development&qpvt=embryo+development &mid=CAEFBE0D58A9FA7D9B84CAEFBE0D58 A9FA7D9B84&F yo+development&qpvt=embryo+development &mid=CAEFBE0D58A9FA7D9B84CAEFBE0D58 A9FA7D9B84&F ORM=LKVR6#mon Chicken embryo dev GaLQ GaLQ Embryo development

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215 Fetal Circulation and umbilicus


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