2 ______________________An individual’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors [persisting over time and across situations]Agreeable, OpenIntrovertedNaïveSensitive, ReactiveContentedly lethargicConscientiousNeurotically irritable
4 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality Bringing out the Unconscious Part of Your PersonalityFreud and the Psychoanalytic on:Personality Structure: id, ego, superegoPersonality Development: Psychosexual Stages__________________________Assessing Unconscious Processes: Projective TestsFreud Video- Biography Clip 1Click to reveal bullets.Sigmund Freud
5 Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theories These theories of human personality focus on the inner forces that interact to make us who we are.In this view: behavior, as well as human emotions and personality, develop in a dynamic (interacting, changing) interplay between conscious and unconscious processes, including various motives and inner conflicts.
6 Freud’s Path to Developing Psychonalysis Sigmund Freud started his career as a physician.He decided to explore how mental and physical symptoms could be caused by purely psychological factors.He became aware that many powerful mental processes operate in the unconscious, without our awareness.His name for his theory and his therapeutic technique: psychoanalysis.
7 Freud’s Personality/Mind Iceberg The mind is mostly below the surface of conscious awarenessPersonality develops from the efforts of our ego, our rational self, to resolve tension between our id, based in biological drives, and the superego, society’s rules and constraints.Click to reveal bullets.________________, in Freud’s view: A reservoir of thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, that are hidden from awareness because they feel unacceptable.
8 The Developing Personality We start life with a personality made up of the id, striving impulsively to meet basic needs, living by “the pleasure principle.”In a toddler, an ego develops, a self that has thoughts, judgments, and memories following a “reality principle”Around age 4 or 5, the child develops the superego, a conscience inter-nalized from parents and society, following a “morality principle.”Click to reveal three stages.The ego works as the “executive” of this three-part system, to manage bodily needs and wishes in a socially acceptable way.
9 Freud’s Theory of ________________ The id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones, sensitive areas of the body.People feel shame about these needs and can get fixated at one stage, never resolve how to manage the needs of that zone’s needs.
10 Defending Against Anxiety Freud believed that we are anxious about our unacceptable wishes and impulses, and we repress this anxiety with the help of the strategies below.No animation.
11 The Psychodynamic Theorists CarlJungAlfredAdlerKarenHorneyHighlighted universal themes in the unconscious as a source of creativity and insight. Found opportunities for personal growth by finding meaning in moments of coincidence.Focused on the fight against feelings of inferiority as a theme at the core of personality, although he may have been projecting from his own experience.Click to reveal description of each.Criticized the Freudian portrayal of women as weak and subordinate to men.She highlighted the need to feel secure in relationships.
12 Assessing the Unconscious: Psychodynamic Personality Assessment Freud tried to get unconscious themes to be projected into the conscious world through free association and dream analysis._______________________are a structured, systematic exposure to a standardized set of ambiguous prompts, designed to reveal inner dynamics.Rorschach test: “what do you see in these inkblots?”Problem: Results don’t link well to traits (low validity) and different raters get different results (low reliability).Click to reveal bullets.
15 Freud’s LegacyFreud benefitted psychology, giving us ideas about: the impact of childhood on adulthood, human irrationality, sexuality, evil, defenses, anxiety, and the tension between our biological selves and our socialized/civilized selves.Freud gave us specific concepts we still use often, such as ego, projection, regression, rationalization, dream interpretation, inferiority “complex,” oral fixation, sibling rivalry, and Freudian slips.Click to reveal bullets.Not bad for someone writing over 100 years ago with no technology for seeing inside the brain.
16 ___________________of Personality Abraham MaslowCarl RogersIn the 1960’s, some psychologists began to reject:the dehumanizing ideas in Behaviorism, andthe dysfunctional view of people in Psychodynamic thought.Maslow and Rogers sought to offer a “third force” in psychology: The Humanistic Perspective.They studied healthy people rather than people with mental health problems.Humanism: focusing on the conditions that support healthy personal growth.Click to reveal bullets.
17 Maslow: The Self-Actualizing Person In Maslow’s view, people are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs, growing beyond getting basic needs met.At the top of this hierarchy are self-actualization, fulfilling one’s potential, and self-transcendence..Click to reveal bullets.
18 Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective Rogers agreed that people have natural tendencies to grow, become healthy, and move toward self-actualization._______________Being honest, direct, not using a façadeCarl RogersAcceptance, a.k.a Unconditional Positive Regard: acknowledging feelings without passing judgment;__________________: tuning into the feelings of others, showing your efforts to understand, listening well
19 Assessing the Self in Humanistic Psychology: Ideal Self vs. Actual Self In the humanistic perspective, the core of personality is the self-concept, our sense of our nature and identity.People are happiest with a self-concept that matches their ideal self.Thus, it is important to ask people to describe themselves as they are and as they ideally would like to be.Click to reveal bullets.
20 Critiquing the Humanist Perspective What about evil? Some say Rogers did not appreciate the human capacity for evil.Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait:
21 ______________________of Personality Trait: An enduring quality that makes a person tend to act a certain way.Examples: “honest.” “shy.” “hard-working.”MBTI traits come in pairs: “Judging” vs. “Perceiving.” “Thinking” vs. “Feeling.”Gordon Allport decided that Freud overvalued unconscious motives and undervalued our real, observable personality styles/traits.Myers and Briggs wanted to study individual behaviorsThe Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Trait theory of personality: That we are made up of a collection of traits, behavioral predispositions that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person
22 ___________________and the Eysencks’ Personality Dimensions Factor Analysis: Identifying factors that tend to cluster together.Using factor analysis, Hans and Sybil Eysenck found that many personality traits actually are a function of two basic dimensions along which we all vary.Research supports their idea that these variations are linked to genetics.Click to reveal bullets.
23 Assessing Traits: Questionnaires __________________________Questionnaire assessing many personality traits, by asking which behaviors and responses the person would chooseEmpirically derived test: all test items have been selected to because they predictably match the qualities being assessed.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): Designed to identify people with personality difficultiesClick to reveal bullets.
24 The “_________” Personality Factors Conscientiousness: self-discipline, careful pursuit of delayed goalsAgreeableness: helpful, trusting, friendlinessNeuroticism: anxiety, insecurity, emotional instabilityOpenness: flexibility, nonconformity, varietyExtraversion: Drawing energy from others, sociability
25 The “Big Five”/ C.A.N.O.E. Personality Dimensions Online Tool