6 Mind-Body Problem 1.Dualism: Dualists believe that mind (non- physical) and body (physical) are two distinct entities that interact. Hippocrates 2.Monism: Monists believe that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing. Aristotle Near-death experiences raise the mind-body issue. Can the mind survive the dying body?
HISTORICAL ORIGINS -Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -Origin of the Species introduces theories of natural selection and evolution - his ideas will give rise to the evolutionary approach to psychology
PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS BORN Wilhelm Wundt’s –credited as the father of scientific psychology - uses methods of introspection to explore the human mind Mind combines subjective emotions with objective sensations Titchner- school of Structuralism
Where did they go wrong? Introspection proved an unreliable standard Subjects’ self-reports may be inaccurate Subjective method of observation Confounding factors
Titchner’s Structuralism -“There is one thing, and only one thing in the whole universe which we know more about than we could learn from external observation.”
Behavioral Approach John B Watson (late 1800’s) founder of Behaviorism Believes any behavior can be shaped and controlled “Nurture”- we are born a blank slate Rejects study of consciousness Skinner and Pavlov- behaviorists
Behavioral Approach Early Behaviorism – view that psychology should 1) be an objective science 2) study behavior without reference to mental processes
Biological Approach Psychobiology- assumes mind and body are interrelated Sociobiological/Evolutionary- Influenced by Darwin Influenced by Evolutionary Theory
Cognitive Approach Receiving, storing, and processing information Serial and Paralleling Processing
Cognitive Approach Natural Science Serial Processing- step-by-step processing of information Parallel Processing- many stimuli processed simultaneously http://viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/flashmovie/1 5.php
Sociocultural Approach Focuses on human activity in a social context LS Vygotsky- consciousness is the end product of socialization
Humanist Approach Emphasizes the potential for individual growth and self-awareness Carl Rogers- focuses ones self-concept, or how a person defines their own reality -Mazlow- Self-concept is a strive for self-actualization
ProsCons InexpensiveConfounding variables Few ethical considerations Illusory correlation TimeDoes not ObjectiveI mply causation
Illusory Correlation When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief
Research Methods DescriptiveCorrelationalExperimental Explains behavior using natural observations assess the association between two or more characteristics of interest Researcher manipulates one variable and observes the effect on another variable 1) Case studies 2) Naturalistic 3) Surveys 1) Causation 2) Illusory correlation 3) Correlational Coefficient Experimental Design Confounding Variables, double- blind
Experimental Method Researcher manipulates one variable (independent variable) and observes the effect on another variable (dependent variable)
Confounding variable : external differences between the experimental group and the control group
How can we control for confounding variables? 1) Random Assignment method of assigning subjects to groups to minimize pre-existing differences between those groups This is an example of Between subjects design : Participants in the experimental and control group are different individuals
How can be control for confounding variables? 2) Within subjects design Technique where subjects serve as control and experimental group.
Confounding Variables Experimenter bias- researcher’s expectations about the outcome of a study influence the results Q: How can we eliminate experimenter bias?
What is the difference between double blind and single blind procedure? Double blind procedure- research design in which neither the experimenter or the participants know who is in the experimental versus control group Single-blind procedure- research design in the participants do not know who is in the experimental or control group
Operational definition- Operational definition- way of defining a variable objectively Operational definition for intelligence- SAT score? Operational definition for fitness- heart rate
How do psychologists present data? Frequency Distributions
Statistics Statistical significance (p) is the likelihood that the observed difference between groups results from a real difference rather than chance alone What’s a good p value?