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Psychology Chapter 2 & 6.  Consciousness is awareness, experiencing reality, your normal walking state  Unconscious: The memories and feelings that.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology Chapter 2 & 6.  Consciousness is awareness, experiencing reality, your normal walking state  Unconscious: The memories and feelings that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology Chapter 2 & 6

2  Consciousness is awareness, experiencing reality, your normal walking state  Unconscious: The memories and feelings that are stored in your brain that you are not aware of, but still effect your thoughts and behaviors  Altered states of consciousness (ASCs) reached through dreams, hypnosis, or drugs  Create a world where senses and perceptions are no longer restricted by reality  Dream research: Electroencephalograph (EEG) records brain wave patterns

3  Do past lives exist? Can we connect to them through our dreams?  Do you have any irrational and unexplained phobias?  YRUSGU YRUSGU  g g  feature=relmfu feature=relmfu


5  Body shuts down various functions, less sensitive to stimuli  REM sleep (rapid eye movement): stage I where most dreaming occurs, closest to consciousness  75% of time spent in deep sleep (stages II,III,IV)  Cycles about every 90 minutes  Everyone dreams: they occupy 18-33% of sleep time

6  Essential to your physical and mental well-being  Allows body/brain to repair cells, sort and store memories, waste cleared out, restore nerve systems, and process info learned during the day  Allows unconscious an outlet so that it doesn’t affect waking hours in form of hallucinations  Some believe these are the only functions, others believe interpretations allow for insights into your life and issues

7  Stories your brain makes up, based on things you have seen/experienced, everyday life  Hormone levels change like experiencing actual waking emotion, but muscles turned off  Dreams more often about anxiety or anger, something that needs to be processed and dealt with in your life  Dream meaning: Interpretation through symbols

8  Manifest Content: what happens in the dream  Latent Content: the meaning behind what happens in the dream  Falling: Fall from grace, fall out of favor or out of touch, failing  Flying: Success and freedom or escaping something  Nudity: Usually in public, means anxiety  Exams: feeling unprepared, test in life  Losing money: warning about valuables or suggestion of other type of loss  Finding money: Go ahead with plan/purchase, or reminder that you are a person of value

9  Lucid Dreaming: You are aware you are dreaming and take control of the content of the dream  Sleep talking: During transitions between sleep cycles, vocalizing dreams  Sleep Walking: Caused by illness, stress, emotional issues or sleep deprivation  Not in relation to dream content because it happens during deep cycles of sleep  Reflex actions of routines from daily life, such as driving, eating, bathing, etc.   

10  Ancient people saw them as messages from God  Freud calls them “the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind”  During sleep: unconscious calls attention to your deepest needs, allows you “wish fulfillment”  Filled with imagery and symbols that can tell us about various issues and the root cause of them  Attachment issues with parents, discover hidden desires, sexual imagery and jealousy

11  ptg ptg  QsjQ QsjQ  ure=endscreen&v=_TJUjZpUYbE ure=endscreen&v=_TJUjZpUYbE  ure=endscreen&v=R_L1lCyK5ek ure=endscreen&v=R_L1lCyK5ek

12  Do you believe in hypnosis and the power of suggestion?  ASC where subject enters into state of increased suggestibility, total concentration on hypnotist creates trance  9 out of 10 can be hypnotized: Best candidates are cooperative, have good reason to do it, and are creative and intelligent  ypnosis ypnosis  3kg 3kg

13  Medical Use: To control/reduce/block-out pain during surgery, dentistry, childbirth, etc.  Psychological Use: Discuss and deal with issues to hard to talk about normally, as well as childhood and past life regression  Overcome addictions: posthypnotic suggestion  Legal Use: Crime evidence and courtroom testimonies (controversial)  Subjects are eager to please hypnotist so though they will tell the truth, they may create info to fill in gaps

14  The unique pattern of thought, feelings and behavior by which each person reacts to the external world  Grows from a complex system of conscious thought, unconscious drives, and life experiences  Creates the personal values and goals that help you set priorities

15  Everyone’s personality is unique  An individual will generally behave consistently from one situation to another  Modern General Consensus: Environment has the most influence on personality development  proper childhood nurturing, good diet, available health care, freedom from worry, and feelings shared with family/friends

16  Hard to study, widely debated, various theories  Studied to determine what is normal/abnormal, learn about social/cultural differences, explain morals and values  Ancient beliefs about influences of gods, demons, spirits, and astrology

17  Gall’s Phrenology: Feeling bumps on the head to determine traits of personality (1800s)

18  Sociobiology: Genes programmed to determine behavior based on survival instinct  Studied twins separated at birth  Humors: Created by Hippocrates in 400 BC, determine health and behavior due to excess or deficiency of bodily fluids  Phlegm: passive, careful, slow-moving  Black bile: Melancholic, anxious  Yellow bile: Irritable, angry  Blood: Easygoing, optimistic

19  Altered in 1960s to this form: 

20  Body type determines personality and behavior

21  Pioneer in mental testing to determine range of personality characteristics

22  Freud forms first major personality theory  Combination of hereditary and environment shapes personality developments, as well as contributions of unconscious = Freud’s unique contribution  Controversial: Changed mindset of psychology  Theory grew from Freud’s treatments of mentally ill  His discoveries lead to proper treatment

23  Many controversial studies for time period; not given recognition until 1920s  Your mind is an iceberg: conscious, preconscious and unconscious

24  Freudian slip: indicator of unconscious issues  safe=active safe=active  Life and Death forces in all of us:  Eros: Life-survival instincts, fueled by psychic energy of libido which allows us to love  Thanatos: Death wish-can lead to suicide, crime, genocide and war if unchecked

25  Humans are caught between their own needs and the needs of society  Three forces to help resolve conflict  Id: Goal is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain = selfish needs and desires  Wants immediate satisfaction, whether it’s right or wrong  Allows us to find joy in experiences  Buried in the unconscious

26  Moderating force between demands of Id and the world around you  Measures risk and analyzes consequences before allowing Id to take action  Wants to provide pleasure with least amount of pain  Helps suppress desires that conflict with society but ultimately wants to satisfy Id

27  Superego absorbs social morals/values taught to us by our parents/society  Demands you behave morally, do what’s right  In conflict with Id’s desire for pleasure  Saves you from temptation  Punishes with feelings of guilt when you do something wrong (conscience)  Rewards with good feelings when you do something right (ego ideal)

28  Repression: block out painful memories to protect yourself, but still effect your life  Displacement: Take your emotions out on someone else more vulnerable  Sublimation: Turn powerful negative feelings into positive socially accepted expression of emotion  Projection: Displace hard to deal with internal stress and project it onto outside target to cope with your own inadequacies/insecurities

29  Regression: Return to infantile state of behavior when faced with stress/anxiety, overuse can lead to pattern of nonproductive behavior  Reaction Formation: converts forbidden feelings into positive feelings/motivation, with underlying resentment  Rationalization: Justifying excuses when you feel guilty for not living up to your own expectations, issues with never taking responsibility for your own actions  Procrastination: Avoid completing unpleasant task to avoid stress or fear of failure, usually causes more stress

30  Children formerly thought to be “pure and innocent angels”  Freud “murdered childhood” saying we all have sexual feelings/desire from birth  We are taught these natural feelings are “abnormal” and attempt to repress them  Sexual feelings surface in dreams, Freudian slips, jokes, etc.  Freud believes sex is the single most powerful force in determining our feelings, thoughts and actions

31  Oral Stage: First year of life; eating  Explore with mouth  Oral fixation later in life is not resolved  Anal Stage: Age 2-3; potty training  Child needs to feel pride and learn in their own time  Develop a rebellious or anal retentive (controlling) personality later in life if forced  Phallic Stage: Age 4-6; Oedipus complex  Children learn relationship skills from opposite sex parent  Develop issues is that parent isn’t present/attentive  Daddy issues or Mama’s boy  Latency Period: Age 6-puberty  Spend time with same sex groups  Opposite sex “has cooties”  Genital Stage: Puberty into adult life  Explore love relationships and sexuality  If some stage is unresolved then it prevents normal development and healthy intimacy  Penis envy and sexism issues

32  Use couch; therapist is mostly silent until personal progress is made, then make observations and suggestions  Free association: Speak freely about anything that comes to mind without guilt  Use insights about past to overcome present barriers to happiness  Transference: Attach feelings about important people to analyst, rely on them, love/hate relationship, then ask yourself what you want from analyst and from life



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