Number of Industrial Establishments in Izmir (Smyrna) by Nationality of Ownership, 1920 Turkish1,216British13 Greek4,002French &Belgian 10 Armenian28German & Austrian 8 Jewish21American2 Source: Keyder, in Quataert (1994) Manufacturing in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, 1500-1950
View of the Bosphorus, and Dolmabache Palace Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 165
A Street in Istanbul, ~1870 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 164
Knife Sharpener, Istanbul ~1865 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 181
Egg Seller, Istanbul ~1865 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 99
Palanquin, Istanbul ~1860 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 184
Haci Bekir-store selling “Turkish Delight” Istanbul ~1890 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 98
Ritual Ablution at the Suleymaniye Mosque, ~1900 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 178
Istanbul: Galata Bridge 1890 Source: Cizgen, Photography in the Ottoman Empire page 19
Abdulhammid II 1842-1918 Ruled 1876-1909 Started out as a reformer, but grew more opposed to change. Described as an autocrat who seldom left the palace. Approved a Constitution in 1877, suspended it in 1878. Sultan who was forced from office by the “Young Turks.”
Mustafa Kamal Atatürk 1881-1938. Born in area now called Greece Family was middle class; father was a timber merchant. Went to military schools. Vital role against British in Gallipoli campaign. 1920 sets up government in Ankara. By 1926 he has abolished rivals. 1934 National Assembly bestows on him title of Ataturk (Father of the Turks) Late 1930s strengthens ties to Britain and France, against Germany and Italy. After his death, Ismet Inonu becomes pres., until 1950.
Atatürk’s Program Regulations that hindered the use of central elements in the Oriental (i.e. non-European) clothing style, Introduction of Latin alphabet, Reduction of the centrality of Islam in Turkish public life, Equality of all citizens regardless of religion, Emancipation of women and mass education The political system had elements from Western democracy, but it was essentially a one-party system. Intended characteristics of the new Turkey: Republicanism Nationalism Populism Statism (State control over the basic means of production, where the banks were used as the administrative body) Secularism Revolutionism
Atatürk’s legacy Military and Politics Military was guarantor of the unity of the country in the 1920s under Ataturk, and continues to support his nationalist, etatist, secular program. The military is not viewed as excessively enriching itself in the role of ultimate guarantor, as indicated by public support of its actions. Military coups in 1960, 1971, 1980, 1997. That of 1960 led to the death of the Prime Minister (Menderes). In 1980 there was political unrest due to economic problems, ineffective political parties. In 1997 the action was taken against Erbakan, deemed to be too Islamic.
Suleyman Demirel Born: 1924, into a peasant family. P.M. 1965-1971, late 1970s, 1991-2 President 1993 - 2000 Studied engineering. Supported NATO but opposed EU. Forced to resign by military, who were worried about terrorism.
Turgut Ozal 1927-1993 P.M. 1983-89 President 1989-93 Father was teacher of Islam. Studied mechanical engin., worked at World Bank Protégé of Demirel Pushed for opening up and westernizing the economy. However, there was much inflation and unemployment
Tansu Ciller Born 1946 P.M. 1993-1996 Ph.D. from U. of Conneticut, where she worked as a researcher. Driven out of office over questions of corruption
Necmettin Erbakan Born: 1926 P.M. 1996-97 Professor of Physics, who lived and studied in Germany for many years. Leader of Welfare Party. Sometimes described as an Islamist and a populist. Was forced to resign by pressure from military. Supports entry into EU.
Recep Tayyip Erdogan Born: 1954 P.M. March 2003- Born in a town in northern Turkey, into a lower middle class family. Previously mayor of Istanbul, where he had a reputation for honesty. Knows no foreign language, and little economics. 1998: convicted of inciting religious hatred; his acceptability as P.M. was not guaranteed. Said to be charismatic leader. Pushing for entrance to EU.
Abdullah Gul, 1950- Click for interview on EuroNews July, 2006interview Born in central Turkey to working class parents. Studied at Istanbul U. Has worked in U.K., speaks decent English. Currently President, and worries many secularists. Has been Foreign Minister and Prime Minister. Takes secondary role to Erdogan in the AKP.
Alcohol ban Source : Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Report: October 4, 2009.
Other Economic Items Most of Turkey’s exports are manufactured goods Large numbers of Turks migrated to Germany and other western European countries as guest workers. Custom’s Union with European Union in 1995 Free Trade Agreement with Israel in 1996. Limited FTA’s with Morocco and Syria in 2004. Turkey is major intermediary for trade in hydrocarbons.
Abdullah Ocalan Born around 1950, to a peasant family in a small village in southern Turkey. Studied political science at Ankara U. Founder of Kurdish Workers’ Party, PKK. Captured by Turkish Intelligence (in Kenya) in 1999. Death sentence commuted to life. The PKK is blamed for ~30,000 deaths since early 1980s.
Kurdish language in Turkey In Turkey in 1938, Kurdish was banned; any public usage was sanctioned and an individual using Kurdish in public could be fined. During this time Kurdish lost ground, bilingualism increased, and very few learned to read or write their language. In 1961, with a new Turkish constitution, Kurdish publications began to appear, often bilingual, but frequently banned as soon as they appeared. Moreover, since 1967 through the late 80s there was a hardening of attitude and a series of laws were promulgated which are intended to repress the use of Kurdish. In 1991, however, the Turkish government declared its intention to legalize the use of Kurdish, and this happened, gradually. Kurds in Turkey who no longer speak their language nevertheless symbolically regard it as proof of their ethnic identity. Source: http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/profiles/profk04.htm
Privatization in Turkey, to Foreigners, 1989-2002 Source: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN018677.pdf Also, more telecom, banks, airlines, tourism, iron and steel. Total =US$ 10 billion
Europeans Not Keen on Turkey’s EU Bid September 09, 2008 FavourOppose France20%80% Germany24%76% Belgium32%68% Netherlands33%67% Britain43%57% Italy44%56% Spain49%51% 2008 Polling Data Do you personally favour or oppose Turkey’s accession into the European Union (EU)? Source: Angus Reid Polling
Turkey: Two Estimates of Real Exchange Rates, 1995-2004 Source: Central Bank of Turkey
Articles on Turkey and the IMF Tough love for Turkey Brett D Schaefer. The International Economy.The International Economy Washington: May/Jun 2001.Vol.15, Iss. 3May/Jun 2001 The Turkish economic crisis is the first international economic challenge to confront the Bush administration. Turkey plays a pivotal role in advancing US policy goals in the Middle East, Europe and Eurasia. America therefore cannot neglect Turkey and should help it achieve economic stability. TALKING TURKEY: Despite Its Problems, Turkish Military May Save Yilmaz Government to Thwart Islamist Victory Dorsey, James M.. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Washington:The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs Sep 30, 1998Sep 30, 1998.Vol.XVII, Iss. 6; pg. 51 Against all odds, [Mesut Yilmaz] has persuaded Turkish business and finance circles -- accustomed to living with an annual inflation rate of 80 to 100 percent -- as well as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that he can reduce inflation to 20 percent by the end of next year. With no guarantee that he will remain in office that long and the specter of elections and increased political instability hanging over the country, that is no small feat.
Kenan Evren 1918- President 1982-89 General who came to power in 1980, and won election in 1982
Bulent Ecevit Born:1925 in Istanbul P.M. 1974, 1978-80, 1998-2002 Born into an intellectual family, Schooled in Istanbul, Britain and U.S. Described as a nationalist hostile to Kurds. Invaded northern Cyprus.