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Upheaval Challenges to Order & Conservative Reactions

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Presentation on theme: "Upheaval Challenges to Order & Conservative Reactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 1815-1830 Upheaval Challenges to Order & Conservative Reactions
Challenges to the Concert of Europe

2 Chronology of Uprisings
German Confederation Wartburg Festival & Burschenschaften ( ): FAILED England Peterloo Massacre (1819): FAILED Spain ( ): FAILED Italy part 1 ( ): FAILED Greece ( ): SUCCESSFUL Russian Decembrist (1825): FAILED France July Revolution (1830): SUCCESSFUL Belgium ( ): SUCCESSFUL Poland ( ): FAILED Italy part 2 ( ): FAILED

3 I. England Tories (conservative) in England in charge
Faced economic problems –reactionary policies Corn Laws 1815 Halt import of cheap foreign grain Aided Tory landholding aristocracy Increased cost of bread Drove poor to protest

4 Six Acts of Parliament (1819)
Coercion Acts of 1817 Suspended habeas corpus Arbitrary arrest & punishment Curtailed freedom of press & public mass meetings Peterloo Massacre (1819) Crowds gather to hear about reforms re: Corn Laws, etc Police broke up meeting & killed 18 or so; 700 injuries Six Acts of Parliament (1819) Responded to Peterloo Repressive measures New authority to repress liberalist radicals

5 Cato Street Conspiracy (1820)
Extremists plotted to blow up British Cabinet Got caught Provided further reasons for Tory suppression of Liberals Discredited Parliamentary reformers Younger Tories England well on its way to Authoritarian Regime Younger generation of Tories less extreme conservative In time, English tradition of freedoms such as habeas corpus resurfaced

6 II. France Restoration of Bourbons: Louis XVIII 1814/15-1824)
Constitutional Monarchy Followed the “Charter” Royal power limited Legislative powers in Bicameral Congress Civil Rights protected Code Napoleon upheld

7 Divided France “White Terror” (1815)
Liberal (Fr Rev’l) Conservative (anti-Fr Rev’l) Ultraroyalists (Old Order) Led by Count Artois – brother of the king “White Terror” (1815) Royalist mobs Murdered thousands of former revolutionaries Assassination of Duke of Berri (son of Artois)sparked conservative reaction – king’s liberal policies blamed

8 King become more conservative
Electoral Laws restrict electorate to wealthy Censorship imposed Liberals driven out of legal life 1823: Concert granted France permission to crush Spanish uprising & restore another Bourbon (Ferdinand VII) Charles X ( ) Conservative: Divine Right Supported by Ultraroyalists Gave compensation to Aristocracy that lost land in Fr Rev’l 1830 he dissolved the legislature

9 King Louis Philippe of Orleans (1830-1848)
July Revolution (1830) Reaction against conservative moves led to revolt Forced Charles X to abdicate King Louis Philippe of Orleans ( ) “Bourgeoisie King” Constitutional King France essentially led by Bourgeoisie/bankers/business Uprising SUCCESSFUL!!! Spurred uprisings all over Europe

10 III. German States: Prussia & Austria
German Confederation of 39 States Prussia & Austria had empires outside German Confederation borders German “Bund” dominated by Metternich Bund is German diet – Austria is the President Goal: prevent liberal disorder or revolution

11 Prussia led by territorially aggressive Hohenzollern Dynasty
Liberal reforms after fall of Napoleon made many think of Prussia as having liberal leanings Liberal reforms meant to make Prussia more efficient: NOT meant as portent to future liberal policies! Junkers followed Metternich’s lead & anti-liberal movements Liberal agitation German Universities had liberal leanings Burschenschaften Wartburg Festival (1817) students burned symbols of conservative authority Russian agent wound up being killed by a member of the Burschenschaften Karlsbad (Carlsbad) Diet and Decrees (1819) Cracked down on liberals Freedoms repressed Liberals driven underground

12 Later factors effecting German States
July revolution in France encouraged a renewal of German Liberal Demonstrations: quickly repressed Later factors effecting German States Zollverein (started in 1834) Customs union uniting German States into 1 economic unit Austria refused to join Frankfurt Assembly (1848) – discussed later Uprisings FAILED!

13 IV. Russia Czar Alexander I (1810-1825)
Initially favored Enlightened Despotism Torn between Enlightened ideas and Russian Absolutism Believed he was one to lead Europe into a new age of benevolence and good will (no one else saw him as this!) Effected by Metternich at the 1815 Congress of Vienna Became very conservative

14 Initial Liberal Reforms: Speransky
Advisor Michael Speransky help reconstruct Russia after Napoleonic Era Admired reforms made by Napoleon Reforms alienated Aristocracy (Boyars) Speransky dismissed Alexander I, after Congress of 1815, started to see the world in Biblical terms Revolution & Napoleon was inspired by Satan Tried the Holy Alliance: Alliance based on Christian Conservative Nations

15 New Advisor: General Arakcheiev
Repression was the order of the day! No toleration of opposition or criticism of the regime Early liberal tendencies were crushed Czar Nicholas I ( ) Most reactionary of Czars! “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality” Didn’t like serfdom, but did nothing about it

16 Decembrist Uprising (1825)
Junior military officers and upper-class opponents of autocracy supported grievances among Russian society Decembrists revolted, but failed Two camps developed: Slavophiles: believed Russian village (mir) was superior to the Western world Westernizers: wanted to extend the “genius” pf Russian culture by industrializing and setting up constitutional government Uprising FAILED!

17 V. Other Revolts in Europe
Spanish Revolt ( ) King Ferdinand VII returned to power after Napoleon He repressed liberals (very conservative) Mutiny of army troops forced king to sign a liberal constitution King secretly asked for help from Concert of Euro France given permission to intervene Ferdinand VII ruled as ruthless absolutist Uprising FAILED!

18 Italian Uprising part 1 (1820)
Carbonari (Charcoal burners) led uprising against king of Two Sicilies (Kingdom of Naples) King forced to sign liberal constitution Austria marched in troops and repressed revolt Uprising FAILED!

19 Italian Uprising part 2 (1831-1832)
Inspired by French July Revolution Attempt to unify North Italy Austria intervenes and stops uprising As a result, Young Italy is formed Secret nationalist society Led by Mazzini Uprising FAILED!!!

20 The Eastern Question: Greek Revolt (1821-1830)
Greeks revolt against Ottoman Turk rule Egypt aided Turkey Europeans sided with Greece (Greece was, after all, the Classical foundation of Europe) Russian, British, and French Navy defeated Turks at the Battle of Navarino in 1827 Treaty of Adrianople signed in 1829 Full Greek independence recognized in 1830 Uprising SUCCESSFUL!

21 Belgium Uprising ( ) Belgium placed under control of Netherlands/Holland at Congress of Vienna Belgians declare independence from Holland Dutch (Holland) sent in army in 1831 France and Britain send in troops that forced Dutch to retreat Belium declares independence and is supported by Britain, France, Prussia, Russia, and Austria Dutch do not recognize Belgian independence until 1839 Uprising SUCCESSFUL!!!

22 Poland uprising ( ) Nationalist groups revolt against Russian domination because rumor had it that Czar Nicholas I was going to force Polish troops to get involved in France and Belgium Russian troops forced out and Poland set up revolutionary government Russia invaded in 1831 and defeated Polish troops Attempt to “Russify” Poland Uprising FAILED!!!

23 Chronology of Uprisings
German Confederation Wartburg Festival & Burschenschaften ( ): FAILED England Peterloo Massacre (1819): FAILED Spain ( ): FAILED Italy part 1 ( ): FAILED Greece ( ): SUCCESSFUL Russian Decembrist (1825): FAILED France July Revolution (1830): SUCCESSFUL Belgium ( ): SUCCESSFUL Poland ( ): FAILED Italy part 2 ( ): FAILED

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