Presentation on theme: "Upheaval Challenges to Order & Conservative Reactions"— Presentation transcript:
11815-1830 Upheaval Challenges to Order & Conservative Reactions Challenges to the Concert of Europe
2Chronology of Uprisings German Confederation Wartburg Festival & Burschenschaften ( ): FAILEDEngland Peterloo Massacre (1819): FAILEDSpain ( ): FAILEDItaly part 1 ( ): FAILEDGreece ( ): SUCCESSFULRussian Decembrist (1825): FAILEDFrance July Revolution (1830): SUCCESSFULBelgium ( ): SUCCESSFULPoland ( ): FAILEDItaly part 2 ( ): FAILED
3I. England Tories (conservative) in England in charge Faced economic problems –reactionary policiesCorn Laws 1815Halt import of cheap foreign grainAided Tory landholding aristocracyIncreased cost of breadDrove poor to protest
4Six Acts of Parliament (1819) Coercion Acts of 1817Suspended habeas corpusArbitrary arrest & punishmentCurtailed freedom of press & public mass meetingsPeterloo Massacre (1819)Crowds gather to hear about reforms re: Corn Laws, etcPolice broke up meeting & killed 18 or so; 700 injuriesSix Acts of Parliament (1819)Responded to PeterlooRepressive measuresNew authority to repress liberalist radicals
5Cato Street Conspiracy (1820) Extremists plotted to blow up British CabinetGot caughtProvided further reasons for Tory suppression of LiberalsDiscredited Parliamentary reformersYounger ToriesEngland well on its way to Authoritarian RegimeYounger generation of Tories less extreme conservativeIn time, English tradition of freedoms such as habeas corpus resurfaced
6II. France Restoration of Bourbons: Louis XVIII 1814/15-1824) Constitutional MonarchyFollowed the “Charter”Royal power limitedLegislative powers in Bicameral CongressCivil Rights protectedCode Napoleon upheld
7Divided France “White Terror” (1815) Liberal (Fr Rev’l)Conservative (anti-Fr Rev’l)Ultraroyalists (Old Order)Led by Count Artois – brother of the king“White Terror” (1815)Royalist mobsMurdered thousands of former revolutionariesAssassination of Duke of Berri (son of Artois)sparked conservative reaction – king’s liberal policies blamed
8King become more conservative Electoral Laws restrict electorate to wealthyCensorship imposedLiberals driven out of legal life1823: Concert granted France permission to crush Spanish uprising & restore another Bourbon (Ferdinand VII)Charles X ( )Conservative: Divine RightSupported by UltraroyalistsGave compensation to Aristocracy that lost land in Fr Rev’l1830 he dissolved the legislature
9King Louis Philippe of Orleans (1830-1848) July Revolution (1830)Reaction against conservative moves led to revoltForced Charles X to abdicateKing Louis Philippe of Orleans ( )“Bourgeoisie King”Constitutional KingFrance essentially led by Bourgeoisie/bankers/businessUprising SUCCESSFUL!!! Spurred uprisings all over Europe
10III. German States: Prussia & Austria German Confederation of 39 StatesPrussia & Austria had empires outside German Confederation bordersGerman “Bund” dominated by MetternichBund is German diet – Austria is the PresidentGoal: prevent liberal disorder or revolution
11Prussia led by territorially aggressive Hohenzollern Dynasty Liberal reforms after fall of Napoleon made many think of Prussia as having liberal leaningsLiberal reforms meant to make Prussia more efficient: NOT meant as portent to future liberal policies!Junkers followed Metternich’s lead & anti-liberal movementsLiberal agitationGerman Universities had liberal leaningsBurschenschaftenWartburg Festival (1817) students burned symbols of conservative authorityRussian agent wound up being killed by a member of the BurschenschaftenKarlsbad (Carlsbad) Diet and Decrees (1819)Cracked down on liberalsFreedoms repressedLiberals driven underground
12Later factors effecting German States July revolution in France encouraged a renewal of German Liberal Demonstrations: quickly repressedLater factors effecting German StatesZollverein (started in 1834)Customs union uniting German States into 1 economic unitAustria refused to joinFrankfurt Assembly (1848) – discussed laterUprisings FAILED!
13IV. Russia Czar Alexander I (1810-1825) Initially favored Enlightened DespotismTorn between Enlightened ideas and Russian AbsolutismBelieved he was one to lead Europe into a new age of benevolence and good will (no one else saw him as this!)Effected by Metternich at the 1815 Congress of ViennaBecame very conservative
14Initial Liberal Reforms: Speransky Advisor Michael Speransky help reconstruct Russia after Napoleonic EraAdmired reforms made by NapoleonReforms alienated Aristocracy (Boyars)Speransky dismissedAlexander I, after Congress of 1815, started to see the world in Biblical termsRevolution & Napoleon was inspired by SatanTried the Holy Alliance: Alliance based on Christian Conservative Nations
15New Advisor: General Arakcheiev Repression was the order of the day!No toleration of opposition or criticism of the regimeEarly liberal tendencies were crushedCzar Nicholas I ( )Most reactionary of Czars!“Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality”Didn’t like serfdom, but did nothing about it
16Decembrist Uprising (1825) Junior military officers and upper-class opponents of autocracy supported grievances among Russian societyDecembrists revolted, but failedTwo camps developed:Slavophiles: believed Russian village (mir) was superior to the Western worldWesternizers: wanted to extend the “genius” pf Russian culture by industrializing and setting up constitutional governmentUprising FAILED!
17V. Other Revolts in Europe Spanish Revolt ( )King Ferdinand VII returned to power after NapoleonHe repressed liberals (very conservative)Mutiny of army troops forced king to sign a liberal constitutionKing secretly asked for help from Concert of EuroFrance given permission to interveneFerdinand VII ruled as ruthless absolutistUprising FAILED!
18Italian Uprising part 1 (1820) Carbonari (Charcoal burners) led uprising against king of Two Sicilies (Kingdom of Naples)King forced to sign liberal constitutionAustria marched in troops and repressed revoltUprising FAILED!
19Italian Uprising part 2 (1831-1832) Inspired by French July RevolutionAttempt to unify North ItalyAustria intervenes and stops uprisingAs a result, Young Italy is formedSecret nationalist societyLed by MazziniUprising FAILED!!!
20The Eastern Question: Greek Revolt (1821-1830) Greeks revolt against Ottoman Turk ruleEgypt aided TurkeyEuropeans sided with Greece (Greece was, after all, the Classical foundation of Europe)Russian, British, and French Navy defeated Turks at the Battle of Navarino in 1827Treaty of Adrianople signed in 1829Full Greek independence recognized in 1830Uprising SUCCESSFUL!
21Belgium Uprising ( )Belgium placed under control of Netherlands/Holland at Congress of ViennaBelgians declare independence from HollandDutch (Holland) sent in army in 1831France and Britain send in troops that forced Dutch to retreatBelium declares independence and is supported by Britain, France, Prussia, Russia, and AustriaDutch do not recognize Belgian independence until 1839Uprising SUCCESSFUL!!!
22Poland uprising ( )Nationalist groups revolt against Russian domination because rumor had it that Czar Nicholas I was going to force Polish troops to get involved in France and BelgiumRussian troops forced out and Poland set up revolutionary governmentRussia invaded in 1831 and defeated Polish troopsAttempt to “Russify” PolandUprising FAILED!!!
23Chronology of Uprisings German Confederation Wartburg Festival & Burschenschaften ( ): FAILEDEngland Peterloo Massacre (1819): FAILEDSpain ( ): FAILEDItaly part 1 ( ): FAILEDGreece ( ): SUCCESSFULRussian Decembrist (1825): FAILEDFrance July Revolution (1830): SUCCESSFULBelgium ( ): SUCCESSFULPoland ( ): FAILEDItaly part 2 ( ): FAILED