I. England A.Tories (conservative) in England in charge B.Faced economic problems –reactionary policies 1.Corn Laws 1815 Halt import of cheap foreign grain Aided Tory landholding aristocracy Increased cost of bread Drove poor to protest
2.Coercion Acts of 1817 Suspended habeas corpus Arbitrary arrest & punishment Curtailed freedom of press & public mass meetings C.Peterloo Massacre (1819) 1.Crowds gather to hear about reforms re: Corn Laws, etc 2.Police broke up meeting & killed 18 or so; 700 injuries – D.Six Acts of Parliament (1819) 1.Responded to Peterloo 2.Repressive measures 3.New authority to repress liberalist radicals
E.Cato Street Conspiracy (1820) 1.Extremists plotted to blow up British Cabinet 2.Got caught 3.Provided further reasons for Tory suppression of Liberals 4.Discredited Parliamentary reformers F.Younger Tories 1.England well on its way to Authoritarian Regime 2.Younger generation of Tories less extreme conservative 3.In time, English tradition of freedoms such as habeas corpus resurfaced
II. France A.Restoration of Bourbons: Louis XVIII 1814/ ) 1.Constitutional Monarchy 2.Followed the “Charter” Royal power limited Legislative powers in Bicameral Congress Civil Rights protected Code Napoleon upheld
B.Divided France 1.Liberal (Fr Rev’l) 2.Conservative (anti-Fr Rev’l) 3.Ultraroyalists (Old Order) 1.Led by Count Artois – brother of the king C.“White Terror” (1815) 1.Royalist mobs 2.Murdered thousands of former revolutionaries D.Assassination of Duke of Berri (son of Artois)sparked conservative reaction – king’s liberal policies blamed
E.King become more conservative 1.Electoral Laws restrict electorate to wealthy 2.Censorship imposed 3.Liberals driven out of legal life F.1823: Concert granted France permission to crush Spanish uprising & restore another Bourbon (Ferdinand VII) G.Charles X ( ) 1.Conservative: Divine Right 2.Supported by Ultraroyalists 3.Gave compensation to Aristocracy that lost land in Fr Rev’l he dissolved the legislature
H.July Revolution (1830) 1.Reaction against conservative moves led to revolt 2.Forced Charles X to abdicate I.King Louis Philippe of Orleans ( ) 1.“Bourgeoisie King” 2.Constitutional King 3.France essentially led by Bourgeoisie/bankers/business J.Uprising SUCCESSFUL!!! Spurred uprisings all over Europe
III. German States: Prussia & Austria A.German Confederation of 39 States 1.Prussia & Austria had empires outside German Confederation borders B.German “Bund” dominated by Metternich 1.Bund is German diet – Austria is the President 2.Goal: prevent liberal disorder or revolution
C.Prussia led by territorially aggressive Hohenzollern Dynasty 1.Liberal reforms after fall of Napoleon made many think of Prussia as having liberal leanings 2.Liberal reforms meant to make Prussia more efficient: NOT meant as portent to future liberal policies! 3.Junkers followed Metternich’s lead & anti-liberal movements D.Liberal agitation 1.German Universities had liberal leanings Burschenschaften 2.Wartburg Festival (1817) students burned symbols of conservative authority 3.Russian agent wound up being killed by a member of the Burschenschaften E.Karlsbad (Carlsbad) Diet and Decrees (1819) 1.Cracked down on liberals 2.Freedoms repressed 3.Liberals driven underground 4.http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Carlsbad_Decrees
F.July revolution in France encouraged a renewal of German Liberal Demonstrations: quickly repressed G.Later factors effecting German States – Zollverein (started in 1834) Customs union uniting German States into 1 economic unit Austria refused to join – Frankfurt Assembly (1848) – discussed later H.Uprisings FAILED!
IV. Russia A.Czar Alexander I ( ) A.Initially favored Enlightened Despotism Torn between Enlightened ideas and Russian Absolutism B.Believed he was one to lead Europe into a new age of benevolence and good will (no one else saw him as this!) C.Effected by Metternich at the 1815 Congress of Vienna Became very conservative
D.Initial Liberal Reforms: Speransky 1.Advisor Michael Speransky help reconstruct Russia after Napoleonic Era 2.Admired reforms made by Napoleon 3.Reforms alienated Aristocracy (Boyars) 4.Speransky dismissed E.Alexander I, after Congress of 1815, started to see the world in Biblical terms 1.Revolution & Napoleon was inspired by Satan 2.Tried the Holy Alliance: Alliance based on Christian Conservative Nations
F.New Advisor: General Arakcheiev 1.Repression was the order of the day! 2.No toleration of opposition or criticism of the regime 3.Early liberal tendencies were crushed G.Czar Nicholas I ( ) 1.Most reactionary of Czars! 2.“Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality” 3.Didn’t like serfdom, but did nothing about it
H.Decembrist Uprising (1825) 1.Junior military officers and upper-class opponents of autocracy supported grievances among Russian society 2.Decembrists revolted, but failed 3.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/155016/Decembrist I.Two camps developed: 1.Slavophiles: believed Russian village (mir) was superior to the Western world 2.Westernizers: wanted to extend the “genius” pf Russian culture by industrializing and setting up constitutional government J.Uprising FAILED!
V. Other Revolts in Europe A.Spanish Revolt ( ) 1.King Ferdinand VII returned to power after Napoleon 2.He repressed liberals (very conservative) 3.Mutiny of army troops forced king to sign a liberal constitution 4.King secretly asked for help from Concert of Euro 5.France given permission to intervene 6.Ferdinand VII ruled as ruthless absolutist 7.Uprising FAILED!
B.Italian Uprising part 1 (1820) 1.Carbonari (Charcoal burners) led uprising against king of Two Sicilies (Kingdom of Naples) 2.King forced to sign liberal constitution 3.Austria marched in troops and repressed revolt 4.Uprising FAILED!
C.Italian Uprising part 2 ( ) 1.Inspired by French July Revolution 2.Attempt to unify North Italy 3.Austria intervenes and stops uprising 4.As a result, Young Italy is formed 1.Secret nationalist society 2.Led by Mazzini 5.Uprising FAILED!!!
D.The Eastern Question: Greek Revolt ( ) 1.Greeks revolt against Ottoman Turk rule 2.Egypt aided Turkey 3.Europeans sided with Greece (Greece was, after all, the Classical foundation of Europe) 4.Russian, British, and French Navy defeated Turks at the Battle of Navarino in Treaty of Adrianople signed in Full Greek independence recognized in Uprising SUCCESSFUL!
E.Belgium Uprising ( ) 1.Belgium placed under control of Netherlands/Holland at Congress of Vienna 2.Belgians declare independence from Holland 3.Dutch (Holland) sent in army in France and Britain send in troops that forced Dutch to retreat 5.Belium declares independence and is supported by Britain, France, Prussia, Russia, and Austria 6.Dutch do not recognize Belgian independence until Uprising SUCCESSFUL!!!
F.Poland uprising ( ) 1.Nationalist groups revolt against Russian domination because rumor had it that Czar Nicholas I was going to force Polish troops to get involved in France and Belgium 2.Russian troops forced out and Poland set up revolutionary government 3.Russia invaded in 1831 and defeated Polish troops 4.Attempt to “Russify” Poland 5.Uprising FAILED!!!