Tsarist Abolitionism Nicholas I Indoctrination Autocracy Orthodoxy Nationalism Principles of Tsarist Autocracy Reverence for the Tsar Patriotism Socioeconomic status quo
Alexander II Nicholas’ son Reform Liberated Serfs Zemstvo Schools Compared to Parish Schools
Intelligentsia A “Think-Tank” for Change Teachers, Students, Writers, and Artists Attempted to bring about change Alexander Herzen (1812-1870) Intelligentsias and theorist Exile living in London Wrote the Kolokol Russian Enlightenment Nicholas Chernyshevsky (1828-1889) What Is to Be Done?
Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) War and Peace Social Reform Based on Simplification Yasnaya Polyana Society of National Education Educational Tour of France, Germany, and England
Alexander III (1827-1907) Became Tsar in 1881 Ruled Russia like Nicholas I Firm hand and Authoritarian Tsarist Autocracy Repress Criticism of Government Police Power Centralized Government Propaganda Konstantin Pobedonostev (1827-1907) Chief Advisor Tsarist Russia Falls
The Soviet government and Communism Nikolai Lenin (1870-1924) Schools are a Weapon Education is Not the Primary Concern Working-Class Schools Three Purposes Separation of Church and School Anatoli Lunacharski (1875-1933) Unified Educational System Workers School Brigades Western Philosophies
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) Eliminated the Lunacharski System of Education Authoritarian Education Again Basic Skills needed for trades Fixed number of hours required Methodical Direct Instruction Texts were re-written and censored by Russian government Post WWII Era Push Socialist Ideals throughout Eastern Europe Propaganda Soviet Cultural Life
Twentieth Century Fall of Communism Mikhail Gorbachav Schools had to be a catalyst for change Removed low standards and bureaucrat involvement in schools Glasnost Communism Falls in 1991 Twenty-First Century Reform New Kind of Teacher New System Globalization
Gutek, G. (1995). Russian Education. In A History of the Western Educational Experience (2nd ed., pp. 420-451). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. Kholostova, T. (2007). Journal Of Education. Problems in Today's Russian Education System, 188(3), 63-73. Matrosov, V. L. (2011). Russian Education & Society. The New School Teacher for the New Russian School, 53(11), 73-83. Valkanova, Y. (2009). The Passion for Educating the “New Man”: Debates about Preschooling in Soviet Russia, 1917–1925. History Of Education Quarterly, 49 (2), 211-221. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5959.2009.00197.