Central to both terrorism and counter-terrorism Governments: ▪ Technology as an advantage ▪ The more advanced technology is the higher the chances of winning the battle against terrorists. Terrorists: ▪ Advancement of technology does not matter as long as it can enable an effective attack to be carried out.
Information Source and Content Dissemination Spread of Ideology
Video 2Tg0 2Tg0
Planning, Coordination and Communication Synchronized bomb attacks ▪ US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania 1998 ▪ Simultaneous detonations of bombs in Madrid in 2004 ▪ Mumbai Bombing 2008 by Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organization.
Fund raising Online transactions ▪ Online Banking ▪ Money Transfer ▪ Credit Cards
Security Limitation of communication between Clandestine cells Password Encryption Terrorist Group
Mobility Disappearance of geopolitical borders allows terrorist to move freely
Mobility Use of aircraft ▪ 9/11 attack Container s and vehicles used to transport goods are used as means of transporting weapons of mass destruction ▪ Customs officials cannot inspect all the vehicles passing through the border due to the huge number of containers and vehicles passing everyday.
Creation of Weapons of Mass Destruction “WMD use must involve mass casualties, especially deaths. In some situations, conventional weapons have created “mass destruction,” such as the fire bombings by Allied troops during the Second World War. Civilians were targeted, and the deaths numbered in the tens of thousands for Dresden and 100,000 for Tokyo. A true WMD would create similar casualties with a single weapon. Nuclear weapons destroy not only human lives but also infrastructure. We know from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki the destructive power of these weapons. In Hiroshima, the 15-kiloton bomb killed 140,000 people; in Nagasaki, the 21-kiloton device killed 70,000.5 Both of these cities were turned into wastelands from the blasts’ shock waves and associated fires. Modern nuclear weapons in the stockpiles of nuclear weapons states (of which there are about 30,000) average more than 100 kilotons yield.”
Lethality Biological Weapons “Biological weapons are more difficult to characterize in terms of lethality. The reason for this is perhaps a good one: A large-scale biological weapons attack using well-dispersed agent has never occurred. The Office of Technology Assessment estimated that depending on climate conditions, 100kg of anthrax could result in 130,000 to 3,000,000 dead in an urban region of 3,000 to 10,000 people per square kilometer. Actually, a number of studies of biological weapons’ lethality generate an enormous range, from 66 deaths to 88 billion deaths per kilogram of agent used for anthrax. This variance underscores the uncertainty involved in predicting the lethality of these agents as weapons.”
Lethality Chemical Weapons An Office of Technology Assessment report suggests 1,000 kilograms of sarin gas aerially dispersed on a city of density 3,000 to 10,000 people per square kilometer would result in 300 to 8,000 deaths, depending on the climatic conditions at the time of the attack. The “success” of a chemical weapons attack depends on the purity of the agent; climatic factors, such as wind, cloud cover, temperature, and precipitation; the physical properties of the chemical, including density, vapor pressure, and boiling point; persistence in the environment; and delivery mechanism.8 Moreover, the lethality of a chemical weapons attack depends on whether the targets are defended. Gas masks and protective clothing provide full protection against chemical weapons— defenses that do not exist for explosive or incendiary attack.
Response of states Passing of anti-terrorism laws ▪ Ex. Prevention of Terrorism Acts of the UK to repel acts of terrorism, which was mainly done by Irish Republican Army. Airport Security Measures Creation of Counter Terrorism Forces ▪ Ex. West German Grenzschutzgruppe – an elite counter-terrorism and special operations unit of the German Federal Police formed in Conventions ▪ Ex. With International Civil Aviation Organization – to improve info sharing and legal cooperation
Response of states – Cooperation between states The Long War US plan to involve governments in an expanded, all-out campaign against Islamist extremism from north Africa to south-east Asia, using beefed-up special forces, hi-tech weaponry and more intrusive surveillance and intelligence gathering. This includes boosting the number of special operations forces and unmanned drones used for surveillance and targeted assassinations, the creation of special teams trained to detect and render safe nuclear weapons anywhere in the world, and a long-range bomber force.
Response of the States to War on Terror - Terrorism as crime Military actions can lead to reprisals or to the state’s use of power to repress citizenry. Terrorism is best dealt as a crime, a police problem ; military forces should only be involved if the situation is already grave. The problem of terrorism should be solved within the borders Suspects should be given due process.
Response to War on Terror Conspiracy theories ▪ Control ▪ Oil ▪ And many more! Human Rights violation ▪ Human Rights Watch ▪ Provides monitoring and online reporting of human rights violations done by the government ▪ Guantanamo Bay