Presentation on theme: "What are individualistic theories of criminality? Unit 1 – Assessment Criteria 1.2 Describe individualistic theories of criminality."— Presentation transcript:
What are individualistic theories of criminality? Unit 1 – Assessment Criteria 1.2 Describe individualistic theories of criminality.
Assumptions of individualistic theories of crime Crime is caused by individual differences based on personality types or experiences that people have. The root of crime is in an individual’s psychological make-up or the development processes that they have experienced.
Criminal personalities? Study of people in prison show that they share certain traits of personality: – Hyperactivity – Impulsivity – Aggression – Sensation seeking/risk taking – Extroversion or outgoing natures – Demand for immediate satisfaction, impatience.
Key names to research Hans J Eysenck (personality theory) Sigmund Freud (psychodynamic theory) Albert Bandura (social learning theory)
Eysenck's Type Theory Google Eysenck's personality questionnaire. Click on the similar minds link Complete the test and write down the dominant part of your personality with the percentages.
Type theory Eysenck believed that there are different personality types. type theory His theory is therefore described as a type theory. For each personality type there are associated traits. extroversion, neuroticism and Psychoticism. The personality types he identified include extroversion, neuroticism and Psychoticism.
Extroverts Open and often talkative Compare their own opinions with the opinions of others Interested in new people Say what they think Like action and initiative Easily make new friends or adapt to a new group Easily break unwanted relations
Extroverts and crime The need for high amounts of stimulation then lead to more likely encounters with the law. They enjoy pranks and practical jokes and find challenge in opportunities to do the unconventional, or even to engage in antisocial behavior
Neurotics Nature full of anxiety Worry a lot Feel guilty often Highly emotional Rapid response to fear May have low self esteem May be tense or irritable
Neurotics and crime Below-average emotional control, will- power, and capacity to exert self; slowness in thought and action; suggestibility; lack of persistence; tendency to repress unpleasant facts; lack of sociability; High levels – anti social but more likely to be the follower than the leader
Psychoticism: This was added later and includes - Poor concentration, poor memory; insensitivity; lack of caring for others; cruelty; disregard for danger and convention; occasionally originality and/or creativity; liking for unusual things; considered peculiar by others.
Evaluation of Eysenck’s Type Theory - His original research used a limited sample of people to test his ideas. + Later research however was carried out on 1000s of people and have supported Eysenck’s ideas - He only described a limited number of personality types. - Questionnaires can present researchers with a number of problems. The mood of people when they are answering them can affect their answers. - People may not be 100% truthful in their answers in self-reports when answering questionnaires.