Presentation on theme: "Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 4: Latin American Revolutions, Nationalism, and the Unification of Italy and Germany
2Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians From 1500 to 1800, Latin America was colonized by Europe, especially SpainMercantilism is when the colonies provide raw materials and markets for the mother country.European nations used mercantilism to gain wealth from their American coloniesReasons to colonizeGoldGodGloryGreedCatholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians
3Colonial Society Divided A Race and Class SystemLatin America has social classes that determine jobs and authorityPeninsulares—born in Spain, they head colonial government and societyCreoles—American-born Spaniards who can become army officersMestizos—have both European and Native American ancestryMulattos—have both European and African ancestrySlaves and Native Americans are at the bottom of society
5Yes you must think a bit but it shouldn’t hurt too much Quick Class Discussion:Yes you must think a bit but it shouldn’t hurt too muchWhich social group will lead these Latin American Revolutions? Why?Where did they get the idea to revolt & created democracies?
6By the late 1700s, Latin Americans were inspired to gain independence because of the success of the American & French RevolutionsThe ideas of the Enlightenment inspired independence especially among the well-educated Creole class
8Revolutions in the Americas Revolution in Hispaniola (Haiti)Haiti is the first Latin American territory to gain freedomToussaint L’Ouverture leads 100,000 slaves against the French (1791)Napoleon will send army to combat the Haitian Revolt.Toussaint eventually dies in a French prison in 1803.French soldiers weakened by outbreak of yellow fever.
9Revolutions in Haiti Haiti’s Independence Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue (western third of Hispaniola) a country in 1804Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independenceRenamed Haiti, means “mountainous land” in the Arawak languageEmperor Jacques is assassinated in 1806 by disaffected members of his administration.In 1820, Haiti became a republic.
10Mexico Ends Spanish Rule A Cry for FreedomFather Miguel Hidalgo—priest who launches Mexican revolt (1810).Creoles supported revolt at first, but then rejected Hidalgo’s call for an end to slavery.80,000 Indian and Mestizo followers march on Mexico CityJose Maria Morelos—leads revolt after Hidalgo’s defeat, but losesBoth Hidalgo and Morelos were executed.
11Mexico Ends Spanish Rule Mexico’s IndependenceMexican creoles react; Augustin de Iturbide (a Mexican General) declares Mexico independent (1821)Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823.Republic of Mexico setup.In 1823, United Provinces of Central America breaks away from MexicoAgustín de Iturbide
12Iturbide is credited with designing the first Mexican flag. (1821-1823) Today’s Flag of MexicoThe tri-color flag is still used, and the presence of the eagle is also used in the modern flag of Mexico used since 1968.
13Creoles Lead Independence The Spread of Enlightenment IdeasEnlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionariesCreole LeadersSimón Bolívar “The Liberator”—wealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolutionJosé de San Martín—leader of Argentinean revolutionary forces
14Bolivar’s 1807 return from Europe by way of the United States allowed him to study the American system of government.In 1810, Bolivar went to London to seek support for the revolution in Latin America. At the same time, he studied British institutions of government.
16Creoles Lead Independence Bolívar’s Route to VictoryVenezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by 1821Liberates New Grenada (Columbia) and Ecuador.San Martín Leads Southern Liberation ForcesArgentina is independent in 1816; San Martin helps free ChileBolívar’s and San Martín’s armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824.
17Brazil’s Royal Liberator A Bloodless RevolutionNapoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807)Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleon’s defeat (1815)The Imperial Palace in Rio de Janeiro where King John VI of Portugal had transferred the Portuguese Royal Court to Brazil.
18Brazil’s Royal Liberator Portuguese prince Dom Pedro stays behind in BrazilDom Pedro accepts Brazilian’s request to rule their own countryHe officially declares Brazil’s independence (September 1822)He accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press, religion and an elected legislature.By 1830, nearly all of Latin American regions win independencePedro I of Brazil
19Flag of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro I
20European and American Reaction British were interested in establishing commercial opportunities and prevented intervention from other Europeans in Latin America.American President James Monroe demanded that Europeans stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. (Monroe Doctrine)
21Throughout Latin America, new democratic republics were created But, Latin Americans did not have a history of self-government & many of the new gov’ts were unstableIn many nations, military dictators called caudillos seized power & made few reforms for citizensLatin America became dependent on the USA
22Clash of PhilosophiesThree Philosophies: In the early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in EuropeConservative—landowners and nobles want traditional monarchiesLiberal—wealthy merchants and business owners want limited democracyRadical—believe in liberty and equality. They want everyone to have a vote.
23ConservativesWanted to return to the way things were before 1789 & The French Revolution.Resist changeWant stabilityThose who ruled Europe after the French Revolution were conservativesThe Concert of Europe (periodic meetings between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France) was an attempt to limit revolution and maintain conservative control
24Conservatives of the early 1800s Preferred a social order where the lower classes respected and obeyed the upper classesMost backed an established church (Catholic, Orthodox, or Protestant)Believed in slow changeThey did not believe in natural rights or constitutional governmentThere was a real fear of “mob rule”Most felt that the uneducated poor were not capable of intelligent rule
25MetternichMetternich of Austria felt that firm action was needed to maintain the status quoRepress any revolutionary ideasControl the pressCrush any protestsSend troops (even into neighboring countries) to suppress rebellionEstablish legitimacy of rule.
26Liberals Along with nationalists, opposed conservatives Most were speaking for the bourgeoisie (middle class)Wanted constitutions and separation of power, natural rights, a republican form of government, protection of property rightsAlmost all opposed monarchies.Heavily influenced by Enlightenment and the French and American Revolutions
27Liberals (cont.) Wanted universal manhood suffrage Strongly supported laissez faire economics (remember, most of these were businessmen-so most were capitalists)Therefore, many of these who supported “bourgeois liberalism” had different goals (as business owners) than did the workers in these factories
28NationalistsWanted to do away with the artificial boundaries that had been set up for countries due to wars, treaties, dynastic marriages, etc.Wanted to unify as a country due to a common heritageA negative effect of nationalism was intolerance of minorities in a given area and, at times, persecution of other ethnic or national groups
29Nationalism Develops Nationalism and Nation-States Nationalism—loyalty to a nation of people with common culture and historyNation-State—nation with its own independent governmentIn 1815 Europe, only France, England and Spain are nation-statesLiberals and radicals support nationalism, but conservatives do not.
32Central Europe Revolts Rebellions erupted over the Balkan peninsula and along the southern fringe of EuropeThe Serbs were the first to revoltLed by Karageorge, they led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans (they were part of the Ottoman Empire) fromHe was unsuccessful, but stirred up intense Serbian nationalism
33Serbia Gains Independence Serbia gains autonomy, or self-rule under the leadership of Milos Obrenovic with the help of RussiaRussia was the largest Slavic country and looked upon Serbia as a little brotherBoth were Slavic in language and both were Christian Orthodox in religion
34Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power “The Eastern Question”:Greeks Gain IndependenceBalkans—region of Europe controlled by the Ottomans in early 1800s.Greece gets European help to gain independence from the Turks.Britain and France send fleets.Russia invades provinces of Moldavia and Walachia
35Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Ottoman Empire WeakensInternal tensions among ethnic groups weaken the empire.This resulted in the region being highly unstable, known as the “Balkan Powder Keg”Seeing the Ottomans as weak, “the old man of Europe”, the other European powers moved in to take what they wanted, splitting the Empire up.Russia moved around the Black Sea, Austria-Hungary grabbed Bosnia and Herzegovina, while England and France moved to take the Middle East and North Africa.
36Europe’s Reaction Revolts occurred in Spain, Portugal, parts of Italy Metternich urged rulers to crush any revolts in EuropeFrench and Austrian troops left their countries to smash uprisings in neighboring countriesThey were successful at first, but the result was the people getting even more upsetAgitators and social reformers began urging workers to support socialism or other new ideas
37Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power 1830s Uprisings CrushedBelgian, Italian, Polish liberals and nationalists launch revolts.By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back in control
38France Revolts AgainLouis XVIII was put back on the French throne, but allowed a constitution and 2 house legislatureWhen he died, his son Charles X, an absolutist, suspended the legislature, limited the press, and limited the right to voteParis reacted violently
39Radicals Change France Conservative DefeatIn 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restore absolute monarchyThe Third RepublicIn 1848, a Paris mob overthrows the monarchy and sets up a republicRadicals split by infighting; moderates control the new government1848 constitution calls for elected president and parliament
40The King RunsRadicals and liberals threw up barricades and threw stones and roof tiles at the soldiersThey soon controlled Paris, and the king fled to EnglandLiberals refused the radicals call for a republic and set up a “citizen king”, Louis Philippe (a cousin of Charles X) forming a constitutional monarchy
41Louis PhilippeLouis Philippe was called the “citizen king” because he owed his power to the people, especially the bourgeoisieHe dressed like them, in a frock coat and top hat, and strolled the streets, talking with themHis government was filled with liberals and the upper bourgeoisie prospered (with his policies favoring them over their workers)
42Turmoil in France Louis Philippe’s government was corrupt Socialists called for an end to private propertyThe country entered a recessionpoor harvests led to higher bread pricesFactories closed and unemployment increasedNewspapers blamed the governmentThe government moved to suppress critics and stop private meetings
43February Days People again took to the streets with barricades Fighting erupted between the people and the armyAs it got worse, Louis Philippe abdicated and fled to EnglandSocialists started a new republic (The Second Republic)There were problems from the beginning; liberals wanted moderate reforms, socialists wanted sweeping reforms and forced the government to set up government-supported workshops for the poor
44June DaysBy June (about 4 months later), upper and middle class factions had gained control of the governmentThey viewed the workshops as a waste of money and shut them downWorkers rioted and bourgeois liberals attacked themThey were joined by peasants who feared that the socialists might take their land1500 died before the government took control
45France Is DividedThe fighting from June Days left France deeply dividedThe middle class hated and feared the socialists and the workers hated the bourgeoisieAgain, people want order, so the National Assembly issued a constitution, created a strong president and one-house legislature
46Radicals Change France France Accepts a Strong RulerLouis-Napoleon—Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew—is elected presidentLouis-Napoleon later takes the title emperor.He promotes industrialization.
47A New BonaparteNapoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon was elected by appealing to the working man and on the basis of his famous namePeople wanted stability and Napoleon had brought stability to FranceLike his famous uncle, he declared himself emperor (with the support of the people-by means of a plebiscite)-Napoleon III
48“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold” - Metternich What does this mean?
49Belgium and HollandThe Congress of Vienna tried to combine the two countries into a strong barrier to the French in the northThis, obviously, was an artificial barrier for the good of the conservatives in containing France
50The Belgians ReactThe Belgian people were very unhappy with this situationThey were Catholic, the Dutch were ProtestantThey had different languages and customsThey were manufacturers, the Dutch were tradersThey reacted by throwing up barricades, threatened revolt, and demanded independence
51Belgium Gains Independence Britain and France both thought that they would benefit from a separate Belgium and Holland, so they supported BelgiumBelgium became an independent country with a liberal constitution
52Poland Poland was divided up by Russia, Prussia, and Austria They wanted to be united as a single country, but most of the country had been handed over to RussiaWhen Polish army officers, students, and landowners rebelled, they were crushed by the RussiansThey got little support from other countries
53Austrian Empire Riots broke out in all of the major cities Metternich censored the press and tried to contain the angerStudents smuggled in books and began to protestWorkers joined the studentsMetternich disguised himself to flee Austria (for England)This began a series of revolutions throughout Europe
54Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Breakup of the Austrian EmpireAustria includes people from many ethnic groupsHalf were Slavic peoples: Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes1866 defeat in Austro-Prussian War and Hungarian nationalism forces emperor to split the empire into Austria and Hungary (Dual Monarchy)Francis Joseph was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.Flag of Austria-Hungary representing two kingdoms, but ruled by one emperor. This was a concession to Hungarian nationalism.Nationalist unrest would continue.
55HungaryLouis Kossuth was a Hungarian journalist in Budapest who demanded an independent government to end serfdomThe Czechs next door made similar demandsThe Austrians gave in temporarily until they could bring troops in to smash any rebellion
56German StatesUniversity students again led the fight for national unity and liberal reformsA potato famine brought peasants and workers into the fightKing Frederick William IV agreed to a constitution written by an elected assemblyHe dissolved the assembly within a year
57German Issues – Frankfurt Assembly Should a united Germany:Be a republic or a monarchy?Should Austria be included?They spoke GermanThe previous slide’s King Frederick William IV was offered the crown of a United GermanyHe refused, saying that the crown was offered “from the gutter” (or by the common man)
58Rebellions FadeBy the 1850s, most of the rebellions that had been happening since the late 1700s faded awayWhy?The use of military forceLoss of mass supportFocus of change shifted from revolution to political activity
59German Unification Background During the 1800s the modern area of Germany was actually made up of 350 independent statesNapoleon dissolved Holy Roman Empire.Prussia became the most important of these statesThey were the largest state and had the best economy and most powerful military
61German Unification Background During Napoleon’s rule he took over most of the modern day area of GermanyFeelings of nationalism started to emerge since the German people wanted to be free from Napoleon’s ruleThe German people had their own shared language, ethnicity, history, geography, and religionIt was time for them to get rid of foreign influence (Napoleon/France) and unify themselves
62German Unification Background After Napoleon’s defeat, some German nationalists called for the unification of GermanyThese people were blocked by Metternich at the Congress of Vienna
63German Unification Process Otto von BismarckMost important person in the unification of GermanyHe was the prime minister of Prussia. Member of the Junker class (landowning nobles).He believed in realpolitikGovernments should not be idealisticGovernments should always do what is in their best interestDisregard morals and scruples if necessaryUse any practical means to meet your goals
64German Unification Process Otto von BismarckBismarck did not believe that speeches and government would unify GermanyInstead he believed Germany would be unified by “blood and iron”Germany would be unified by winning warsGermany would fight three major wars in order to unify itself
65German Unification Process Otto von Bismarck in a speech given to the Prussian Parliament“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power…The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions––that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849––but by blood and iron.”
66German Unification Process Danish War1864, Prussia allied with Austria to seize land from DenmarkAustro-Prussian War1866 Prussia turned against Austria to gain more landPrussia beat Austria in just seven weeksSeveral German states were annexed by Prussia to form the North German ConfederationFranco-Prussian War1870 Bismarck stirred up feelings of nationalism and bitterness against Napoleon to convince the Germans to go to war against FranceBy 1871 they had defeated the FrenchDuring the war, southern German states agreed to unite with Prussia
67German Unification Process By 1871 German Unification was completedThe Prussian King, William I, became the Kaiser (emperor) of a united GermanySecond Reich or Empire was born.2 House legislatureBundesrat (Upper House) & Reichstag (Lower House)
68After Unification Centralized Power under Bismarck (Iron Chancellor) Militarism/military alliancesEncouragement of IndustryChemical and Energy industriesPersecution of Subject NationalitiesGermanizationFought CatholicsFought Socialists
69Actions Against Catholic Church The Kulturkampf against the Catholic ChurchBelieved that the Catholics were loyal to the pope and not himPersecuted the Catholics: made them strongerBismarck's move backfired, and he would work to make peace with the Church
70Bismarck’s Domestic Policies Bismarck vs. Labor Unions and Socialists1st violence/did not workWeakened the unions and socialists through social security legislationInsurance for retirement, sickness and disabilitySocial Security system Becomes model for rest of Europe
71Germany Strengthens Germany Becomes an Industrial Giant By the late 1800’s, German Chemical and Electrical industries were the best in Europe, and Germany possessed a merchant marine second only to Britain’sMaking Economic ProgressGermany possessed most of the same resources that Britain had to achieve industrialization, including vast coal and iron deposits, especially in the Ruhr valley.Krupp – steel and weaponsAugust Thyssen – steelCarl Zeiss - opticsPromoting Scientific and Economic DevelopmentScience in industryEducated workersSyntheticsSingle currencyCoordinated railroadsProtectionist policies
72Kaiser William II Asked Bismarck to resign. Believed in divine right theory.Resisted efforts for democratic reforms.Expanded social welfare programs.Expanded German military and navy.Expanded German empire to rival the British and the French.
73ItalyItaly was comprised of many small states along the peninsula that had broken away from Hapsburg controlRevolutionaries expelled the pope from Rome and set up a nationalist governmentAustrian troops broke up the small states and French troops restored the pope to Rome
74Italian Unification Background Ever since the fall of the Roman Empire in the 400s, Italy had been divided into many small statesAfter the Congress of Vienna, the separate Italian states were put under the control of Spain and AustriaFeelings of nationalism grew stronger over the yearsItalians had the same ethnicity, language, history, geography, religion
75Three Main Leaders of Italian Unification Giuseppe Mazzini“The Soul”Leader of the Young Italy movement: secret society that worked for the unification of ItalyFrench forces crushed Mazzini's brief Italian republic.His writings and speeches inspired nationalist feelings in the Italian people
76Three Main Leaders of Italian Unification Count Camillo Cavour“The Brain”Prime Minister of Sardinia (one of the states in Italy)A diplomat who worked alliances with France and PrussiaUsed diplomacy and war to drive Austria out of power in Italy.Practiced realpolitik
77Three Main Leaders of Italian Unification Giuseppe Garibaldi“The Sword”Professional soldier and leader of the Red Shirts in the Kingdom of the Two SiciliesAccepted aid from CavourStarted in Southern Italy and moved north, conquering each place as he went, unifying Italy piece by piece
78Italian Unification Completed Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia aided Garibaldi’s troopsIn 1861, Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was crowned king of a unified ItalyItaly still faced some problemsThe urban north argued with the rural southThe Catholic Church resisted the new governmentSocialists and Anarchists threatened the conservative government under Victor Emmanuel.
79Reform in RussiaDespite the efforts of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, Russia remained economically underdeveloped and backward.Serfdom in RussiaCzars fail to free the serfs because they fear losing the support of landowners.Nicholas I & Absolutism“Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism”Unable to change the serf-landowner system.
80Reform in Russia Defeat Brings Change Russia’s lack of industrialization leads to military defeat in the Crimean War.Alexander II—czar who determines to make social and economic changesAlexander II was also called “Alexander the Liberator.” In Finland he is known as “the Good Czar.” Why?
81Reform in Russia Reform and Reaction In 1861, Alexander II emancipates the serfs, but debt keeps them on the same land.Reform halts when Alexander II is assassinated by terrorists in 1881.Alexander III imposed strict censorship and increased the power of the secret police.Driven by nationalism, Alexander III encourages industrialization, railroad building, and iron and coal mines with factories.The Church of the Savior on Blood commemorates the place where Alexander II was assassinated.
82Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Russian Empire CrumblesAfter 370 years, Russian czars begin losing control over their empireRussification—forcing other peoples to adopt Russian culturePogroms – violent mob attacks on Jews.Policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnic nationalism
83Russian Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday Loss of faith in the czar Russian workers strike workers take over local governments.Minority nationalities demand independence.October Manifesto protects freedom of person, speech and assembly.Duma, or elected legislature formedNicholas II would dissolve the Duma and named Peter Stolypin as Prime MinisterStolypin would institute reforms until he was assassinated in 1911.
84A Shift in Power Balance Is Lost In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe:AustriaPrussiaBritainFranceRussiaBy 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much powerAustria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically.New nations have formed in Central Europe and South Eastern Europe due to the weakening of the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.