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Ch.29 The Cold War and the Emergence of the New Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch.29 The Cold War and the Emergence of the New Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch.29 The Cold War and the Emergence of the New Europe

2 Peace Treaties  Yalta Conference- divide Germany into four occupation zones  Potsdam Conference- divide Berlin into occupation zones (Berlin would be located in the Middle of Russia Zone)  France, Britain, and U.S would combine Zones their Zones  Russia would have a separate Berlin Zone  Created stage for Berlin Airlift  Differing Ideologies:  Americans Feared of Communism because of too much government  Soviets Feared Capitalism because of the inequality it created

3 The Emergence of the Cold War  The Soviet Union and the United States entered into a tense relationship at the end of WWII  The U.S pursued a policy of containment to prevent Soviet Union into eastern Europe  In 1947 Truman set forth the Truman Doctrine which would evolve to the Marshall Plan  Designed to Restore prosperity  Provide broad Economic aid to European states working together for their mutual benefit

4 The Emergence of the Cold War  1949 Soviet Union Tests first Nuclear bomb  In 1949 Western nations form North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  was a commitment to mutual assistance in the event of an attack  The State of Israel was created in 1948, and the Arab-Israel conflict over disputed territory involved Europe and the United States  The Soviet Union became an ally to Arab states  the U.S Supports Israel  The Korean Conflict in 1950 brought the Soviet Union and the United States on the opposite of yet another international dilemma  Proxy War- is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly.

5 Three Crisis of 1956  The Suez Intervention which involved French and British intervention in the war between Egypt and Israel  Proved that without U.S support, nations of Western Europe could not use military force to impose their will on the rest of the world  Poland efforts towards independence temporarily caused crisis of Soviet troop movements in the region  The country managed to be led by a communist figure Wladyslaw Gomulka who was approved by the Soviet Communist party  After the rise of power of Imre Nagy in Hungary Soviet troops invaded the country and deposed Nagy  The United States did not liberate Hungary as they promised in the Truman Doctrine

6 Later Cold War Confrontations  The 1960 Paris Summit Talks collapsed  Intended to promote the peaceful coexistence of the Soviet Union and the United States  The aborted conference closed the wall along the border between East and West Berlin, shutting two parts of the city off from each other

7 Later War Confrontations  The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) tested JFK’s presidency  The Soviet Union built nuclear launch pads in Cuba and were shipping nuclear weapons to Cuba  The U.S impose blockade of these weapons  After intense standoff the Soviet Union backed off  U.S secretly remove nuclear bombs in Turkey while Soviet Union publically removed arms from Cuba (perceived as U.S victory)  In 1963 the Soviet Union and U.S concluded a nuclear ban treaty that marked the beginning of reduced tensions

8 Later Cold War Confrontations  In 1968 Leonid Brezhnev declared the right of the Soviet Union to interfere in the domestic policies of other Communist Countries  The Soviet Union sent troops into Czechoslovakia (Prague Spring) to repress more liberal form of communism  The Brezhnev Doctrine sought to sustain the Communist governments of Eastern Europe and to prevent liberalization

9 The European Retreat from Empire  Many European countries broke away from their colonies after WWII in a mass act of decolonization  Result of the war and response to nationalist movements in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East  The one exception to this is the rule of the Soviet Union  Many of the states that became newly independent were called the third world because they were aligned neither with the United States nor the Soviet Union  Would be the source of conflict especially in Latin America and Africa

10 France, the United States, and Vietnam  France decolonization became an important part of the Cold War as the United States became involved in the war in Vietnam

11 Toward Western European Unification  Much of Western Europe’s political power has come from its postwar cooperation  In 1957 the members of this group agreed to form a new organization called the European Economic Community (EEC) or common market  This group hoped to achieve the elimination of tariffs, a free flow of capital and labor, and similar benefits in their countries

12 Toward Western Europe Unification  In 1988 the leader of the EEC had decided that by 1992 the EEC was to be a free-trade zone with no trade barriers or restrictive trade policies  In 1991 the Treaty of Maastricht proposed a series of steps leading to a unified European currency (the Euro) and a strong central bank  The EEC was renamed the European Union  The Euro was launched in 1999

13 The Collapse of European Communism  Communism collapsed in Europe in part because of the changing Soviet Union policy advanced by Mikhail Gorbachev  Gorbachev wanted to revive the Russian economy  Under the policy of perestroika he proposed major reforms to the centralized economic ministries  He also abandoned traditional Marxist ideology by advocating for ownership of private property and moving toward a free market ideology  When these policies did not achieve the economic gains he desired he pursued bold political reform such as his policy glasnost, or “openness”

14 The collapse of Eastern Communism  Throughout 1989 one after another Eastern European country moved toward independence  The Berlin Wall fell in 1989  In the coming months communism and the Soviet Union crumbled  Gorbachev was unseated by communist coup in 1991

15 Europe at the Opening of the Global Century  The Collapse of communism and the emergence of the European Union fundamentally altered the political, social, and economic landscape of contemporary Europe  The globalization of the world economy has made Europe increasingly dependent on other countries (Including many of its former colonies and the U.S) for continued peace

16 Berlin Wall documentary  Berlin Wall


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