2Personality Perspectives Psychoanalytic—importance of unconscious processes and childhood experiencesHumanistic—importance of self and fulfillment of potentialTrait—description and measurement of personality differencesSocial cognitive—importance of beliefs about self
4Dream AnalysisAnother method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
5Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).OBJECTIVE 4| Describe Freud’s view of personality structure, and discuss the interactions of the id, ego and the superego.
6Personality Development Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.OBJECTIVE 5| Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior.
7Psychosexual StagesFreud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.
8Oral StagePleasure centers on the mouth– sucking, biting, chewing.
9Personality Development Oedipus Complexa boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival fatherElectra Complexa girl’s sexual desires toward her father and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival mother
10Personality Development Castration Anxietyboys feel guilt and fear that their father would punish them (castration) for sexual desires for their mother & jealousy of their father.Penis Envywomen fixated in this stage symbolicallycastrate men through embarrassment,deception, and derogation.
11IdentificationChildren cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values.From the K. Vandervelde private collection
12Personality Development Fixationa lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
13Personality Development Oral fixationpossibly because of overindulging or depriving (abrupt, early weaning). They exhibit either passive dependence (like that of a nursing infant) or an exaggerated denial of this dependence--perhaps by acting tough and uttering biting sarcasm. They might also continue to seek oral gratification through excessive smoking or eating.
14Personality Development Anal fixationnever resolve anal conflict (Toilet training)Anal expulsive– messy & disorganized.Anal retentive– highly controlled and compulsively neat.
15Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
16Comer, Abnormal Psychology 4e Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Figure 4.02
17Assessing the Unconscious Rorschach Inkblot Testthe most widely used projective testa set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschachseeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
18Comer, Abnormal Psychology 4e Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Figure An inkblot similar to those used in the Rorschach test
19Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).1. When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability).2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).
20Carl JungUniversality of themes- archetypes are inherited universal human concepts–“Mother”Archetypes are primordial images inherited from our ancestors and include mother, father, God, death, snakes, animus/anima, the persona, the shadow, and the self.The animus is the masculine side of the female.The anima is the feminine side of the male.
21The Neo-FreudiansLike Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature and not sexual A child struggles with an inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power.National Library of MedicineAlfred Adler ( )
22Alfred Adler Alfred Adler strove throughout his life to overcome a sense of inferiority.1911: Left Freud’s analytic societyIndividual PsychologyWe all begin life with a sense of inferiority.Striving for superiority is the motivating force in life.If unsuccessful: inferiority complexWell-adjusted people express their striving for superiority through concern for the social interest.
23Alfred Adler Birth Order The order in which you are born to a family inherently affects your personality:First born children who later haveyounger siblings have it the worst.Middle born children have it the easiest.The youngest child, like the first born, is more likely to experience personality problems during adulthood.Research examining birth order effects does not often support Adler’s predictions. The impact of birth order on personality is far more complex than Adler suggests.
24The Neo-FreudiansLike Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from“penis envy.”The Bettmann Archive/ CorbisKaren Horney ( )
25Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchPersonality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood.Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individual, which may be as powerful as parental influence.Gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age.OBJECTIVE 9| Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis.
26Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchThere may be other reasons for dreams besides wish fulfillment.Verbal slips can be explained on the basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices.Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.
27Is Repression a Myth?Many researchers now believe that repression rarely, if ever, occurs.
28Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind.The majority of children, death camp survivors, and battle-scarred veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind.
29Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective The scientific merits of Freud’s theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the after-the-fact explanation.
30Humanistic Perspective By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud’s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists.Carl Rogers( )Abraham Maslow( )
31Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers– “Father of Humanism”Abraham MaslowFree willSelf-awarenessPsychological growth
32Humanistic Perspective Unconditional Positive Regardan attitude of total acceptance toward another personSelf-Conceptall our thoughts and feelingsabout ourselves, in an answerto the question, “Who am I?”
33Fig. 12-9, p. 488 Figure 12.9: Rogers’s view of personality structure. In Rogers’s model, the self-concept is the only important structural construct. However, Rogers acknowledged that one’s self-concept may not be consistent with the realities of one’s actual experience—a condition called incongruence.Fig. 12-9, p. 488
34Assessing the SelfIn an effort to assess personality, Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be (ideal) and as they actually are (real). If the two descriptions were close the individual had a positive self-concept.OBJECTIVE 12| Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality.
35ExistentialismExistenceLack of CertaintyAuthenticityRollo May
36Evaluating Humanism Difficult to test or validate scientifically Tends to be too optimistic, minimizing some of the more destructive aspects of human nature
37Trait Theories A. Gordon Allport B. Cattell C. Eysenck Cardinal- strong personality traits that affect us the mostCentral Traits- highly characteristic of a personB. CattellSurface Traits- easily observed by othersSource Traits- underlie surface behaviorC. EysenckExtraversion- outgoing, sociableIntraversion- shy
38Contemporary Research– The Trait Perspective a characteristic pattern of behaviora disposition to feel and act,as assessed by self-report inventoriesand peer reportsGordonAllport
39Exploring TraitsFactor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits.Cattell used this approach to develop a 16 Personality Factor (16PF) inventory.OBJECTIVE 15| Describe some of the ways psychologists have attempted to compile a list of basic personality traits.Raymond Cattell( )
40Factor AnalysisCattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personality traits based on statistical correlations.ExcitementImpatientIrritableBoisterousBasictraitSuperficialtraitsImpulsive
42Personality Dimensions Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.
43Assessing TraitsPersonality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once. The answers are then compared to established normsOBJECTIVE 16| Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the most widely used of these inventories.
44Self-Report Inventory Psychological test in which an individual answers standardized questions about their behavior and feelingsThe answers are then compared to established norms
45Strengths of Self-Reports Standardized—each person receives same instructions and responds to the same questionsUse of established norms: results are compared to previously established norms and are not subjectively evaluated
46Weaknesses of Self-Reports Evidence that people can “fake” responses to look better (or worse)Tests contain hundreds of items and become tediousPeople may not be good judges of their own behavior
47The Trait PerspectiveMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality testsoriginally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use)now used for many other screening purposes
48MMPIOriginally designed to assess mental health and detect psychological symptomsHas over 500 questions to which person must reply “True” or “False”Includes “lying scales”
49The Trait PerspectiveHysteria(uses symptoms to solve problems)Masculinity/femininity(interests like those of other sex)T-score12345678910Hypochondriasis(concern with body symptoms)Depression(pessimism, hopelessness)Psychopathic deviancy(disregard for social standards)Paranoia(delusions, suspiciousness)Psychasthenia(anxious, guilt feelings)Schizophrenia(withdrawn, bizarre thoughts)Hypomania(overactive, excited, impulsive)Social introversion(shy, inhibited)ClinicallysignificantrangeAftertreatment(no scoresin the clinicallysignificant range)Before(anxious,depressed,anddisplayingdeviantbehaviors)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profile
50The Trait Perspective Empirically Derived Test a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groupssuch as the MMPI
52Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation ControversyWalter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different. Therefore, traits are not good predictors of behavior.We look for genuine personality traits that persist over time and across situations.If you consider friendliness a trait,friendly people must act friendlyat different times and places.OBJECTIVE 18| Summarize the person-situation controversy, and explain its importance as a commentary on the trait perspective.
53Evaluation of Trait Perspective Doesn’t really explain personality, simply describe the behaviorsDoesn’t describe the development of the behaviorsTrait approaches generally fail to address how issues such as motives, unconscious, or beliefs about self affect personality development
54Social-Cognitive Perspective Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context.Albert Bandura
55Social Cognitive Perspective Social cognitive theory— the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experience, self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism in personalityReciprocal determinism--model that explains personality as the result of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental interactionsSelf-efficacy—belief that people have about their ability to meet demands of a specific situation
56Martin Seligman: Methodology and Results Thought dogs would learn to avoid shockDogs placed in harness and given shocksMartin Seligman’s research in the late 1960s addressed the question of how we react to repeated and unavoidable shocks or torture. In particular, Seligman studied the ability of dogs to learn avoidance behaviors when given an electric shock. He placed dogs into harnesses (much as Pavlov had done) then gave them a series of shocks paired with a conditioned stimulus (also similar to Pavlov’s experiment). He gave the dogs no opportunity to escape the shock.
57Seligman: Methodology and Results Seligman next placed the same dogs into boxes that allowed them to escape the shock by jumping over a hurdle. Despite the tenets of operant conditioning, which would predict that the dogs would learn how to avoid the shock, the dogs did not learn to jump over the hurdle but rather sat down and cowered in the box.When able to avoid the shocks, the dogs cowered in the boxHypothesis not confirmed
58Learned HelplessnessSeligman named his discovery learned helplessness, because the dogs had apparently learned that they had no control over their situation. Even when they did gain control and had access to a method by which they could avoid the shock, they had internalized their sense of helplessness to such a degree that they did not learn how to escape being shocked.Dogs learned that they couldn’t control or avoid the shocks, so didn’t even try to avoid themSignificant in the study of depression in humans
59Learned Helplessness: Implications Learned helplessness is related to depressionThe concept of learned helplessness has played an important role in the study of depression. This experiment showed the importance of having a sense of control over the situations in which we find ourselves. People who have a sense of learned helplessness are more likely than others to feel depressed because they do not feel that they can control what happens to them.Subsequent studies on humans included research into the role of control in nursing homes. Residents who received control over such decisions as what time to perform various activities and where to sit when guests arrive, or who were given plants to take care of (rather than having the staff take care of the plants), exhibited a greater sense of control and were less depressed than residents who did not receive these options.Think about what learned helplessness might mean for people in totalitarian governments, prisons, concentration camps, or abusive relationships.Totalitarian governmentsNursing home studies
60Learned HelplessnessWhen unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness.