Presentation on theme: "India as a colony Until 1947, India was a colony of the British Empire The Indian National Congress was an organization of Indians who represented Indian."— Presentation transcript:
India as a colony Until 1947, India was a colony of the British Empire The Indian National Congress was an organization of Indians who represented Indian needs and goals throughout the 20 th century. Muslim League created in 1906 to further represent Muslims, as most of the representatives in the INC were Hindus.
In 1900, the British empire expanded overseas into Canada, Africa, Australia, and all of India
India as a colony “The moment Britain gets into trouble elsewhere, India, in her present temper, would burst into a blaze of rebellion.” - William Archer As soon as Britain found itself in foreign problems, the INC (and other Indians) planned to push for self government and start their independence movement. This is shown when after World War 1 ends, India starts dramatically pushing for independence from Britain.
India as a colony British Wanted to keep India for its economic prosperity and raw materials. Wanted to stay a world power. Used violence to repress Indian protests. Indians Wanted self rule. Pushed for independence. Focused on nonviolent attempts such as marches and protests to fight British rule.
Indians fighting in World War 1 1.5 million Indian men fought for Britain in the war effort on the Western Front as well as in East Africa. Volunteering to fight in the army gave the men a possibility to change their social status to a higher “warrior class”. Many Indians, along with the INC, felt that they would reach independence if they helped Britain and made them grateful for their services. “The Indian empire has overwhelmed the British nation by the completeness and unanimity of its enthusiastic aid.”
Indian death tolls WW1 115,000 Hindus and Muslims were killed or injured as a result of fighting in World War 1 alongside the British The British was surprised that so many Indians (1.5 million) actually volunteered to fight, so not many were forcefully fighting.
Outcomes of WW1 in India British along with its allies prevailed victorious at the end of WW1 in 1918. Many Indians thought that from this, Britain would grant them with independence or at least self government, considering their active role in WW1. When this proved to be a false reality, Indians began making other plans towards independence. This was a key factor that made India push for self government and independence.
The beginning of the end of British rule! 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar Thousands of unarmed Indians that were peacefully protesting for self government and rights were killed and wounded by British soldiers. This not only made the British look bad in comparison to the Indians, but also raised awareness on the issue of treatment. This acted as a spark to the already ongoing protests for independence.
Independence Movement Begins! In 1929, the Indian National Congress Party officially agreed to start a movement for complete independence from British rule. Movement disobeyed the British rule to reach the goal of self government and independence from Britain. It was a civil disobedience movement, based on NON-VIOLENCE, however the British often fought back using harmful and violent tactics.
Indians peacefully protested, where as Britain fought back with violent attacks.
India’s Independence – British POV Britain did not want to lose India as a colony because it granted Britain with raw materials for export, increasing their economic standpoint. Britain controlling India showed Britain’s strong world power and influence on the rest of the world.
Gandhi's Salt March 1930 Led by Gandhi, a well known and famous leader of the Indian Independence movement. Illegally made salt and marched with thousands upon thousands of participators to protest British rule.
Gandhi's Salt March Gandhi was imprisoned (which is a common theme of many independence leaders during this time). Over 60,000 peaceful protestors were also imprisoned. Britain was very angered due to this issue, and thought imprisonment would bring an end to the movement…but the movement just intensified. Turning point for Indian independence struggle.
India’s Independence Years and years of nonviolent civil resistance (Satyagraha) by Indians, and brutal attacks by the British government continued India finally gained independence in August of 1947, ending British rule. Gandhi was assassinated by a radical Hindu just 6 months later. A key factor that helped India gain independence was that since Britain was in debt from WW2, it could not sustain India as a colony anymore.
India’s Independence August 15,1947 marks the most important day for India in the 20 th century. India was granted their independence from Britain and were officially self ruling, forming the republic of India. India no longer had the guaranteed protection and relations with Britain/Europe. India could now focus on internal affairs such as the Partition of India, conflicts among ethnic groups, and its economic and political stability.
Nationalist movements in India led to its independence and led it to, in the future, have the largest growing economy and one of the largest democracies in the world. (Major Progress for India).
Partition of India Tensions have always been around between the Hindi and Muslim population. With Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a leader, the Muslim League pushed for the creation of Pakistan. (starting in the late 1920s.) Pakistan would be created for Muslims so Islamic followers and Hinduism followers could be separated.
“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a subcontinent of nationalities.” – Muhammad Ali Jinnah He felt that India should be divided based on ethnic groups, and pushed for the partition of India and creation of Pakistan.
Creation of Pakistan Pakistan was creating and separated from India the same year that India gained their independence. (1947) Muslims left India to live in Pakistan and Hindus would live in India. Population exchange exceeded 14 million people.
Pakistan was separated into East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which helped trading relations but still lead to tensions around borders and religion groups.
Globalization India was slightly globalizing during this era, but not to the vast extent of other countries and empires during this time. India was more focused on internal affairs such as the independence movement, partition of India, and trying to stabilize their political and economic affairs. As time continued, globalization in India increased.
Globalization India was among one of the original members of the United Nations, which was created in 1951. The UN played a role in India gaining independence, as well as the Partition of India. India “laid low” for about 20 years after its partition to follow isolationism and focus on internal affairs.
Globalization (economy) India started experiencing policy changes on economy in the 1990s. The LPG model (Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization) pushed to have the fastest growing economy and to be globally competitive. Deviates from traditional socialist ideas that have been present in India since the independence movement and embraced a free-market economy. World GDP was decreasing since 1900, but began increasing once India supported a free-market economy. Largest Exports: clothing, handicrafts, automobiles.
Globalization (global culture) India began globalizing culture in the mid 1900s, where they participated in the world cup, cricket competitions, and other sports events. Cricket competitions were often conducted between India and their former mother country, Britain. In 1990, India first joined the Olympics, where it competed against countries all over the world.
Progress In India India was a very prosperous nation throughout the 1900s. Developments in technology, gaining independence, and emerging as a growing economic power show its progress. India was able to prosper without initializing any violence towards other powers.
Progress in technology Scholars in India were constantly trying to create new inventions, whether it be for daily life of a citizen or weapons for its military. Radio/Wireless communication methods and advances in the space race (detecting water on the moon). Both Pakistan and India possessed nuclear power, however they did not use it.
Status of Women Women have always been regarded of a lower standard than men. Although women work during the world wars while men fought on the battlefields, there has been no evidence of true progress. “The Women’s Party” created in 1917 for equal rights showed little impact. To this day, women are not held up to the same standards as men.
Status of Women Women protesting against violence. Women protesting for equal rights.