Presentation on theme: "FIGHTING OFF DISEASE IMMUNE SYSTEM. System of blood cells and bodily functions designed to allow you to fight pathogens Pathogen- anything capable of."— Presentation transcript:
System of blood cells and bodily functions designed to allow you to fight pathogens Pathogen- anything capable of causing disease within your body May be: Virus Bacteria Environmental factor (pollen, etc.) Chemical
PARTS OF SYSTEM Skin Bone marrow White blood cells Lymph (will cover later this week)
THE VOCABULARY Antigen- A marker on the surface of a cell Antibody- A marker placed something to mark it for destruction by white blood cells
NON-SPECIFIC RESPONSE Swelling Allows more blood to reach an area, bringing ability to heal faster Fever Higher temperature allows faster WBC production Temperature is above the optimum operating temperature for the enzymes of many pathogens
SPECIFIC RESPONSE B/T cell response Generally targeted at one specific disease Ex- once memory B cells produced for a virus, you cannot get that virus again because those B cells will remember the antigens on that virus
REACTING TO DIFFERENT PATHOGENS How it works Once pathogen is killed, a piece of it is brought to site of T- Cells (called presentation). T cells remember shape, and stimulate killer T and B cell formation
TYPES OF WHITE BLOOD CELL B vs. T white blood cells T cells Helper T cells- when a pathogen killed, brought to area where helper T recognizes disease and begins to divide. Cell makes proteins that stimulate other immune cells to divide Killer T-Cells- Searches for pieces of receptor on potentially infected cells and kills those cells B cells- highly specific! Only search for cells that match their receptors Plasma b-cells- search for matching antigens Memory B-cells- made later, remember invader
IMMUNIZATIONS Inject pieces of virus into body Pieces remembered by blood cells, so if any pathogen with that piece enters body, it will be killed **Cannot get the flu from the flu shot!!! Once immunized, you are immune to that disease Nasal spray given with live virus- cannot get nasal spray if you are sick
IMMUNIZATION VS. BOOSTER Compared to tetanus, which you have to get every 5-10 years… Tetanus is bacteria Cannot be immune to bacteria, because only a few shapes of bacteria Bacteria Clostridium tetani produces toxin that causes muscles to become rigid Tetanus shot makes your body know to fight that toxin.
ALLERGIES Your body’s set reaction to a stimulus from the environment Immune system has decided that something is bad when it really is not to most people Allergy shots- shots of allergen (in small, controlled amounts) make body “used to” allergen so it will not mount the same response Antihistamines- a histamine reaction stimulates the runny nose and watery eyes reaction from many allergies. Antihistamines repress this reaction, making your reaction less… miserable.
LEUKEMIA Cancer of the white blood cells White blood cells are stuck in mitosis phase of preproduction, so they are unable to move to the stage where they protect you Treated by- Chemotherapy- kills off cancerous cells Bone marrow transplant- gives patient healthy bone marrow to make new white blood cells
HIV/AIDS Virus attacks white blood cells Kills white blood cells Leukemia vs. HIV/AIDS Both suppress immune system Leukemia- too many wbc, none can work HIV/AIDS- too few wbc
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Autoimmune disease Your own immune system attacks parts of your body MS is when your immune system attacks the covering of the nerve cell, making it more difficult for that cell to send a signal somewhere in your body
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis OR Lou Gehrig’s Disease Rapid attack of motor neurons ONLY (compared to MS attacking all nerves), causes muscles to stop receiving signals Results in muscle rigidity and muscle dystonia Usually results in death in less than 5 years.