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Late 19 th Century Intellectualism. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900) “The Prophet”

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Presentation on theme: "Late 19 th Century Intellectualism. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900) “The Prophet”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Late 19 th Century Intellectualism

2 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900) “The Prophet”

3 Conventional modern morality is “slave morality” which seeks to chain the strong – the Judeo-Christian command “Thou Shalt Not” This undermines the natural order which should be dominated by “master morality,” exemplified by Homeric Greece. Strength, passion and will over charity, piety and restraint. A Revaluation of All Values

4 “Who is the great dragon whom the spirit will no longer call lord and god? "Thou shalt" is the name of the great dragon. But the spirit of the lion says, "I will." "Thou shalt" lies in his way, sparkling like gold, an animal covered with scales; and on every scale shines a golden "thou shalt." Values, thousands of years old, shine on these scales; and thus speaks the mightiest of all the dragons: ‘All value of all things shines on me. All value has long been created, and I am all created value. Verily, there shall be no more 'I will.’’ Thus speaks the dragon.”

5 The Psychologist All human behavior is a manifestation of the “will to power.” The strong should naturally exert this power over the weak, but in modern society the weak have expressed their will to power by massing into a herd and creating slave- morality, which is a defense mechanism designed to limit the strong. Those who are strong enough to resist this slave morality are Ubermensch.

6 Nietzsche and the Modern World Christianity is an example par excellence of the slave-morality, demanding deference to ideals of weakness and submission. Utilitarianism as useless herd-morality “Liberal institutions cease to be liberal as soon as they are attained: later on, there are no worse and no more thorough injurers of freedom than liberal institutions…they undermine the will to power; they level mountain and valley, and call that morality; they make men small, cowardly, and hedonistic, every time it is the herd animal that triumphs with them. Liberalism: in other words, herd-animalization…” “Madness is the exception in individuals but the rule in groups.” (see Gustav Le Bon)

7 Expropriation Anti-Semitism: “It is a matter of honor with me to be absolutely clean and unequivocal in relation to anti- Semitism, namely, opposed to it, as I am in my writings.” Nazism Ayn Rand and laissez-faire capitalism Social Darwinism

8 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

9 -People driven primarily by unconscious sexual drives (libido) -All stages of development, from childhood onward, characterized by these drives Freud’s Beliefs

10 Freud’s Components of the Mind Ego: the part of us which understands that we cannot have everything our own way— takes note of our external surroundings Id: the part of us which only wants what we desire at a given moment Superego: keeps both ego and id in check; helps us know when to repress our own desires Neurosis: symptoms that form when a person has repressed too many unconscious desires


12 Other Ideas Freud was not fond of religion Supported science and rationality Somewhat pessimistic regarding civilization and humanity Carl Jung held opposite views Freud influenced by Enlightenment

13 John Stuart Mill - Developed Utilitarianism -Utilitarianism: practical philosophy emphasizing the “ends” rather than the “means”; we should support whatever makes “the greatest number of people happy” -Interested in both “rational” endeavors, such as science, logic, and economics, and in “imaginative” endeavors such as poetry

14 John Stuart Mill (Cont’d) Mill was a Liberal Believed women should have access to opportunities available to men—The Subjection of Women Other especially significant works include On Liberty, Principles of Political Economy, System of Logic

15 Karl Marx (1818-1883)

16 Life Born in Trier, Germany in 1818 Jewish family converted to Christianity so that his father could practice law Studied law and philosophy in Bonn and Berlin Theorized about morality, economics, religion, history, rationality, and more –Criticized works of other philosophers such as Hegel

17 The Communist Manifesto Written with Friedrich Engels, a partner of Marx Favored abolition of private property, rather than reform or rearrangement of it. Industrial laborers (proletariat) must liberate itself from capitalism Capitalism forces more people into the proletariat and increases their suffering This would lead to an inevitable proletariat revolution Incredibly influential work

18 Economic and Philosophical Points Capitalism relies on alienated labor –Lessens the options of the individual, forcing one into a role Capitalism is uncontrollable and has risks There should be more control over the economy

19 Politics and Society Defined a difference between political emancipation (rights and liberties) and human emancipation –Political emancipation can coexist with religion, however political emancipation is not sufficient in granting or replacing true freedom –Human emancipation is found within communities and interaction with others over isolation Support of some degree of liberalism

20 ‘Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, Introduction’ Stated that religion is the “opiate of the people” Thought that the proletariat would emancipate society as a whole Religion creates a false sense of community, all equal under eyes of god The state creates a false sense of community, all citizens equal under the law The false sense of community can be overcome by the proletariat if they create revolution on their own accord

21 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) Admired by Marx, Marx formed many of his views through critiquing Hegel Key works included “Phenomenology of the Spirit,” “Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences,” “The Science of Logic,” and “Elements of the Philosophy of Right” Concept of the Dialectic

22 Hegel’s Beliefs

23 First International 1846-1873 Founded by British and French trade unionists Encompassed vast array of radical political types Reminiscence of Paris Commune frightened people Informed workers of mutual problems Marxism emerged as standard of socialism


25 France: “Opportunism” Rejected Jean Jaures and Jules Guesde = two major factions –Jaures- socialists should cooperate w/bourgeoisie –Guesde-argued against cooperation Second International condemned “opportunism” in France French socialists started working together Jules Guesde Jean Jaures

26 Socialism in Britain Didn’t have significant progress in British society until House of Lords removed protection accorded to union funds Workers left liberal party and joined socialist Labor Party Gov’t and major parties responded slowly to socialist pressures

27 Fabianism Britain’s most influential socialist group Gradualist approach to social reform Municipal modes of collective ownership Famous Fabians? –HG Wells –George Bernard Shaw

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