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NAME THE SEVEN DWARVES Take out a piece of paper.

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Presentation on theme: "NAME THE SEVEN DWARVES Take out a piece of paper."— Presentation transcript:

1 NAME THE SEVEN DWARVES Take out a piece of paper

2 NOW PICK OUT THE SEVEN DWARVES. Turn your paper over Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful GoofySleazy Shy Droopy MoodyHoppy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy RenDumpy Sneezy Pop GrumpyCheesy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Itchy Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy DiddyStimpy

3 SEVEN DWARVES Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful



6  Definition: learning that has persisted over time; The ability to retain knowledge  Adaptive Advantage  Allowed animals to use information from the past to respond quickly to immediate challenges WHAT IS MEMORY?

7  Memorized series of nonsense syllables( TUV YOF GEK)  More times he practiced the list on day 1, the fewer repetitions he required to relearn it on day 2  Retention Curve HERMANN EBBINGHAUS

8  Memory system is often compared to that of a computer  Information has to be encoded (getting information to our brain)  Then stored (retained)  And finally retrieved (getting in out of the memory system) INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL

9  Proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin  See pg 187 THREE STAGE PROCESSING MODEL Sensory Input Rehearsal Forgetting


11  Automatic Processing: Unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings  Space – we often encode the place on the page where material appears  Time – we unintentionally note the sequence of a day’s events  Frequency – we effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen (I ran into you four times today!)  Well-learned information – reading billboards, the writing on a truck  Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort  Often produces durable and accessible memories AUTOMATIC V. EFFORTFUL PROCESSING

12  Rote Rehearsal: Repeating information over and over  Boosts memory  Spacing Effect: Distributed v. Massed Rehearsal  Distributed practice yields better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study/practice  Repeated quizzing also helps  “Testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.” – Henry Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke EFFORTFUL PROCESSING: REHEARSAL & SPACING EFFECT

13  Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list  Primacy Effect: Enhanced recall for items at the beginning of the list  More time to practice  Recency Effect: Enhanced recall for the last items on a list  Still in working/short-term memory  Presidents, names, word lists, etc. REHEARSAL: SERIAL POSITION EFFECT

14  Visual: Encoding of picture images (imagery)  Acoustic: Encoding of sound (the sound of words)  Semantic: Encoding of meaning (meaning of words)  Which yields the best memory of verbal information?  Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving  Flashed a word at people  Then asked a question that required participants to process the word visually, acoustically, or semantically  Is the word in capital letters?  Does the word rhyme with train?  Would the word fit into this sentence? The girl put the ______on the table. WHAT WE ENCODE


16  Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically  FBIIRSCIAEPA  Hierarchies: Composed of a few broad concept divided and subdivided into narrower concepts ORGANIZING INFORMATION FOR ENCODING

17 ENCODING: MNEMONIC DEVICE  A memory trick or technique for remembering specific facts  “Every good boy does fine” to remember the notes on the lines of the scale  “People say you could have odd lots of good years” as a way to remember how to spell “psychology”

18 MNEMONIC DEVICES  Loci Method: A person associates items to be remembered with places  Peg-Word: A person associates items to remember with a list of peg words already memorized  Goal is to visualize the items to remember with the items on the pegs



21  First stage of storage that holds large amounts of incoming data for very brief amounts of time  Iconic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli  A photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second  Echoic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli  If attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds SENSORY MEMORY/SENSORY REGISTERS

22 SENSORY MEMORY EXPERIMENT 22 The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. R G T F M Q L Z S 50 ms (1/20 second) “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) Sperling (1960)

23 PARTIAL REPORT 23 Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. 50 ms (1/20 second) S X T J R S P K Y

24 TIME DELAY 24 “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second) A D I N L V O G H Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone

25 SENSORY MEMORIES 25 Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

26  A tiny amount of information from your sensory registers will move to short term memory  Conscious, activated memory which holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten  Stays in as long as you can rehearse it  Slightly better for what we hear than what we see  Small capacity  Can hold the “magic number 7 plus or minus 2” – George Miller  Can increase it by chunking  Also called working memory  Actively manipulating information WORKING MEMORY (SHORT-TERM)

27  Moves to long term as a result of rehearsal  Elaborative Rehearsal: linking new material to things you already know FROM SHORT TERM TO LONG TERM

28  Capacity is limitless  Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986) LONG TERM MEMORY

29  Explicit (Declarative): Memories for information we can readily express in words and that we are aware of having; Can be intentionally retrieved from memory  Semantic: Facts and concepts not liked to a particular time; Like a dictionary or encyclopedia  Episodic: Personally experienced events  Processed by hippocampus (active during deep sleep), not stored here  Implicit (Nondeclarative): Memories for information that we cannot readily express in words and may not be aware of having  Procedural: motor skills and habits  Emotional Memories: learned emotional responses to various stimuli (usually through classical conditioning)  Processed by the cerebellum  Flashbulb memories TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORIES


31  Memories are not stored in one “spot” in the brain  Working memory is processed in the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe  Long-term semantic memories are located in the frontal and temporal lobes  Episodic: frontal and temporal WARNING

32  Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)  A long-lasting change in the structure or function of a synapse that increases the efficiency of neural transmission and is thought to be related to how information is stored by neurons  An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses NEURAL BASIS FOR MEMORY

33  In stressful situations  Emotion-triggered stress hormones make more glucose energy available for brain activity  Boost in amygdala activity  Result: Arousal can sear certain events into the brain  Epinephrine and cortisol can affect long-term retention of negative memories  Sudden stress hormones can block older memories STRESS AND MEMORIES

34 RETRIEVAL Recall v. Recognition: We remember more than we recall

35  During retrieval, information flows from long- term memory back to working memory  Mind reconstructs a memory out of the stored bits  Retrieved information is blended with the new content currently present in the working memory  Prone to change  Future retrievals will bring up the modified file !

36  Recognition!  Most effective cues are those we generate ourselves  Elaborative rehearsal  The more retrieval cues, the more likely you are to remember  Priming: The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory CUES: STIMULUS THAT HELPS YOU ACCESS TARGET INFORMATION

37  Context Congruent Memory: Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in an environment similar to the one in which you encoded the information  More similar to your retrieval circumstances are to your encoding circumstances, the more likely you are to remember the information  Retracing your footsteps  Revisiting the scene of a crime  Mood Congruent Memory: The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood CONTEXT/MOOD CONGRUENT MEMORY


39  Daniel Schacter  Three Sins of Forgetting  Absent-mindedness: inattention to details leads to encoding failure  Transience: storage decay over time  Blocking: inaccessibility of stored information  Three Sins of Distortion  Misattribution: confusing the source of information  Suggestibility: the lingering effects of misinformation  Bias: belief-colored recollections  One Sin of Intrusion:  Persistence: unwanted memories WHY DO WE FORGET?

40  Most of what we sense we never notice  If you don’t encode it, you can’t retrieve it  Slower encoding with age ENCODING FAILURE



43  Hermann Ebbinghaus’ “Forgetting Curve”  We forget a lot right away, but then it levels off!  Result: Some memories do “decay”  Explanation?  Fading of the memory traces in our brains? STORAGE DECAY

44  Forgetting is often a result of not being able to get out the memories we have stored  Why?  Proactive Interference: Something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you learn later  Forward-acting  Retroactive Interference: Occurs when new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier  Backward-acting  Information that is presented in the hour before sleep is protected from retroactive interference  But not in the few minutes before sleep! RETRIEVAL FAILURE

45  We unknowingly revise our memories  People who were told the benefit of tooth-brushing recalled having frequently more brushed their teeth in the preceding two weeks then people who were not told the benefit of tooth- brushing  Memory is often self-serving  Sigmund Freud and Memory  We repress (banish from the conscious) painful memories to protect our self-concept and to minimize anxiety  “Submerged” memory will linger and could be retrieved by some later cue or during therapy  Many psychologists think repression is rare  We might actually be more likely to remember emotional memories MOTIVATED FORGETTING

46  We infer our past from stored information plus what we later imagined, expected, saw, or heard  Elizabeth Loftus  Misinformation Effect: After exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember  We alter and save the new file  One experiment showed people digitally altered photos depicting themselves (from childhood) taking a hot air balloon ride three times over two weeks, half of the participants “remembered” the experience  It is then hard for us to discriminate between these altered and real memories  Source Amnesia (misattribution): attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined  Rumors! MEMORY CONSTRUCTION

47  Children’s memories are extremely susceptible to suggestibility  Experiments  Researchers asked 3-year-olds to show on anatomically correct dolls where a pediatrician had touched them; 55% of children who had not received genital examinations pointed there.  Preschoolers overheard a false comment that a magician’s rabbit had gotten loose in their classroom. Later, when suggestively questioned, 78% recalled actually seeing the rabbit.  Children chose cards from a deck of possible happenings and an adult read the card followed by, “Think real hard, and tell me if this ever happened to you. Can you remember going to the hospital with a mousetrap on your finger?” After 10 weekly interviews, with the same adults repeatedly asking children to think about several real and fictitious events, a new adult asked the same question. 58% produced false, often vivid, stories regarding one or more events they had never experienced. CHILDREN AND EYEWITNESS RECALL

48  Use a neutral person  Do not ask leading questions  Keep children from involved adults SUGGESTIONS FOR CHILDREN’S TESTIMONY

49  Can clinicians help their patients “recover” memories of childhood abuse?  How can we interpret therapists who use “memory work” techniques like guided imagery, hypnosis, and dream analysis? RECOVERING REPRESSED MEMORIES

50  1. Sexual abuse happens  2. Injustice happens  3. Forgetting happens  4. Recovered memories are commonplace  Do our minds forcibly repress painful experiences?  5. Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable  6. Memories “recovered” under hypnosis or the influence of drugs are especially unreliable  7. Memories, whether real or false, can be emotionally upsetting AGREED UPON FACTS REGARDING REPRESSED MEMORIES

51  Anterograde Amnesia: Cannot recall events that happen after the onset of the amnesia  Damage to hippocampus  Retrograde Amnesia: Cannot recall events before the amnesia set in  Disease, brain injury  Infantile Amnesia: Most people cannot remember events prior to the age of 3  Immaturity in parts of the brain TYPES OF AMNESIA


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