Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Take out a piece of paper

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Take out a piece of paper"— Presentation transcript:

1 Take out a piece of paper
Name the Seven Dwarves

2 Now pick out the seven dwarves.
Turn your paper over Now pick out the seven dwarves. Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Goofy Sleazy Shy Droopy Moody Hoppy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Ren Dumpy Sneezy Pop Grumpy Cheesy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Itchy Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy Diddy Stimpy

3 Seven Dwarves Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful

4 Memory

5 Memory Feats

6 What Is Memory? Definition: learning that has persisted over time; The ability to retain knowledge Adaptive Advantage Allowed animals to use information from the past to respond quickly to immediate challenges

7 Hermann Ebbinghaus Memorized series of nonsense syllables(TUV YOF GEK)
More times he practiced the list on day 1, the fewer repetitions he required to relearn it on day 2 Retention Curve

8 Information Processing Model
Memory system is often compared to that of a computer Information has to be encoded (getting information to our brain) Then stored (retained) And finally retrieved (getting in out of the memory system)

9 Three Stage Processing Model
Proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin See pg 187 Rehearsal Sensory Input Forgetting Forgetting

10 Encoding

11 Automatic v. Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing: Unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings Space – we often encode the place on the page where material appears Time – we unintentionally note the sequence of a day’s events Frequency – we effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen (I ran into you four times today!) Well-learned information – reading billboards, the writing on a truck Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Often produces durable and accessible memories

12 Effortful Processing: Rehearsal & Spacing Effect
Rote Rehearsal: Repeating information over and over Boosts memory Spacing Effect: Distributed v. Massed Rehearsal Distributed practice yields better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study/practice Repeated quizzing also helps “Testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.” – Henry Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke

13 Rehearsal: Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list Primacy Effect: Enhanced recall for items at the beginning of the list More time to practice Recency Effect: Enhanced recall for the last items on a list Still in working/short-term memory Presidents, names, word lists, etc.

14 What We Encode Visual: Encoding of picture images (imagery)
Acoustic: Encoding of sound (the sound of words) Semantic: Encoding of meaning (meaning of words) Which yields the best memory of verbal information? Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving Flashed a word at people Then asked a question that required participants to process the word visually, acoustically, or semantically Is the word in capital letters? Does the word rhyme with train? Would the word fit into this sentence? The girl put the ______on the table.

15 Types of Encoding: Results

16 Organizing Information for Encoding
Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically FBIIRSCIAEPA FBI IRS CIA EPA Hierarchies: Composed of a few broad concept divided and subdivided into narrower concepts

17 Encoding: Mnemonic Device
A memory trick or technique for remembering specific facts “Every good boy does fine” to remember the notes on the lines of the scale “People say you could have odd lots of good years” as a way to remember how to spell “psychology”

18 Loci Method: A person associates items to be remembered with places
Mnemonic Devices Loci Method: A person associates items to be remembered with places Peg-Word: A person associates items to remember with a list of peg words already memorized Goal is to visualize the items to remember with the items on the pegs

19 Peg Word System

20 Storage

21 Sensory Memory/Sensory Registers
First stage of storage that holds large amounts of incoming data for very brief amounts of time Iconic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli A photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second Echoic Memory: Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli If attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

22 Sensory Memory Experiment
Sperling (1960) R G T F M Q L Z S “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed.

23 Partial Report S X T J R S P K Y “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Low Tone
Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.

24 Time Delay A D I N L V O G H “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Low Tone
Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second)

25 The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.
Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long

26 Working Memory (Short-Term)
A tiny amount of information from your sensory registers will move to short term memory Conscious, activated memory which holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten Stays in as long as you can rehearse it Slightly better for what we hear than what we see Small capacity Can hold the “magic number 7 plus or minus 2” – George Miller Can increase it by chunking Also called working memory Actively manipulating information

27 From Short Term to Long Term
Moves to long term as a result of rehearsal Elaborative Rehearsal: linking new material to things you already know

28 Long Term Memory Capacity is limitless
Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986)

29 Types of Long term Memories
Explicit (Declarative): Memories for information we can readily express in words and that we are aware of having; Can be intentionally retrieved from memory Semantic: Facts and concepts not liked to a particular time; Like a dictionary or encyclopedia Episodic: Personally experienced events Processed by hippocampus (active during deep sleep), not stored here Implicit (Nondeclarative): Memories for information that we cannot readily express in words and may not be aware of having Procedural: motor skills and habits Emotional Memories: learned emotional responses to various stimuli (usually through classical conditioning) Processed by the cerebellum Flashbulb memories

30 To summarize….

31 Warning Memories are not stored in one “spot” in the brain
Working memory is processed in the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe Long-term semantic memories are located in the frontal and temporal lobes Episodic: frontal and temporal

32 Neural Basis for memory
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) A long-lasting change in the structure or function of a synapse that increases the efficiency of neural transmission and is thought to be related to how information is stored by neurons An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses

33 Stress and memories In stressful situations
Emotion-triggered stress hormones make more glucose energy available for brain activity Boost in amygdala activity Result: Arousal can sear certain events into the brain Epinephrine and cortisol can affect long-term retention of negative memories Sudden stress hormones can block older memories

34 Retrieval Recall v. Recognition: We remember more than we recall

35 Mind reconstructs a memory out of the stored bits
During retrieval, information flows from long-term memory back to working memory Mind reconstructs a memory out of the stored bits Retrieved information is blended with the new content currently present in the working memory Prone to change Future retrievals will bring up the modified file!

36 Cues: Stimulus that helps you access target information
Recognition! Most effective cues are those we generate ourselves Elaborative rehearsal The more retrieval cues, the more likely you are to remember Priming: The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

37 Context/Mood Congruent Memory
Context Congruent Memory: Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in an environment similar to the one in which you encoded the information More similar to your retrieval circumstances are to your encoding circumstances, the more likely you are to remember the information Retracing your footsteps Revisiting the scene of a crime Mood Congruent Memory: The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood

38 Forgetting

39 Why Do we Forget? Daniel Schacter Three Sins of Forgetting
Absent-mindedness: inattention to details leads to encoding failure Transience: storage decay over time Blocking: inaccessibility of stored information Three Sins of Distortion Misattribution: confusing the source of information Suggestibility: the lingering effects of misinformation Bias: belief-colored recollections One Sin of Intrusion: Persistence: unwanted memories

40 Most of what we sense we never notice Slower encoding with age
Encoding Failure Most of what we sense we never notice If you don’t encode it, you can’t retrieve it Slower encoding with age



43 Storage Decay Hermann Ebbinghaus’ “Forgetting Curve”
We forget a lot right away, but then it levels off! Result: Some memories do “decay” Explanation? Fading of the memory traces in our brains?

44 Retrieval Failure Forgetting is often a result of not being able to get out the memories we have stored Why? Proactive Interference: Something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you learn later Forward-acting Retroactive Interference: Occurs when new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier Backward-acting Information that is presented in the hour before sleep is protected from retroactive interference But not in the few minutes before sleep!

45 Motivated forgetting We unknowingly revise our memories
People who were told the benefit of tooth-brushing recalled having frequently more brushed their teeth in the preceding two weeks then people who were not told the benefit of tooth-brushing Memory is often self-serving Sigmund Freud and Memory We repress (banish from the conscious) painful memories to protect our self-concept and to minimize anxiety “Submerged” memory will linger and could be retrieved by some later cue or during therapy Many psychologists think repression is rare We might actually be more likely to remember emotional memories

46 Memory construction We infer our past from stored information plus what we later imagined, expected, saw, or heard Elizabeth Loftus Misinformation Effect: After exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember We alter and save the new file One experiment showed people digitally altered photos depicting themselves (from childhood) taking a hot air balloon ride three times over two weeks, half of the participants “remembered” the experience It is then hard for us to discriminate between these altered and real memories Source Amnesia (misattribution): attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined Rumors!

47 Children and Eyewitness Recall
Children’s memories are extremely susceptible to suggestibility Experiments Researchers asked 3-year-olds to show on anatomically correct dolls where a pediatrician had touched them; 55% of children who had not received genital examinations pointed there. Preschoolers overheard a false comment that a magician’s rabbit had gotten loose in their classroom. Later, when suggestively questioned , 78% recalled actually seeing the rabbit. Children chose cards from a deck of possible happenings and an adult read the card followed by, “Think real hard, and tell me if this ever happened to you. Can you remember going to the hospital with a mousetrap on your finger?” After 10 weekly interviews, with the same adults repeatedly asking children to think about several real and fictitious events, a new adult asked the same question. 58% produced false, often vivid, stories regarding one or more events they had never experienced.

48 Suggestions for children’s testimony
Use a neutral person Do not ask leading questions Keep children from involved adults

49 Recovering repressed memories
Can clinicians help their patients “recover” memories of childhood abuse? How can we interpret therapists who use “memory work” techniques like guided imagery, hypnosis, and dream analysis?

50 Agreed upon facts Regarding Repressed memories
1. Sexual abuse happens 2. Injustice happens 3. Forgetting happens 4. Recovered memories are commonplace Do our minds forcibly repress painful experiences? 5. Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable 6. Memories “recovered” under hypnosis or the influence of drugs are especially unreliable 7. Memories, whether real or false, can be emotionally upsetting

51 Types of Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia: Cannot recall events that happen after the onset of the amnesia Damage to hippocampus Retrograde Amnesia: Cannot recall events before the amnesia set in Disease, brain injury Infantile Amnesia: Most people cannot remember events prior to the age of 3 Immaturity in parts of the brain

52 Improving Memory

Download ppt "Take out a piece of paper"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google