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IFA Reflect on a time when you have been stressed. What were your emotions and how did you handle them. Reflect on a time when you have been stressed.

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Presentation on theme: "IFA Reflect on a time when you have been stressed. What were your emotions and how did you handle them. Reflect on a time when you have been stressed."— Presentation transcript:

1 IFA Reflect on a time when you have been stressed. What were your emotions and how did you handle them. Reflect on a time when you have been stressed. What were your emotions and how did you handle them.

2 Student Assignment Your assignment is a term paper worth 400 points. It will be the major part of your grade this term. Your assignment is a term paper worth 400 points. It will be the major part of your grade this term. You are to study the dating and marriage practices of a foreign country and compare them to those practiced in Texas. You are to study the dating and marriage practices of a foreign country and compare them to those practiced in Texas. Write a double spaced, typed research paper, pages long. Write a double spaced, typed research paper, pages long. APA style is mandatory Use a minimum of eight resources, two of which must be personal interviews of people who have lived in the country on which you are reporting. Use a minimum of eight resources, two of which must be personal interviews of people who have lived in the country on which you are reporting. Refer to special reference books which have been put on reserve at the library. Refer to special reference books which have been put on reserve at the library.

3 Stress and Coping What is stress? What is stress? A subjective feeling in response to stressors that are perceived as frustrating or threatening. A subjective feeling in response to stressors that are perceived as frustrating or threatening. The stressor is the activity, emotion, or responsibility which is placing a demand upon you and causing stress The stressor is the activity, emotion, or responsibility which is placing a demand upon you and causing stress How do you cope with stress? How do you cope with stress? Using coping strategies and defense mechanism Using coping strategies and defense mechanism The way in which we deal with stress will make our lives pleasant and comfortable or leave us stressed and incapable of performing our obligations to the best of our abilities The way in which we deal with stress will make our lives pleasant and comfortable or leave us stressed and incapable of performing our obligations to the best of our abilities

4 Emotions What are emotions? What are emotions? Feelings that involve physical and psychological responses Feelings that involve physical and psychological responses “fight or flight”-physical response to emotions related to challenge or threat “fight or flight”-physical response to emotions related to challenge or threat Prepare body for aggression (fight) Prepare body for aggression (fight) Prepare body to escape perceived danger (flight) Prepare body to escape perceived danger (flight) Learning to control emotions-a major task Learning to control emotions-a major task Children learn to repress unacceptable emotions Children learn to repress unacceptable emotions

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6 Types of Emotions Anxiety Anxiety Fear Fear Anger Anger Aggression Aggression

7 Anxiety Vague unpleasant feeling that produces physical sensations Result: tension and increased heart rate Result: tension and increased heart rate Often can not identify reason for emotional distress Often can not identify reason for emotional distress

8 Fear Distressing negative sensation induced by a perceived threat Result of a specific, identifiable cause Result of a specific, identifiable cause Physiological reactions similar to anxiety Physiological reactions similar to anxiety

9 Thalamus - decides where to send incoming sensory data (from eyes, ears, mouth, skin) Thalamus - decides where to send incoming sensory data (from eyes, ears, mouth, skin)eyes Sensory cortex - interprets sensory data Sensory cortex - interprets sensory data Hippocampus - stores and retrieves conscious memories; processes sets of stimuli to establish context Hippocampus - stores and retrieves conscious memories; processes sets of stimuli to establish context Amygdala - decodes emotions; determines possible threat; stores fear memories Amygdala - decodes emotions; determines possible threat; stores fear memories Hypothalamus - activates "fight or flight" response Hypothalamus - activates "fight or flight" response

10 Anger a strong feeling of displeasure and belligerence aroused by a wrong a strong feeling of displeasure and belligerence aroused by a wrong Inborn and instinctive Inborn and instinctive Emotional reaction to a loss Emotional reaction to a loss

11 Aggression a hostile or destructive mental attitude or behaviour a hostile or destructive mental attitude or behaviour Combination of frustration, hate, rage Combination of frustration, hate, rage

12 Student Activity Watch the video about the effects of stress on the body and answer the questions. Watch the video about the effects of stress on the body and answer the questions.

13 IFA Reproduce the graph for “Fight or Flight” response

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15 THINK-O- GRAM

16 SOLUTIONS Your check is in the mail Eggs over Easy Be on Time Stay on track Forgive and Forget Microscope

17 Perceptions of Control “In control” “In control” “powerlessness” “powerlessness” “hopelessness” “hopelessness” Spiritual Distress Spiritual Distress

18 “In control” Perception that one has choices and is able to create a change in physiological state or current life circumstances Perception that one has choices and is able to create a change in physiological state or current life circumstances

19 “Powerlessness” Perception that one’s actions cannot effect change in outcome Perception that one’s actions cannot effect change in outcome long-term feeling of powerlessness lead to feeling of physical and mental fatigue which can ultimately lead to depression long-term feeling of powerlessness lead to feeling of physical and mental fatigue which can ultimately lead to depression

20 “Hopelessness” Perception that one’s need have no potential to be met Perception that one’s need have no potential to be met Long-term feeling of hoplessness often leads to depression Long-term feeling of hoplessness often leads to depression

21 Spiritual Distress Questions: Questions: The meaning of one’s life The meaning of one’s life Meaning of suffering and pain Meaning of suffering and pain The value of living The value of living Prolonged distress leads to depression Prolonged distress leads to depression A short-term spiritual distress is a type of personal introspection that promotes personal growth and development A short-term spiritual distress is a type of personal introspection that promotes personal growth and development

22 Coping with Stress Coping Coping Refers to how the mind reacts to stress Refers to how the mind reacts to stress Coping mechanisms Coping mechanisms Vary from person to person Vary from person to person Event that stresses one person, might not stress another Event that stresses one person, might not stress another Conscious behavior usually based on success of previous coping experiences Conscious behavior usually based on success of previous coping experiences

23 Defense Mechanisms Compensation Compensation Denial Denial Displacement Displacement Intellectualization Intellectualization Minimization Minimization Projection Projection Rationalization Rationalization Reaction formation Reaction formation Regression Regression Repression Repression

24 Compensation Covering up weakness by emphasizing a more desirable trait or by overachievement in a more comfortable area Covering up weakness by emphasizing a more desirable trait or by overachievement in a more comfortable area Purpose: Allows person to overcome weakness and achieve success Purpose: Allows person to overcome weakness and achieve success Ex: high school student too small to play football become star tennis player Ex: high school student too small to play football become star tennis player

25 Denial An attempt to ignore unacceptable realities by refusing to acknowledge them An attempt to ignore unacceptable realities by refusing to acknowledge them Purpose: temporarily isolates person from full impact of a traumatic situation Purpose: temporarily isolates person from full impact of a traumatic situation Ex: a mother, though told her daughter has terminal cancer, continues to plan for her daughter’s college entrance Ex: a mother, though told her daughter has terminal cancer, continues to plan for her daughter’s college entrance

26 Displacement Transferring emotional reactions from one subject or person to another person Transferring emotional reactions from one subject or person to another person Purpose: Allows feelings to be expressed through to a less meaningful Purpose: Allows feelings to be expressed through to a less meaningful Ex: a boyfriend and girlfriend are arguing, and he gets so angry that he slams his fist into the wall Ex: a boyfriend and girlfriend are arguing, and he gets so angry that he slams his fist into the wall

27 Intellectualization Emotional response that would normally accompany a painful (or uncomfortable) incident is avoided by use of academic or intellectual explanations that remove personal feelings from the incident Emotional response that would normally accompany a painful (or uncomfortable) incident is avoided by use of academic or intellectual explanations that remove personal feelings from the incident Purpose: protects person from emotional reality of loss Purpose: protects person from emotional reality of loss Ex: pain over best friend’s sudden is reduced by saying, “He wouldn’t have wanted to live disabled” Ex: pain over best friend’s sudden is reduced by saying, “He wouldn’t have wanted to live disabled”

28 Minimization Not acknowledging the significance of one’s behavior Not acknowledging the significance of one’s behavior Purpose: Allows a person to decrease and trivialize responsibility for behavior Purpose: Allows a person to decrease and trivialize responsibility for behavior Ex: A teenager says, “Dont believe everything my kid brother tell you. I wasn’t so drunk I couldn’t drive.” Ex: A teenager says, “Dont believe everything my kid brother tell you. I wasn’t so drunk I couldn’t drive.”

29 Student Activity Identify the correct Defense mechanism associated with the explanation Identify the correct Defense mechanism associated with the explanation

30 Projection Projects shortcomings or feeling on others Projects shortcomings or feeling on others Purpose: Allows person to deny existence of shortcoming Purpose: Allows person to deny existence of shortcoming Ex: A disgruntled college freshman when called to meet with her advisor believes that she’s called in because the advisor doesn’t like her Ex: A disgruntled college freshman when called to meet with her advisor believes that she’s called in because the advisor doesn’t like her

31 Rationalization Justification of certain behaviors by faulty logic and attribution of socially acceptable motive that dod not in fact inspire the behaviors Justification of certain behaviors by faulty logic and attribution of socially acceptable motive that dod not in fact inspire the behaviors Purpose: helps person cope with inability to acknowledge inappropriate behavior Purpose: helps person cope with inability to acknowledge inappropriate behavior Ex: A student cheats on a n exam but blames the teacher for not making the material more understandable Ex: A student cheats on a n exam but blames the teacher for not making the material more understandable

32 Reaction formation Individual acts exactly opposite to the way he/she feels Individual acts exactly opposite to the way he/she feels Purpose: form of repression that allows feelings to be acted on in a more acceptable way Purpose: form of repression that allows feelings to be acted on in a more acceptable way Ex: teenager has bitterness towards girls who beat her out of her cheerleading position, but acts very sweet and friendly when they see each other Ex: teenager has bitterness towards girls who beat her out of her cheerleading position, but acts very sweet and friendly when they see each other

33 Regression Resorting to an earlier stage of life that is generally less demanding and responsible Resorting to an earlier stage of life that is generally less demanding and responsible Purpose: allows person to return to point in development when nurturing and dependency were acceptable Purpose: allows person to return to point in development when nurturing and dependency were acceptable Ex: a adult throws a temper tantrum when he cant have his own way Ex: a adult throws a temper tantrum when he cant have his own way

34 Repression An unconscious mechanism by which threatening thoughts, feelings, and desires are kept from becoming conscious An unconscious mechanism by which threatening thoughts, feelings, and desires are kept from becoming conscious Purpose: protects person from traumatic experience until he/she has resources to cope Purpose: protects person from traumatic experience until he/she has resources to cope Ex: child who was verbally abused by her alcoholic mother cannot remember certain events during her childhood Ex: child who was verbally abused by her alcoholic mother cannot remember certain events during her childhood

35 Types of behavior Maladaptive behvaior- result of ineffective coping Maladaptive behvaior- result of ineffective coping Psychotic behavior-most severe manifestation of ineffective coping Psychotic behavior-most severe manifestation of ineffective coping Caused by psychosis Caused by psychosis State cause by lack of contact with reality State cause by lack of contact with reality Mind consciously use many defense mechanisms to deny, destroy, and avoid reality when it can consciously cope and solve problems Mind consciously use many defense mechanisms to deny, destroy, and avoid reality when it can consciously cope and solve problems

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