Presentation on theme: "Bio 130 Human Biology Cancer Normal cells have regulation that keeps their rates of cell division in check. Normal cells generally remain in one location."— Presentation transcript:
Bio 130 Human Biology Cancer Normal cells have regulation that keeps their rates of cell division in check. Normal cells generally remain in one location Cancer is unregulated growth of a cell population
Bio 130 Human Biology Characteristics of Benign Tumors and Cancers Table 18.1
Bio 130 Human Biology Terms Hyperplasia – increased formation Tumor – new growth Benign tumors- have defined characteristics Dysplasia- cells change form Cancer- at least some cells loose organization.
Bio 130 Human Biology Tumors Benign: Remain in one location Single, well-defined mass May be surrounded by connective tissue Cancerous: Abnormal cell structure, may appear undifferentiated May spread Edge of tumor not clearly defined
Bio 130 Human Biology Malignant Tumor Development Figure 18.2
Bio 130 Human Biology How cancers develop Is genetic in character Proto-oncogenes Oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes p53
Bio 130 Human Biology How Cancer Develops Mutated or damaged genes Proto-oncogenes: normal regulatory genes Oncogenes: mutated or damaged proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes: regulatory genes repress cell growth, division, differentiation, adhesion May be turned off, damaged, or mutated in cancers Mutator genes: genes of DNA repair, when they are damages the cell is more likely to make a mistake.
Bio 130 Human Biology Indicated cause of cancer Carcinogens Inherited susceptibility Viruses and bacteria Starts with a single cell that is no longer under normal control
Bio 130 Human Biology Cancer Characteristics loss of contact inhibition Cancer cells do not self-destruct when their DNA is damaged Cancer cells divide indefinitely Cancer cells attract a blood supply Cancer cells do not adhere to neighboring cells
Bio 130 Human Biology The immune system plays an important role If your immune system recognizes a cell as being cancerous then it will be destroyed
Bio 130 Human Biology Progredssion of cancer requires multiple genetic changes in regulatory genes.
Bio 130 Human Biology Testing for Cancer Tumor Imagine X rays Positron emis temography Magnetic resonance imaging Genetic testing Enzyme markers PET and MRI focus on metabolic differences Ethaical problems withgenetic testing? Large scale testing.
Bio 130 Human Biology Cancer Treatments Conventional treatments: surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy Delivery mechanisms: coated metal beads, light- sensitive drugs Immunotherapy: promotes the immune response Starving cancers: inhibits angiogenesis Molecular treatments: target oncogenes
Bio 130 Human Biology Treatment of cancer Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Inhibiting angiogenesis
Bio 130 Human Biology Surgery, Radiation, and Chemotherapy Are Conventional Ways to Treat Cancer Surgery is used to remove tumors Radiation therapy is used to kill localized cancer cells Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells throughout the body Immunotherapy boosts the immune responses against cancer cells Inhibition of blood vessel formation may slow the spread of cancer cells Gene therapy may someday help fight cancer in several ways
Bio 130 Human Biology Some common cancers Skin Breast Prostate Lung Colon rectum
Bio 130 Human Biology Ten Most Common Cancers Table 18.3
Bio 130 Human Biology Prevention Best way to beat cancer is to not get it.
Bio 130 Human Biology Most Cancers Are Preventable Know family history Get regular medical screenings Learn self-examination techniques Avoid direct sunlight 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., avoid sunlamps and tanning salons Watch diet and weight Don’t smoke Drink in moderation, if at all Be informed