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ASTHMA, ECZEMA Michael Widjaja 08301016030 黄合乐. Outline  Preconceived notions  How allergic asthma is triggered  Mechanism of asthma  Methods of treatment.

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Presentation on theme: "ASTHMA, ECZEMA Michael Widjaja 08301016030 黄合乐. Outline  Preconceived notions  How allergic asthma is triggered  Mechanism of asthma  Methods of treatment."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASTHMA, ECZEMA Michael Widjaja 黄合乐

2 Outline  Preconceived notions  How allergic asthma is triggered  Mechanism of asthma  Methods of treatment of asthma  Factors that lead to asthma  Eczema and the factors that lead to it  Link between asthma and eczema  Conclusion

3 Initial thoughts on asthma  Asthma causes difficulty in breathing  Consists of two parts  Constriction of bronchi  Overproduction of mucus in respiratory tract  Caused by  Allergies  Drastic change in temperature  Exercise  Heritable? family history

4 Initial thoughts on Eczema  Dry itchy skin, redness, cracking, oozing or bleeding  Causes  Allergies  Skin Irritants  Dry weather  Sweat  Eczema linked to Asthma in some way  Genetically linked disease?

5 Anatomy of Asthma

6 Triggers of Asthma  Dust  Pollen  Cockroaches  Cold air  Smoke  Animal dander, skin, dried saliva, hair

7 Mast Cells and Plasma Cells

8 Mechanism of Asthma  Antigen enters body  Plasma cell produce immunoglobulin E(IgE)  IgE binds to surface of mast cells  Future exposures to antigen results in binding of antigen to surface bound IgE  Mast Cells degranulate releasing Histamine and Leukotriene

9 Mast Cell Degranulation

10 Steroid effects of the lung  Leukotriene promotes contraction of smooth muscle of the bronchioles  Histamine increases vascular permeability, causing capillary leakage and edema

11 Treatment of Asthma  Inhaled corticosteroids are preventive medications that treat inflammation of the airways  Bronchodilators (long-acting beta-2 agonist) relax the muscles surrounding the airways for a long period of time

12 Hereditary factors for Asthma  Study done in Arizona involving 344 families

13 Environmental factors for Asthma

14 Genes related to Asthma  Multifactorial  25 genes more commonly associated with asthma  Related to immune system or inflammation  Studies are inconsistent

15 Environmental factors in Asthma  Tobacco smoke  Air pollutants  Caesarean sections  Psychological stress – modulates immune system  Hygiene hypothesis

16 Environmental Factors  Reduction of indoor allergens moderately reduces risk of developing asthma  Conversely exposure to cat and dog allergens during first year of life reduced allergy to cat and dog allergens and developing asthma

17 Eczema- inflammation of epidermis  Redness  Crusting  Flaking  Blistering  Cracking  Oozing  Bleeding  Edema

18 Types of Eczema  Atopic Eczema- due to an overactive immune system  Contact Eczema- contact with allergens  Xerotic eczema – results from dry skin during the winter  Seborrhoeic dermatitis- cause cradle cap in infants

19 Histology of Eczema  Filaggrin gene encodes protein profilaggrin which forms a protective barrier that keeps moisture in and infectious organisms out  Similar to asthma, allergens can bind to IgE receptors on mast cells causing histamine to be released and edema to occur

20 Filaggrin gene  Linked: Asthma, Eczema, Hay Fever  Location: 1q21.31q21.3  Function:  Bundles keratin intermediate filaments  Promotes disulfide-bond formation among the intermediate filaments mammalian epidermis

21 Treatment of Eczema  Moisturizer to fight dry skin  Steroid cream to repress immune system and reduce swelling

22 Genetics of Eczema  Similar to asthma related to family history of allergies  Multiple genes factor control our immune system  Also similar to asthma, environmental factors  Filaggrin gene  SPINK5(Serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5) gene plays a role in anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial protection of mucous epithelia

23 Link between Asthma and Eczema  Atopic march  50-70% of children with severe eczema developed Asthma  2/3 of these children will also develop allergic rhinitis

24 Link between Asthma and Eczema  Research done by Washington University School of Medicine  Experimented on mice  Mice were engineered to have defective skin similar to eczema in humans produced TSLP ( thymic stromal lymphopoietin) and developed asthma  Mice with normal skin but overproduced TSLP also developed asthma

25 Link between Asthma and Eczema  TSLP( thymic stromal lymphopoietin)  TSLP also produced in Asthma patients  Secreted into blood stream when skin is damaged, indicating its protective barrier is damaged and further protections are needed  Both lung and skin in contact with open environment  Inflammatory disease of skin also causes inflammation of lungs when TSLP flows in bloodstream to the lungs  TSLP causes lungs to be very sensitive to allergens

26 Summary  Mechanism of Asthma  Triggers of Asthma  Genetic and Environmental factors of Asthma  Cause of Eczema  Genetic and Environmental factors of Eczema  Link between Asthma and Eczema

27 Citations          look-at-eczema-asthma-link.aspx look-at-eczema-asthma-link.aspx

28 Comments? Questions?


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