Presentation on theme: "Nationalism Triumphs in Europe. German Unification Step 1: Napoleon Invasions –Added lands along the Rhine river to France. –Germans welcomed him initially:"— Presentation transcript:
German Unification Step 1: Napoleon Invasions –Added lands along the Rhine river to France. –Germans welcomed him initially: Freed serfs, abolished laws against Jews. –Increased German Nationalism. –Creation of German Confederation led Austria, created from the Congress of Vienna. Step 2: Prussian Leadership –Created economic union called Zollverein, which eliminated economic tariffs. –Offered throne of united German states to King Frederick William IV of Prussia. –Stayed undivided, but set stage for leadership.
Otto von Bismarck From Prussia’s Junker class (conservatives), served as a diplomat to Russia & France, named chancellor in 1862. –Thought power was most important, “End justifies the means.” –Was not a German nationalist out for the good of Prussia. –1 st movement to build the army “Blood & Iron” – used money that was intended for other purposes. This is an example of a policy called Realpolitik.
Victory in Three Wars Bismarck led Prussia into 3 wars –Schleswig & Holstein Bismarck aligned himself with Austria in 1864 to “liberate” these two largely German provinces from Denmark. –Austria 1866: Austria-Prussian war lasted 7 weeks. Prussia won, which eliminated Austrian control.
Victory in Three Wars Franco-Prussian War –Napoleon III worried about Prussian influence after they defeated Austria. –Bismarck used Nationalism to gather troops together, while Napoleon III hoped military glory would mask problems at home. –Using propaganda, Bismarck got Napoleon III to declare war against Prussia. –After a few weeks France was forced to accept a humiliating peace.
The Second Reich 1871 – Germans were part of the Second Reich as William I was named Kaiser, emperor. Bismarck drafted a constitution. –Bicameral Legislature formed: Bundesrat: upper house Reichstag: lower house The Bundesrat could veto any decisions of the Reichstag, so real power remained in the hands of the emperor and chancellor.
William I Took title of Kaiser (emperor) Leader of 2 nd Reich (Holy Roman Empire was 1 st ). There was a 2 house legislature, but it was far from a democracy. The real power was in the hands of the emperor and chancellor.
William II Grandson of William I, became Kaiser in 1888. Asked Bismarck to resign claiming “There is only one master in the Reich,” “and that is I.” His government provided services called social welfare, but moved further away from a democracy. Expanded military (especially navy) to rival Britain & France. Partially responsible for tensions leading up to World War I.
A New Power in Europe Symbolism –French domination of Europe had ended, Germany was the new power. Industrialization –By the late 1800s, Germany was at or near the top of industrialized nations. Ample resources, disciplined & educated workforce, rapidly growing population 1891 – 41 million to 1914 – 67 million, decent transportation. Became an economic & world power during this time.
A New Power in Europe Church There was a distrust of Catholics, Germans wanted to make the Catholics pledge allegiance to the state before the church. State supervision of appointment of priests and Catholic education. The moves backfired as Bismarck would eventually have to make- up with the church. Socialists Rising in Germany, they wanted improvements for working class. Made laws to repress Socialists, which again backfired. Bismarck attempted to woo workers away from Socialism through reforms. Reforms were partially successful, but socialism continued to grow.
Italy’s Unification Mazzini’s Italy –Had a secret society that wanted one free, independent, republican Italy. –Helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome. –Wanted unity for the glories of Rome and it also made economic sense.
Italy’s Unification Movement to independence –Cavour: Prime Minister who improved agriculture, transportation, supported free trade. –Intrigue with France: Sardinia joined in war with France & Britain against Russia. States separated from Austria and joined Sardinia. –Garibaldi’s Red Shirts: 1000 red shirted volunteers went to fight for independence. –Unity at last: first time since the Roman Empire.
Old Empire’s Downfalls Austrian EmpireOttoman Empire Conservative over liberals 1840s began to industrialize. Ignored nationalist ideas. Austria & Hungary compromise: countries keep their kings, but combine countries. Multi-national Empire Serbia gained independence 1800s, many subjects revolted for independence. Many nations fought against Ottomans to gain lands. Became “Balkan Powder Keg” in early 1900s.
Russia: Reform & Reaction Positives –Ended Serfdom Most being peasants. –Westernized –Industrialized Negatives –Serfs sent to factories to work, but their masters took much of their pay so the economy remained backward. –Rigid social structure. –Landowning nobles dominated society. –Middle Class too small.
Russia: Reform & Reaction Alexander I (reign 1801-1825) –Eased censorship and promoted education. –After Congress of Vienna he sided with the conservatives. Nicholas I (reign 1825-1855) –Used police spies to hunt out critics, banned liberal books and even committed liberals to insane asylums. –Claimed to Alexander II, “I am handing you command of the country in a poor state.”
Russia: Reform & Reaction Alexander II (reign 1855-1881) –1861, Under pressure he freed the serfs, but they had to buy land, which many could not afford. –Set up local government assemblies called zemstvos, which were responsible for road repair, schools & agriculture. –Alexander II moved away from reform and toward repression and was assassinated by the “People’s Will” in March 1881.
Russia: Reform & Reaction Alexander III (reign 1881-1894) –Responded to father’s assassination by: Increasing power of secret police. Increasing censorship and exiled critics to Siberia. Increased Russification = one language, one church. Targeted Jews and Muslims by limiting number allowed at universities, involved in professions and forced restricted area living. Included pogroms, or mob attacks on Jews. Finally began to enter Industrial Age.
Russia: Reform & Reaction Nicholas II (reign 1894 -1917) –Built Trans-Siberian Railway, in an effort to encourage economic growth. –Industrialization was applauded by government officials and business leaders, but nobles and peasants feared change.
Japan Vs. Russia Russo-Japanese War: Was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. Nicholas II called for people to fight for “the Faith, the Czar, and the Fatherland.” Russians suffered one defeat after another, which unleashed pent-up discontent amongst the people by years of oppression.
Bloody Sunday Marchers petitioned Czar Nicholas II for more rights for workers. Fearing the marchers, the czar fled his winter palace and called in soldiers. As protestors approached the soldiers opened fire killing or injuring hundreds. “The Czar deserted us!” Bloody Sunday killed people’s faith and trust in the czar.
Revolution of 1905 What Happened? –Workers took over the government in some cities. –Peasants revolted in the countryside, demanding land. –Nicholas announced reforms, promising “freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly and union.” –Assembled a Duma or elected national legislature. What was the result? –Won over moderates, while socialists were left behind. –1906, Duma met but was dissolved when leaders criticized the government. –Arrests, pogroms and executions were carried out by new prime minister Peter Stolypin, who tried to restore order.