Presentation on theme: "Sexual Problems and Sex Therapy Individual and Relationship Conflicts Sexual Therapy Sexual Therapy Techniques Male Sexual Problems Female Sexual."— Presentation transcript:
Sexual Problems and Sex Therapy Individual and Relationship Conflicts Sexual Therapy Sexual Therapy Techniques Male Sexual Problems Female Sexual Problems __Sex Therapy
Different Expectations Men and women often have different ideas about sex and love, and therefore often differ on why they have sex.
Differences in Desire One of the most common types of problems that a couple might encounter is a difference in the frequency with which sex is desired. In many relationships, it does no good to point the finger and put the blame on one person or the other. People are generally only oversexed or undersexed relative to their partners’ desires. It is the couple that has the problem.
Relationship Conflict Sexual relations, of course, are only part of a couple’s overall relationship. The names and addresses of certified marriage and family therapists in your area can be obtained by writing to the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, 112 South Alfred Street, Alexandria, VA If a particular sexual behavior is causing an individual a great deal of stress and anxiety and possibly interfering with his or her ability to function in a relationship, then that person may be regarded as having a problem.
Sexual Therapy Psychoanalysis generally involved long-term treatment and attempted to “cure” the problem by resolving childhood conflict, viewing the behavioral problem as merely a symptom of some other deeper conflict. Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on sexual behaviors and how we feel about them. It does not focus on past events. Psychoanalysts often charge that behavioral therapies only treat the symptoms.
They claim that if the underlying cause of the problem is not determined, the problem will eventually manifest itself in another manner. No one can deny, however, that behavioral approaches have been enormously successful in treating many sexual problems. Psychosexual therapy is designed to give insight into the historical cause of clients problems, is often more successful for some types of problems.
Most follow what is called the PLISSIT model. PLISSIT is an acronym for permission, limited information, specific suggestions, and intensive therapy—the four levels of therapy. In the first level, the therapist “gives permission” for the client to feel and behave sexually. This is important, because many people and institutions cause people to suppress or repress their sexuality while growing up. In the second level, the therapist gives information to the client.
This is done in such a manner that the client continues to acquire a positive attitude about sexuality. At the specific suggestion stage, the therapist gives the client exercises to do at home that will help with the specific problem. If the client is still experiencing problems after completing the specific suggestions, then intensive psychosexual therapy will be employed. Only about 10% of people who go to sex therapy require this last step.
Sexual Therapy Techniques –Systematic Desensitization Therapists often attempt to reduce this anxiety through systematic desensitization, involving muscle relaxation exercises or stress-reduction techniques. A series of anxiety-producing scenes is presented to the patient, and he or she is told to try to imagine the scene.
If this causes anxiety, the relaxation exercises are used until the scene can be imagined without anxiety. The therapist them proceeds to the next scene and repeats the procedure until the patient can complete the entire series without anxiety.
Sensate Focus Most therapists instruct couples to use nondemand mutual pleasuring techniques hen touching each other. The couple learns to be sensual in a nondemanding situation. The purpose is to reduce anxiety and teach nonverbal communication skills. A successful outcome for the treatment of sexual problems is often directly related to the amount of sensate focus that is completed during therapy.
Specific Exercises After the sensate focus exercises are successfully completed, therapists generally assign specific exercises to help with the problem for which the person came for treatment.
Sexual Desire Disorders: Hypoactive Sexual Desire and Sexual Aversion Desire is composed of three components: (1) sexual drive—the biological component; (2) sexual “wish”—the subjective, psychological component; and (3) sexual motivation—an individual’s willingness to engage in sexual behavior with a person. Hypoactive sexual desire is persistent or recurrent absence of sexual fantasies and sexual desire.
Some therapists classify a person as having hypoactive desire if he or she initiates an average of two or fewer sexual experiences a month. This does not have to mean intercourse; it can include masturbation and sex play. Hypoactive sexual desire is more than just a lack of sexual activity, however. These individuals do not desire sex and avoid it even when there is an opportunity to engage in it. Sexually hypoactive persons display less subjective sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli than do normal people.
Primary hypoactive sexual desire is much more common in women than in men. Secondary or acquired hypoactive sexual desire can be attributed to organic factors, but many cases are believed to be due to psychological factors. Sexual disorders are more common among individuals whose life histories have resulted in them having negative sexual self-schemas. Hypoactive sexual desire is often associated with a sexually repressive upbringing, or an aversion to female genital or common sexual behaviors.
Sexual Arousal Disorder: Erectile Disorder Erectile disorders can be primary (i.e. the man has always had problems) or secondary (i.e. the individual has not had erectile problems in the past); and global (i.e. the problem occurs in all situations) or situational (e.g. a man cannot get an erection with his usual partner, but can with other women or during masturbation). Having an erectile problem can be psychologically devastating and it often destroys the self-esteem of the female partner as well.
Erectile disorder refers to more than a total inability to get an erection; it includes any inability to get or maintain an erection adequate for “satisfactory sexual performance.” One of the biggest changes in the past year has been its medicalization—whereby erectile disorders are viewed as a medical problem resulting from organic causes that should be treated with medical solutions.
There are probably psychological and/or relationship problems associated with all erectile problems, even those that are clearly caused by physical problems, and most patients would probably benefit from a combination of medication and therapy.
Male Orgasmic Disorder Male orgasmic disorder refers to a difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating in a woman’s vagina, and it can be either primary or secondary.
Female Sexual Problems –Sexual Desire Disorders: Hypoactive Sexual Desire and Sexual Aversion Estimates of hypoactive sexual desire among women range form 5% to 50%. The definition of female hypoactive sexual desire be “the persistent or recurrent deficiency of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal distress.” Similarly, sexual aversion disorder is defined as “the persistent or recurrent phobic aversion to and avoidance of sexual contact with a sexual partner, which causes personal distress.”
Sexual Arousal Disorder Female sexual arousal disorder was defined as “the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain sufficient sexual excitement, causing personal distress, which may be expressed as a lack of subjective excitement, or genital or other somatic responses.”
Female Orgasmic Disorder Female orgasmic disorder was defined as “the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm following sufficient sexual stimulation and arousal, which causes personal distress.”
Sexual Pain Disorder Dysparenunia is “the recurrent or persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse.” It is assumed that there is no problem with arousal and there is sufficient lubrication when intercourse begins.