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Theories of Personality. What is Personality? An individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits The concept of personality can be used.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Personality. What is Personality? An individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits The concept of personality can be used."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Personality

2 What is Personality? An individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits The concept of personality can be used to explain: the stability of a person’s behavior over time and across situations the behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness)

3 Overview of Theories Psychoanalytic Theory – Sigmund Freud Neo-Freudians – Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson Behaviorism – B. F. Skinner Social Learning Theory – Albert Bandura Humanism – Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow Trait Theories – Allport, Eysenck, Sullivan

4 Personality Theories THEORYMAIN IDEAS Behaviorist Focus on how rewards and punishments shape our actions. Social Learning Cognitive-personal factors, our behaviors, and environmental factors interact to shape our personalities. Psychoanalytic Theories Emphasize the importance of early childhood experiences, repressed thoughts, and conflict between conscious and unconscious forces.

5 Personality Theories 2 THEORYMAIN IDEAS Cognitive Theories Our analysis of how our own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings shape our personalities. Humanistic Theories Emphasize our capacity for personal growth, development or our full potential, and freedom to make choices. Trait Theories Focus on identifying, measuring, and classifying similarities and differences in personality characteristics or traits.

6 ISSUES in personality theory… Free will or determinism? Nature or Nurture? Past, Present, or Future? Uniqueness or Universality? Equilibrium or Growth? Optimism or Pessimism? Person-situation controversy Temporary external influences or enduring inner inf? Traits persist over time & across different settings

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8 Freud ( ) Early Childhood is key Unconscious is a major determinant of behavior Access to the Unconscious Hypnosis Dream Analysis Free Association Freudian Slips

9 Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Freud’s Model of the Mind 1. ID –needs, drives, instincts, and repressed material. 1. (pleasure principle) EROS- drive to live/love & life satisfaction THANATOS- drive for destruction & death 2. SUPEREGO –conscience & inhibits the socially undesirable impulses of the ID 1. (moral principle)  EGO –in touch with reality…strives to meet the demands of the ID and the SUPEREGO in socially acceptable ways. 1. (reality principle) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfP9AIJA72E

10 The school year is ending and final exams are near. You have done well but are having difficulty in your Psychology class. you know that in order to get a grade of “B”, the minimum acceptable by your parents, you must score an “A” on the final. You have tried studying, but feel it is an unattainable goal. As you are leaving your locker to go home on the afternoon prior to the test, you find a group of papers in the hall which has been dropped by someone. You look down, and find that one of the dropped papers has the heading “PSYCHOLOGY: FINAL EXAM”. You pick up the paper and look at it quickly, noticing that no one has seen you. What do you do next?

11 All of the Egos are a group of friends. On of the Egos is a boy named Frank, who parents are going away over the weekend. They have indicated that Frank may stay home, but may not go out at night, nor have friends in. the group of friends are unhappy that Frank cannot join in the weekend fun. His girlfriend, Juanita, is especially unhappy. Someone suggests that they have a small party at Frank’s house anyway. Frank is skeptical, especially since his grandparents will be home and live on the corner but is willing to be convinced.

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13 Psychosexual Development 5 stages of personality development conflicts must be successfully resolved in order to develop a healthy personality Problems arise when conflicts are NOT resolved Libido gets “stuck” or fixated lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier stage Libido—internal energy; unconscious, basic needs—hunger, thirst, sexual

14 Oral Stage 0-1 ½ years Pleasure source=mouth Tasks— Early—Feeding, weaning Late—teeth eruption Fixation: Pessimism, envy, suspicion, sarcasm, frustrated, manipulative, critical, self starvation Optimistic, overindulged, gullible, full of admiration for others around them, dependent, passive smoking, kissing, pens, drug addiction

15 Anal Stage 1 ½ -2 ½ years Pleasure source is anus Main task—toilet training Lenient v. harsh Expulsive v. retentive Fixation: Anal Expulsive; overly generous, messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant, expressive Anal Retentive; stingy, rigid, OCD, neat, precise, orderly, careful, meticulous, passive aggressive

16 Phallic Stage 2 ½ - 5 or 6 years Pleasure source—genitals Task— Oedipus Complex Identification with same-sex parents Repress desires Fixation— Anxiety, extreme guilt, phobias, depression, improper sexual identity, promiscuity, homosexuality, fear of authority, reckless, narcissistic, incapable of love Oedipus Commercial Commercial-Fit-Freud Boys-Oedipus Complex seek genital stimulation unconscious sexual desires for mom guilt & fear of punishment from dad castration anxiety Resolved by Identifying w/dad (possess mom vicariously) Girls—Electra Complex Some psychoanalysts say girls experience this as well—Freud says its different Penis Envy when she discovers she doesn’t have one she feels a loss Her loss makes her turn against her mother and desire her father Resolved by ID w/mom Big Bang- Penis Envy dLakA

17 Latency Stage 6-Pre-Adolescence Play Time important Same sex peers important Libido is suppressed Earlier issues are hidden *cooties!

18 Genital Stage Adolescence to Adulthood Task—seek marriage partner No new conflicts—old conflicts arise Manifest into personality characteristics

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20 Freud-Defense Mechanisms… Unconscious self-deceptions demands of id or superego overwhelm ego… anxiety results. Distort thoughts or perceptions avoid internal conflict & pain Help from being overwhelmed by immediate threat Gives time to cope in a more efficient problem focused manner Save face… Short clip Movie examples IF OVERUSED: less adaptable * consumes great amts of emotional energy to control anxiety & maintain unrealistic self image

21 Neurosis poor ability to adapt to one's environment, an inability to change one's life patterns, and the inability to develop a richer, more complex, more satisfying personality."

22 criticisms Too focused on sex Early childhood experiences ONLY factor in personality Pessimistic view of human nature & society

23 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Quiz: True-False 1.Stage 3 is the latency stage. 2.Fixation at stage 1 would lead to dependency. 3.One becomes fixated because of staring too long at an object. 4.Stage 4 is the most important stage. 5.Sexual urges sleep during the latency stage. 6.An erogenous zone is something kids try to avoid. 7.The oedipal complex means the boy loves mom and hates dad. 8.The first three stages determine personality. 9.Fixation at stage 2 might lead to OCD. 10. The oedipal complex occurs during the phallic stage. 11.Oral fixation always leads to rebellion against the parent. 12.Fixation at stage 5 is the most serious fixation. 13.The key issue during stage two is learning to hold back. 14.Someone obsessed with his mouth might be fixated at the oral stage. 15.A boy must identify with Dad in order to successfully deal with stage The cootie stage is common in stage 2.

24 Defense Mechanisms https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e- NP__ExSSE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnRBA U6Yg2A

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26 Carl Jung and Analytical Psychology The Ego—conscious mind/self Your feeling of identity is here Personal Unconscious Experiences that were conscious at one point and are now repressed/forgotten Similar to Freud’s View Collective Unconscious A “warehouse” of memories from our past as a group— the entire human race shares this

27 Collective Unconscious Filled with ancestral memories known as...archetypes that.. reflect the history of our species are inherited universal human concepts they show up in dreams and are often manifested in a culture’s use of art, symbols, etc. Ideas (hero, mother, “God/Supreme Being”, etc.) shared by the whole human race

28 Psychological Harmony and the Fully Developed Self 2 Key archetypes: Anima—Animus Feminine & masculine qualities The Fully Developed Self is able to balance tensions thus we attain psychological harmony— recognize & accept both components!

29 TYPE A vs. TYPE B drive to achieve goals & eagerness to compete desire for external recognition & advancement involved in several things easily angry free floating hostility time urgency exhibit signs of struggle vs. time & people impatient irritated by trivial things react to stress w/ higher pulse rate and blood pressure less comfy around others (prefer to work alone) resent being told what to do do opposite what is told to them work faster, even if no deadline complain less of hard work report being less tired worse on patience & careful tasks motivated intrinsically, self encouraging relaxed laid back attitude & posture friendly, accepting, patient, at ease generally content (stable pleasant mood) at peace w/self & other show general sense of harmony w/people, events, & life circumstances tend to be trusting focus on positive aspects of things/people/events interested in others, accept trivial mistakes flexible, good team members

30 The Eight Preferences: (E)xtraversion vs. (I)ntroversion (S)ensing vs. I(N)tuition (T)hinking vs. (F)eeling (J)udging vs. (P)erceiving

31 Discussion Look over the communication styles of Extravert compared to Introvert…. What problems can you see arising when the two types attempt to communicate? Circle- What does your type do to communicate? Circle-How are you able to get along? What characteristics do you wish you possessed? What frustrates you about the other communication type?

32 Karen Horney Credited with founding women’s psychology Rejected Freud’s view that: women were dependent, vain, and submissive bc of biological factors & early childhood experiences Cultural & social factors more important than sexual! major influence on personality development is child-parent social interactions NOT sexual conflicts Conflicts can be avoided if the child is raised in a loving, trusting, and secure environment

33 Womb Envy Men have womb envy They compensate for their relatively minor role in reproduction by throwing themselves into work. It’s not a man’s penis, but his status in society that women envy. Monty Python video

34 Horney We experience anxiety because society places incapable demands on us… Society pushes us to pursue goals that will reduce this anxiety (not because we truly want them) These efforts fail, but we get stuck in these enduring behavior/personality patterns Pattern Examples… Ex. a man needs a woman’s love to deaden his sense of basic anxiety. His demands for affection become excessive and unconditional. If so, they cannot possibly be fulfilled. Even slight failure is seen as rejection, thus increasing his need for affection…a non-ending cycle Ex. Student has to write an important paper. She’s worried. She puts it off. She feels guilty and becomes more anxious, she puts it off more….etc.

35 Horney 3 Behavior Patterns that are used to defend against anxiety: TOWARD (depend on others for love, support, friendship) AWAY (self-sufficiency) AGAINST (excessive need for power—competitive, power) Healthy people can balance these needs

36 Horney Worksheet In partners, look over the following statements and classify them into the category you feel best describes what pattern they are using to defend against anxiety.

37 Adler Psychosocial—we are social beings Perception is important One’s subjective view of reality We all have a… purpose, choice, goals we need to be aware of our motives/goals & have the capacity to guide/plan future! Lifestyle The style of life is distinctive and unique for each of us We all display motives, traits, interests, and values that exhibit themselves in every act a person performs. Birth Order Family Constellation Move from inferiority towards superiority = Power

38 Adler—feelings of Inferiority and striving for Superiority motivated by an inferiority complex Could be based on a physical problem compensate (real or imagined weakness) All people experience some inferiority (Childhood—small size) These feelings give rise to a drive for superiority overcompensation can be a problem—some may develop a superiority complex over exaggeration of one’s accomplishments and not realizing limitations we need to be aware of our motives/goals & have the capacity to guide/plan future!

39 Birth order discussion Go to the designated area of your birth order In your group- answer these questions… #1- Do you agree or disagree with the characteristics your birth order says display? Why? #2- Look over the list of other characteristics of traits found according to birth order. Do these sound like your siblings? (only child- friends)

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41 Types of Tests Intelligence— IQ, WAIS, Aptitude— SAT, ACT, Achievement— Chapter Tests Interest— ex. Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (RIASEC) Personality…

42 Personality Tests Objective Tests Forced choice Standardized Projective Tests Encourage Test takers to respond freely Encourages a broad range of answers Interpretation of an ambiguous image Used to determine unconscious motives, conflicts, and psychological traits

43 Objective Tests MMPI—Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 567 statements Must answer T, F, or cannot say Ex. “I like tall women” or “I wake up tired most mornings” Reveals habits, fears, delusions, sexual attitudes, and symptoms of psychological disorders Look for patterns of responses

44 MMPI Score Profile

45 Objective Tests CPI—California Psychological Inventory Measures traits—responsibility, self- control, tolerance, etc. Meyers Briggs (Jungian Typology) Focuses on how a person takes in info and makes decisions Measures on 4 scales—introvert v. extrovert; intuitive vs. sensing; feeling vs. thinking; judging vs. perceptive

46 Projective Tests Rorschach Inkblot Test No right or wrong answers What do you see in this picture? Anything a person does or says will reveal personality characteristics Several scoring systems TAT—Thematic Apperception Test 31 cards with vague, but suggestive situations Asked to tell a story about each picture-what’s doing on? What is each person thinking? Feeling? Ending? Therapist looks at the themes that emerge Can be used to assess motivation, personality characteristics

47 Psychological Testing Objective Tests are more reliable and valid. Projective tests like the Rorschach are still used widely in psychiatric hospitals today. They look into what the person is thinking and try to find patterns of thought and behavior. Little kids… draw a picture (same thing)

48 Pseudo-personality tests… Barnum effect: tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one’s personality That could really be applied to almost anyone Stock Spiel: each of us is just like everyone else Astrologers make use of this Self-serving bias: personality descriptions become more positive, Barnum effect becomes stronger

49 Humanism Emerges in the 1950s and 1960s. Arises in response to the negativity of psychodynamic & behavioral theories Stresses the positive Self-determinism Healthy growth Self-realization

50 Carl Rogers: A ‘Person Centered’ Perspective People are basically good Personal growth Genuine Accepting empathic Our self concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves

51 Real vs. Ideal Self (ROGERS) We all have an IDEAL SELF Our goal…perfection Often, this does not match up with our REAL SELF What we really are This discrepancy / incongruence leads to: distorted perceptions, feelings, & ideas anxiety, depression, & other problems twist our own reality to preserve our self concept!! ex. Girl believes she is nice. Friends and boyfriends tell her she is stuck up and snotty. She might block these comments, attribute them to jealousy on the part of her friends, and anger from her boyfriend because she won’t get more serious w/him. She may start to do charity work.

52 Self Actualizing…becoming a fully functioning person (ROGERS) Ultimately…We are motivated to reduce the discrepancy/incongruence fully functioning: real = ideal self Openness to experience Existential living Organismic trusting Experiential freedom Creativity

53 Seven Stages of Rogerian Functioning : Stage 1 : The client is very defensive, & extremely resistant to change. Stage 2 : Client becomes slightly less rigid, & will talk about external events or other people. Stage 3 : Client talks about her/himself, but as an object. Avoids discussion of present events. Stage 4 : Client begins to talk about deep feelings & develops a relationship with the therapist. The next three stages represent substantial growth in the person's journey of self-actualization Stage 5 : Client can express present emotions, & are beginning to rely more on their own decision making abilities and increasingly accept more responsibility for their actions. Stage 6 : The client shows rapid growth toward congruence, & begin to develop unconditional positive regard for others. This stage signals the end for the need for formal therapy Stage 7: The client is a fully functioning, self actualized individual who is empathic &shows unconditional positive regard for others. This individual can relate their previous therapy to present day real-life situations.

54 Unconditional Positive Regard (ROGERS) attitude of total acceptance toward another We develop self-regard (self-esteem) as we develop & become aware of ourselves At first, self-esteem is reflected by the esteem in which others hold us (Parents) develop self-esteem when parents give unconditional positive regard, regardless of beh.

55 Conditional Positive Regard (ROGERS) Showing acceptance only when a person/child is exhibiting certain behavior Can lead to problems: Children may learn to disown the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, that parents have rejected. Children believe they are worthwhile only if they behave in a certain way Discrepancy between real & ideal!

56 Maslow… fulfill one’s potential Belonging Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Self actualization Self-Esteem Needs

57 Maslow: Self actualized characteristics Value privacy Democratic Problem-centered Nonconformists Clear perception of reality Un-hostile sense of humor Autonomous & independent Accept themselves & others Not afraid of success or failure Creative, willing to try new things Spontaneous; open, concentrate on present Develop close relationships with others Realize potential & appreciate potential in others Enjoy the process of doing something as well as the end product

58 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs self actualization = happy & productive life YES are qualities of self-actualization NO’s can be used as goals to work on Benefits of being self-actualized… Reaching your potential, having peak experiences, quality relationships, accepting yourself, being spontaneous & appreciating life. Problems with self-reporting… inaccurate & biased if person does not have a realistic self-perception.

59 Deficiency Needs If someone’s esteem, friendship & love, security or physical needs are not being met… individual will feel anxious & tense. Self- Actualization eliminates that anxiety and tension.

60 *Relative deprivation: the feeling that others have something that you are entitled to. *social sciences: describe feelings or measures of economic, political, or social deprivation that are relative rather than absolute.economic politicalsocial Ex: Terrorism; higher education & wealthy families.

61 Maslow and Social Media

62 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (a.k.a Social Learning Theory) Personality is largely shaped through learning (behaviorism) but “…people are self-organizing, proactive, self- reflecting, and self-regulating…” not robotic and completely controlled by their environment Reciprocal Determinism internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another.

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64 Reciprocal Determinism internal mental events, external environmental events, & overt behavior all influence one another.

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66 Bandura and observational learning Our behavior is shaped by models that we are exposed to Most influential: those we like/respect those who are attractive/powerful those who are similar to us (gender) those who have successful outcomes (good/bad)

67 Bandura and Self-Efficacy belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes High=confidence; Low=question ability/anxious These perceptions can influence how we solve problems and how well we perform Studies confirm this (cessation of smoking, exercise programs, greater persistence in academic pursuits) Parents can foster this by: providing a stimulating environment, warm responsiveness, non-punitive disciplinary techniques, etc.

68 StrengthCriticism Grounded in research in Learning Cognitive psychology Social psychology Self-regulation, responsibility Limited view Just learning Effects of situations Effects on self beliefs Ignores unconscious, emotions, conflicts

69 Other Social Learning Theories Walter Mischel People do not behave the same across situations so… behavior is characterized more by situational specificity than by consistency this position has generated controversy (person vs. situation) but has increased awareness about situational determinants of behavior

70 William Sheldon-Somatotypes 1940’s Each body type is associated with personality characteristics, representing a correlation between physique and temperament. What could be wrong with this theory?

71 Personality: consistency, talents, values, hopes, loves, hates, habits that make us unique Temperament: heredity aspects, activity levels, prevailing mood, adaptability Character: person judged, friendly, outgoing, attractive Traits: specific long lasting qualities within a person, inferred from observed behavior

72 Trait Theory Trait—durable disposition to behavior in a particular way in a variety of situations honest, impulsive, suspicious, etc. Trait Theories: Most approaches assume that some traits are more basic than others and thus determine other superficial traits Allport—discovers more than 4000 words that describe personality traits

73 Cattell and 16 Factor Factor analysis—correlations among variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables Used to break down Allport’s List Discovers 16 “essential source traits” Source traits- underlying, fundamental attributes of who we are Surface traits- what you can see in our behavior based off of our source traits Creates Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)

74 Hans Eysenck Similar method to Cattell Had 3 different source traits Introversion-extraversion degree to which a person directs his energies outward toward the environment & inward toward his or her inner and self-focused experiences.

75 Hans Eysenck Similar method to Cattell Had 3 different source traits (continuum) Introversion-extraversion Neuroticism-stability Psychoticism Generally considered as too few traits

76 Enysenck Cont… Neuroticism vs. Stability person’s predisposition to become emotionally upset & anxious in situations. Psychoticism A personality pattern typified by a break from reality with an emphasis on aggressiveness, impulsivity & non- conformity. Generally (3) considered as too few traits

77 Five Factor Model McCrea & Costa Factors—usually rated…low to high Openness to Experience- try new things Conscientiousness- thorough, careful Extraversion- outgoing Agreeableness- ability to get along with others and compromise Neuroticism- how anxious or emotionally upset someone gets

78 McCrae & Costa: Five Factor Model Described somewhat differently among researchers (comprehensive personality description) Factors—usually rated…low to high Openness to Experience Conscientiousness (undirected) Extraversion Agreeableness (antagonistic) Neuroticism

79 Behavioral Genetics Interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior Heredity seems to play a role in four of the “big five” personality traits— extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, and conscientiousness

80 Evaluation of Trait Perspective Don’t really explain personality, simply describe the behaviors Doesn’t describe the development of the behaviors Trait approaches generally fail to address how issues such as motives, unconscious, or beliefs about self affect personality development

81 Terms to add for Activity Freud- Eros- drive to live/love, self satisfaction vs. Thanatos- destruction/death drive Rogers- Unconditional Positive Regard Maslow Deficiency Needs- if “d needs” are not met (esteem, friendship & love, security and physical needs)- the individual will feel anxious and tense Relative Deprivation- feeling that others have something you are entitled to.

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83 eography-of-personality.htm

84 Behavioral Genetics Interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior Heredity seems to play a role in four of the “big five” personality traits— extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, and conscientiousness

85 Evaluation of Trait Perspective Don’t really explain personality, simply describe the behaviors Doesn’t describe the development of the behaviors Trait approaches generally fail to address how issues such as motives, unconscious, or beliefs about self affect personality development Overestimating consistency of behavior from one situation to another

86 Case Study Activity Instructions In pairs you will be given a case study Must apply the case to AT LEAST (1) concept for Freud Jung Horney Adler Bandura Rogers Maslow 1 Trait Theorist Hints Analyze any person in the case Infer behavior- dig deep Think in terms of the theorist to formulate possibilities for the behavior Each psychologist will have a different explanation for why and how the person in the case study develops their personality.

87 Other Social Learning Theories Walter Mischel People do not behave the same across situations so… behavior is characterized more by situational specificity than by consistency this position has generated controversy (person vs. situation) but has increased awareness about situational determinants of behavior

88 What factors might influence personality ? Birth Order – (Howarth, 1980) First Born, Later Born Children Sex Role – (Bem, 1981) Masculine, Feminine, or Androgynous Clinton—1 st Born Letterman—Last Born


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