2What is Personality?An individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traitsThe concept of personality can be used to explain:the stability of a person’s behavior over time and across situationsthe behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness)
3Overview of Theories Psychoanalytic Theory – Sigmund Freud Neo-Freudians – Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erik EriksonBehaviorism – B. F. SkinnerSocial Learning Theory – Albert BanduraHumanism – Carl Rogers, Abraham MaslowTrait Theories – Allport, Eysenck, Sullivan
4Psychoanalytic Theories Personality TheoriesTHEORYMAIN IDEASBehavioristFocus on how rewards and punishments shape our actions.Social LearningCognitive-personal factors, our behaviors, and environmental factors interact to shape our personalities.Psychoanalytic TheoriesEmphasize the importance of early childhood experiences, repressed thoughts, and conflict between conscious and unconscious forces.
5Personality Theories 2 THEORY MAIN IDEAS Cognitive TheoriesOur analysis of how our own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings shape our personalities.Humanistic TheoriesEmphasize our capacity for personal growth, development or our full potential, and freedom to make choices.Trait TheoriesFocus on identifying, measuring, and classifying similarities and differences in personality characteristics or traits.
6ISSUES in personality theory… Free will or determinism?Nature or Nurture?Past, Present, or Future?Uniqueness or Universality?Equilibrium or Growth?Optimism or Pessimism?Person-situation controversyTemporary external influences or enduring inner inf?Traits persist over time & across different settingsFree to choose ~ Masters of our fate or victims of biological factors? (unconscious or external stimuli)Predispositions we inherit ~ environment?Personality dev complete in early childhood ~ influenced by present experiences/future aspiration and goals?Unique ~ broad personality patterns that fit large numbers of persons?Tension-reducing, pleasure-seeking animals ~ motivated by the need to grow?Human beings basically good ~ evil?
8Freud (1856-1939) Early Childhood is key Unconscious is a major determinant of behaviorAccess to the UnconsciousHypnosisDream AnalysisFree AssociationFreudian SlipsSociocultural: social and interpersonal pressure…taboos Victorian norm of sexual prudence prevalent during Freud’s lifetime.Psychoanalytic: unconscious mental life…anxietyFreud trained as a neurologist (treated mostly women with neuroses) nervous-ness*unconscious thought: parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape
9Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Freud’s Model of the MindID –needs, drives, instincts, and repressed material.(pleasure principle)EROS- drive to live/love & life satisfactionTHANATOS- drive for destruction & deathSUPEREGO –conscience & inhibits the socially undesirable impulses of the ID(moral principle)EGO –in touch with reality…strives to meet the demands of the ID and the SUPEREGO in socially acceptable ways.(reality principle)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfP9AIJA72EWhen 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his (ID)
10The school year is ending and final exams are near The school year is ending and final exams are near. You have done well but are having difficulty in your Psychology class. you know that in order to get a grade of “B”, the minimum acceptable by your parents, you must score an “A” on the final. You have tried studying, but feel it is an unattainable goal. As you are leaving your locker to go home on the afternoon prior to the test, you find a group of papers in the hall which has been dropped by someone. You look down, and find that one of the dropped papers has the heading “PSYCHOLOGY: FINAL EXAM”. You pick up the paper and look at it quickly, noticing that no one has seen you. What do you do next?
11All of the Egos are a group of friends All of the Egos are a group of friends. On of the Egos is a boy named Frank, who parents are going away over the weekend. They have indicated that Frank may stay home, but may not go out at night, nor have friends in. the group of friends are unhappy that Frank cannot join in the weekend fun. His girlfriend, Juanita, is especially unhappy. Someone suggests that they have a small party at Frank’s house anyway. Frank is skeptical, especially since his grandparents will be home and live on the corner but is willing to be convinced.
13Psychosexual Development 5 stages of personality developmentconflictsmust be successfully resolved in order to develop a healthy personalityProblems arise when conflicts are NOT resolvedLibido gets “stuck” or fixatedlingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier stageLibido—internal energy; unconscious, basic needs—hunger, thirst, sexual
14Oral Stage 0-1 ½ years Pleasure source=mouth Tasks— Fixation: Early—Feeding, weaningLate—teeth eruptionFixation:Pessimism, envy, suspicion, sarcasm, frustrated, manipulative, critical, self starvationOptimistic, overindulged, gullible, full of admiration for others around them, dependent, passivesmoking, kissing, pens, drug addiction
15Anal Stage 1 ½ -2 ½ years Pleasure source is anus Main task—toilet trainingLenient v. harshExpulsive v. retentiveFixation:Anal Expulsive;overly generous, messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant, expressiveAnal Retentive;stingy, rigid, OCD, neat, precise, orderly, careful, meticulous, passive aggressive
16Phallic Stage 2 ½ - 5 or 6 years Pleasure source—genitals Task— Oedipus ComplexIdentification with same-sex parentsRepress desiresFixation—Anxiety, extreme guilt, phobias, depression, improper sexual identity, promiscuity, homosexuality, fear of authority, reckless, narcissistic, incapable of loveOedipus CommercialBoys-Oedipus Complexseek genital stimulationunconscious sexual desires for momguilt & fear of punishment from dadcastration anxietyResolved by Identifying w/dad (possess mom vicariously)Girls—Electra ComplexSome psychoanalysts say girls experience this as well—Freud says its differentPenis Envywhen she discovers she doesn’t have one she feels a lossHer loss makes her turn against her mother and desire her fatherResolved by ID w/momBig Bang- Penis Envy
17Latency Stage 6-Pre-Adolescence Play Time important Same sex peers importantLibido is suppressedEarlier issues are hidden*cooties!
18Genital Stage Adolescence to Adulthood Task—seek marriage partner No new conflicts—old conflicts ariseManifest into personality characteristicsCriticisms: offers after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions.*few testable hypothesis that allows one to determine its validity (CASE studies)
20Freud-Defense Mechanisms… Unconscious self-deceptionsdemands of id or superego overwhelm ego… anxiety results.Distort thoughts or perceptionsavoid internal conflict & painHelp from being overwhelmed by immediate threatGives time to cope in a more efficient problem focused mannerSave face…Short clipMovie examplesIF OVERUSED: less adaptable* consumes great amts of emotional energy to control anxiety & maintain unrealistic self image
21Neurosispoor ability to adapt to one's environment, an inability to change one's life patterns, and the inability to develop a richer, more complex, more satisfying personality."Terror-management theory = anxiety about our own mortality motivates our pursuit of self-esteem.*anxiety is triggered by an awareness of one’s impending death*‘adherence to one’s worldview’ used to defend against a deeply rooted fear of death.
22criticisms Too focused on sex Early childhood experiences ONLY factor in personalityPessimistic view of human nature & society
23Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Quiz: True-False 1. Stage 3 is the latency stage.2. Fixation at stage 1 would lead to dependency.3. One becomes fixated because of staring too long at an object.4. Stage 4 is the most important stage.5. Sexual urges sleep during the latency stage.6. An erogenous zone is something kids try to avoid.7. The oedipal complex means the boy loves mom and hates dad.8. The first three stages determine personality.9. Fixation at stage 2 might lead to OCD.10. The oedipal complex occurs during the phallic stage.11. Oral fixation always leads to rebellion against the parent.12. Fixation at stage 5 is the most serious fixation.13. The key issue during stage two is learning to hold back.14. Someone obsessed with his mouth might be fixated at the oral stage.15. A boy must identify with Dad in order to successfully deal with stage 3.16. The cootie stage is common in stage 2.
26Carl Jung and Analytical Psychology The Ego—conscious mind/selfYour feeling of identity is herePersonal UnconsciousExperiences that were conscious at one point and are now repressed/forgottenSimilar to Freud’s ViewCollective UnconsciousA “warehouse” of memories from our past as a group—the entire human race shares thisHero: many cultures share stories containing a “hero” character, such as King Arthur of Great Britain, Quetzlcoatl of the Aztecs, and Hercules of the ancient Greek
27Collective Unconscious Filled with ancestral memories known as...archetypes that..reflect the history of our speciesare inherited universal human conceptsthey show up in dreams and are often manifested in a culture’s use of art, symbols, etc.Ideas (hero, mother, “God/Supreme Being”, etc.) shared by the whole human race
28Psychological Harmony and the Fully Developed Self 2 Key archetypes:Anima—AnimusFeminine & masculine qualitiesThe Fully Developed Self is able to balance tensions thus we attain psychological harmony—recognize & accept both components!
29TYPE A vs. TYPE B drive to achieve goals & eagerness to compete desire for external recognition & advancementinvolved in several thingseasily angryfree floating hostilitytime urgencyexhibit signs of struggle vs. time & peopleimpatientirritated by trivial thingsreact to stress w/ higher pulse rate and blood pressureless comfy around others (prefer to work alone)resent being told what to dodo opposite what is told to themwork faster, even if no deadlinecomplain less of hard workreport being less tiredworse on patience & careful tasksmotivated intrinsically, self encouragingrelaxed laid back attitude & posturefriendly, accepting, patient, at easegenerally content (stable pleasant mood)at peace w/self & othershow general sense of harmony w/people, events, & life circumstancestend to be trustingfocus on positive aspects of things/people/eventsinterested in others, accept trivial mistakesflexible, good team membersType A:Speed up mental and physical tasks w/extraordinary mental and physical alertness.Super achievers, high-powered peopleGet a lot done,Inhibit happiness, threaten health since goals are poorly defined and therefore hard to achieve.Contemptuous of imperfectionbursts of hostility & impatience…result in guilt, remorse, and anxietyMotivated by external sources (material reward and appreciation from others)…always ready for a battleTYPE B:
30The Eight Preferences: (E)xtraversion vs. (I)ntroversion(S)ensing vs. I(N)tuition(T)hinking vs. (F)eeling(J)udging vs. (P)erceivingE: Focus on outer world of people, many friends with brief contact, Talk more than listen, Approachable, keep up with social happenings.I: Focus on inner world of ideas. Few friends with longer contact, Good listeners, reserved, reflective, private.S: Focus on the present, like tangible results, facts & figures, Sequential, front to back, literal, down to earth, specific answers, routines.N: focus on the future or past, patterns & possibilities, ideas and theories, head in the clouds, like general answers, fantasies & daydreaming.T: decision based on logic & objective analysis, remember numbers & figures better than names & faces, prefer truth over agreementF: decisions based on personal feelings and values, think with the heart, compassionate, puts self in others’ shoes, prefer harmony over truthJ: likes to-do lists & schedules, organized, neat, do what you’re supposed to do, deadlines, order, get things done, work first, always on time.P: Flexible, spontaneous, adaptable, doesn’t plan, like the unknown, easily distracted, wait till last minute, turns work into play, keep options open
31DiscussionLook over the communication styles of Extravert compared to Introvert….What problems can you see arising when the two types attempt to communicate?Circle- What does your type do to communicate?Circle-How are you able to get along?What characteristics do you wish you possessed?What frustrates you about the other communication type?
32Karen Horney Credited with founding women’s psychology Rejected Freud’s view that:women were dependent, vain, and submissive bc of biological factors & early childhood experiencesCultural & social factors more important than sexual!major influence on personality development is child-parent social interactions NOT sexual conflictsConflicts can be avoided if the child is raised in a loving, trusting, and secure environment
33Womb Envy Men have womb envy They compensate for their relatively minor role in reproduction by throwing themselves into work.It’s not a man’s penis, but his status in society that women envy.Monty Python video
34HorneyWe experience anxiety because society places incapable demands on us…Society pushes us to pursue goals that will reduce this anxiety (not because we truly want them)These efforts fail, but we get stuck in these enduring behavior/personality patternsPattern Examples…Ex. a man needs a woman’s love to deaden his sense of basic anxiety. His demands for affection become excessive and unconditional. If so, they cannot possibly be fulfilled. Even slight failure is seen as rejection, thus increasing his need for affection…a non-ending cycleEx. Student has to write an important paper. She’s worried. She puts it off. She feels guilty and becomes more anxious, she puts it off more….etc.
35Horney 3 Behavior Patterns that are used to defend against anxiety: TOWARD(depend on others for love, support, friendship)AWAY(self-sufficiency)AGAINST(excessive need for power—competitive, power)Healthy people can balance these needs
36Horney WorksheetIn partners, look over the following statements and classify them into the category you feel best describes what pattern they are using to defend against anxiety.
37Adler Psychosocial—we are social beings Perception is important One’s subjective view of realityWe all have a… purpose, choice, goalswe need to be aware of our motives/goals & have the capacity to guide/plan future!LifestyleThe style of life is distinctive and unique for each of usWe all display motives, traits, interests, and values that exhibit themselves in every act a person performs.Birth OrderFamily ConstellationMove from inferiority towards superiority = Power
38Adler—feelings of Inferiority and striving for Superiority motivated by an inferiority complexCould be based on a physical problemcompensate (real or imagined weakness)All people experience some inferiority(Childhood—small size)These feelings give rise to a drive for superiorityovercompensation can be a problem—some may develop a superiority complexover exaggeration of one’s accomplishments and not realizing limitationswe need to be aware of our motives/goals & have the capacity to guide/plan future!
39Birth order discussion Go to the designated area of your birth orderIn your group- answer these questions…#1- Do you agree or disagree with the characteristics your birth order says display? Why?#2- Look over the list of other characteristics of traits found according to birth order. Do these sound like your siblings? (only child- friends)
40Comer, Abnormal Psychology 4e Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Figure An inkblot similar to those used in the Rorschach test
42Personality Tests Objective Tests Projective Tests Forced choice StandardizedProjective TestsEncourage Test takers to respond freelyEncourages a broad range of answersInterpretation of an ambiguous imageUsed to determine unconscious motives, conflicts, and psychological traits
43Objective Tests MMPI—Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 567 statementsMust answer T, F, or cannot sayEx. “I like tall women” or “I wake up tired most mornings”Reveals habits, fears, delusions, sexual attitudes, and symptoms of psychological disordersLook for patterns of responses
45Objective Tests CPI—California Psychological Inventory Measures traits—responsibility, self-control, tolerance, etc.Meyers Briggs (Jungian Typology)Focuses on how a person takes in info and makes decisionsMeasures on 4 scales—introvert v. extrovert; intuitive vs. sensing; feeling vs. thinking; judging vs. perceptive
46Projective Tests Rorschach Inkblot Test No right or wrong answers What do you see in this picture?Anything a person does or says will reveal personality characteristicsSeveral scoring systemsTAT—Thematic Apperception Test31 cards with vague, but suggestive situationsAsked to tell a story about each picture-what’s doing on? What is each person thinking? Feeling? Ending?Therapist looks at the themes that emergeCan be used to assess motivation, personality characteristics
47Psychological Testing Objective Tests are more reliable and valid.Projective tests like the Rorschach are still used widely in psychiatric hospitals today.They look into what the person is thinking and try to find patterns of thought and behavior.Little kids… draw a picture (same thing)
48Pseudo-personality tests… Barnum effect: tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one’s personalityThat could really be applied to almost anyoneStock Spiel: each of us is just like everyone elseAstrologers make use of thisSelf-serving bias: personality descriptions become more positive, Barnum effect becomes strongerBarnum: impressed by palm reader’s insight into personality“you generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess.”
49Humanism Emerges in the 1950s and 1960s. Arises in response to the negativity of psychodynamic & behavioral theoriesStresses the positiveSelf-determinismHealthy growthSelf-realizationPositive self concept is the key to happiness and success.
50Carl Rogers: A ‘Person Centered’ Perspective People are basically goodPersonal growthGenuineAcceptingempathicOur self conceptall our thoughts and feelings about ourselvesIndividuals personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic
51Real vs. Ideal Self (ROGERS) We all have an IDEAL SELFOur goal…perfectionOften, this does not match up with our REAL SELFWhat we really areThis discrepancy / incongruence leads to:distorted perceptions, feelings, & ideasanxiety, depression, & other problemstwist our own reality to preserve our self concept!!ex. Girl believes she is nice. Friends and boyfriends tell her she is stuck up and snotty. She might block these comments, attribute them to jealousy on the part of her friends, and anger from her boyfriend because she won’t get more serious w/him. She may start to do charity work.
52Self Actualizing…becoming a fully functioning person (ROGERS) Ultimately…We are motivated to reduce the discrepancy/incongruencefully functioning: real = ideal selfOpenness to experienceExistential livingOrganismic trustingExperiential freedomCreativityInventory: reflecting on what these traits mean and how important possessing them is to you will add depth to your self-knowledge and provide a truer picture of your self image regardless of score.**Positive vs. negative self-concept.Openness to experience: opposite of defensiveness. Accurate perception of one’s experience in the world, including one’s feelings. Accepts realityExistential living: living in the here and now. Rogers insists that we not live in the past or the future; the one is gone, and the other’s isn’t anything at all, yet! The present is the only reality we have.Organismic trusting: we should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural.Experiential freedom: it is irrelevant whether or not we have free will, since we behave as if we do. He says the FF person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and takes responsibility for his choices.Creativity: A FF person in touch with actualization, will feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself. Can be expressed in the arts and sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing one’s best at one’s job.
53Seven Stages of Rogerian Functioning : Stage 1 : The client is very defensive, & extremely resistant to change.Stage 2 : Client becomes slightly less rigid, & will talk about external events or other people.Stage 3 : Client talks about her/himself, but as an object. Avoids discussion of present events.Stage 4 : Client begins to talk about deep feelings & develops a relationship with the therapist.The next three stages represent substantial growth in the person's journey of self-actualizationStage 5 : Client can express present emotions, & are beginning to rely more on their own decision making abilities and increasingly accept more responsibility for their actions.Stage 6 : The client shows rapid growth toward congruence, & begin to develop unconditional positive regard for others. This stage signals the end for the need for formal therapyStage 7: The client is a fully functioning, self actualized individual who is empathic &shows unconditional positive regard for others. This individual can relate their previous therapy to present day real-life situations.
54Unconditional Positive Regard (ROGERS) attitude of total acceptance toward anotherWe develop self-regard (self-esteem) as we develop & become aware of ourselvesAt first, self-esteem is reflected by the esteem in which others hold us (Parents)develop self-esteem when parents give unconditional positive regard, regardless of beh.Rebellious, inconsiderate, self-centered student…yet teacher always accepted and respected him = unconditional positive regard
55Conditional Positive Regard (ROGERS) Showing acceptance only when a person/child is exhibiting certain behaviorCan lead to problems:Children may learn to disown the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, that parents have rejected.Children believe they are worthwhile only if they behave in a certain wayDiscrepancy between real & ideal!
56Maslow…fulfill one’s potential Safety NeedsPhysiological NeedsSelf actualizationSelf-Esteem NeedsStudied lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, & Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of self-actualization.Self-transcendence…sense of purpose in life that goes beyond fulfilling one’s own potential for growth and self-actualization.Belonging Needs
57Maslow: Self actualized characteristics Value privacyDemocraticProblem-centeredNonconformistsClear perception of realityUn-hostile sense of humorAutonomous & independentAccept themselves & othersNot afraid of success or failureCreative, willing to try new thingsSpontaneous; open, concentrate on presentDevelop close relationships with othersRealize potential & appreciate potential in othersEnjoy the process of doing something as well as the end productNOT defensiveSTUDIED people with qualities Maslow admiredCriticisms: too positive, vague, and subjective concepts (difficult to measure)*encouraging selfishness and self-indulgence*underestimates the value of social obligations*underestimates the human predisposition to engage in destructive & evil behaviors
58Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs self actualization = happy & productive life YES are qualities of self-actualizationNO’s can be used as goals to work onBenefits of being self-actualized…Reaching your potential, having peak experiences, quality relationships, accepting yourself, being spontaneous & appreciating life.Problems with self-reporting…inaccurate & biased if person does not have a realistic self-perception.
59Deficiency NeedsIf someone’s esteem, friendship & love, security or physical needs are not being met… individual will feel anxious & tense.Self- Actualization eliminates that anxiety and tension.
60Ex: Terrorism; higher education & wealthy families. *Relative deprivation: the feeling that others have something that you are entitled to.*social sciences: describe feelings or measures of economic, political, or social deprivation that are relative rather than absolute.Ex: Terrorism; higher education & wealthy families.Not actual economic desitutionSome sociologists believe relative deprivation theory explains why people join social movements or advocate social change. For example, in this view, gay people join the movement for gay marriage in order to acquire something (the right to marry) they believe others already possess; relative to these people, such advocates of gay marriage believe they are deprived.
62Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (a.k.a Social Learning Theory) Personality is largely shaped through learning (behaviorism)but “…people are self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating…” not robotic and completely controlled by their environmentReciprocal Determinisminternal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another.
64Reciprocal Determinism internal mental events, external environmental events, & overt behavior all influence one another.Combine 4 sources:previous experience of success or failure on similar tasks to estimate how you will do on new related taskscompare (capabilities with those of others)listen (to what others have to say about your capabilities)use feedback (from your body to assess your strength, vulnerability, & capability)Analyze and apply to your life:1.) put theory into your own words2.) create a solid example of the theory at work in everyday life3.) think of an exception, a situation in which the theory does not work or another theory explains motivation and motivated behavior more effectivelySubstandard academic performances = result & cause of feelings of academic inferiority.Refusal to purchase fattenting snacks at grocery store, cause and consequence of superior dietary self-controlRejected by parents = mistrusts other people & treats them with hostility, leads to other’s rejection of her (cycle rejection, mistrust, hostility, further rejection)Manager trusts employee, treats them kindly, kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, increases his trust in them. (pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, & increasing trust)
66Bandura and observational learning Our behavior is shaped by models that we are exposed toMost influential:those we like/respectthose who are attractive/powerfulthose who are similar to us (gender)those who have successful outcomes (good/bad)
67Bandura and Self-Efficacy belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomesHigh=confidence; Low=question ability/anxiousThese perceptions can influence how we solve problems and how well we performStudies confirm this (cessation of smoking, exercise programs, greater persistence in academic pursuits)Parents can foster this by:providing a stimulating environment, warm responsiveness, non-punitive disciplinary techniques, etc.Personal beliefs regarding how capable we are in controlling events and situations in our lives, such as performing or completing specific tasks and behaviors.Higher motivation to achieve, perform, and do well on a variety of tasks and situations mediated / influenced by how strongly you believe in your own capabilities.
68Strength Criticism Grounded in research in Limited view Just learning Cognitive psychologySocial psychologySelf-regulation, responsibilityLimited viewJust learningEffects of situationsEffects on self beliefsIgnores unconscious, emotions, conflicts
69Other Social Learning Theories Walter MischelPeople do not behave the same across situations so…behavior is characterized more by situational specificity than by consistencythis position has generated controversy (person vs. situation)but has increased awareness about situational determinants of behaviorNever cheat on psychology test, but does so often on chemistry testStole some merchandise from a store, but returned a lost wallet with $28Animated and talkative with girlfriend, quiet and reserved at home
70William Sheldon-Somatotypes Each body type is associated with personality characteristics, representing a correlation between physique and temperament.What could be wrong with this theory?
71Personality: consistency, talents, values, hopes, loves, hates, habits that make us unique Temperament: heredity aspects, activity levels, prevailing mood, adaptabilityCharacter: person judged, friendly, outgoing, attractiveTraits: specific long lasting qualities within a person, inferred from observed behavior
72Trait TheoryTrait—durable disposition to behavior in a particular way in a variety of situationshonest, impulsive, suspicious, etc.Trait Theories: Most approaches assume that some traits are more basic than others and thus determine other superficial traitsAllport—discovers more than 4000 words that describe personality traitsCharacteristic patterns of behavior and conscious motives = Traits
73Cattell and 16 FactorFactor analysis—correlations among variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variablesUsed to break down Allport’s ListDiscovers 16 “essential source traits”Source traits- underlying, fundamental attributes of who we areSurface traits- what you can see in our behavior based off of our source traitsCreates Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
74Hans Eysenck Similar method to Cattell Had 3 different source traits Introversion-extraversiondegree to which a person directs his energies outward toward the environment & inward toward his or her inner and self-focused experiences.High on introversion—quiet, solitary, reserved; avoiding new experiencesHigh on extraversion—outgoing and sociable; enjoying new experiences and stimulating environments
75Hans Eysenck Similar method to Cattell Had 3 different source traits (continuum)Introversion-extraversionNeuroticism-stabilityPsychoticismGenerally considered as too few traitsCoretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as…unstable–introverted.Neurotic: extent to which people control their feelings (spontaneous, generous, warm…controlled, unresponsive, calm, flat & stilted.Psychotic: tough mindedness ~troublesome, opposed to authority, sensation seeking, insensitive, detached, risk-taking…warm gregarious & tender
76Neuroticism vs. Stability Enysenck Cont…Neuroticism vs. Stabilityperson’s predisposition to become emotionally upset & anxious in situations. PsychoticismA personality pattern typified by a break from reality with an emphasis on aggressiveness, impulsivity & non-conformity.Generally (3) considered as too few traitsStability reflects a predisposition to be emotionally even.high on this trait is antisocial, cold, hostile, and unconcerned about others. low on psychoticism is warm and caring toward others.
77Five Factor Model McCrea & Costa Factors—usually rated…low to highOpenness to Experience- try new thingsConscientiousness- thorough, carefulExtraversion- outgoingAgreeableness- ability to get along with others and compromiseNeuroticism- how anxious or emotionally upset someone gets
78McCrae & Costa: Five Factor Model Described somewhat differently among researchers (comprehensive personality description)Factors—usually rated…low to highOpenness to ExperienceConscientiousness (undirected)ExtraversionAgreeableness (antagonistic)NeuroticismHelpful and trusting = agreeableness (good-natured or irritable, courteous or rude, flexible or stubborn, lenient or criticalHighly imaginative = openness (experienced or closed, independent or conforming, creative or uncreative, daring or timid)Emotional instability = neuroticismOrganized & disciplined = conscientiousness (morning types larks) not owls (reliable or undependable, careful or careless, punctual or late, organized or disorganizedHighly anxious & insecure = neuroticism (worriers or calm, nervous or at ease, insecure or secure)Sociable & fun-loving = extraversionClassical, jazz, blues, fold music lovers = openness (over country, pop, religious music lovers)Use more adjectives in communications = extraversionDuring adulthood openness tends to decrease, agreeableness tends to increase
79Behavioral GeneticsInterdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behaviorHeredity seems to play a role in four of the “big five” personality traits—extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, and conscientiousness
80Evaluation of Trait Perspective Don’t really explain personality, simply describe the behaviorsDoesn’t describe the development of the behaviorsTrait approaches generally fail to address how issues such as motives, unconscious, or beliefs about self affect personality development
81Terms to add for Activity Freud- Eros- drive to live/love, self satisfaction vs. Thanatos- destruction/death driveRogers- Unconditional Positive RegardMaslowDeficiency Needs- if “d needs” are not met (esteem, friendship & love, security and physical needs)- the individual will feel anxious and tenseRelative Deprivation- feeling that others have something you are entitled to.
84Behavioral GeneticsInterdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behaviorHeredity seems to play a role in four of the “big five” personality traits—extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, and conscientiousness
85Evaluation of Trait Perspective Don’t really explain personality, simply describe the behaviorsDoesn’t describe the development of the behaviorsTrait approaches generally fail to address how issues such as motives, unconscious, or beliefs about self affect personality developmentOverestimating consistency of behavior from one situation to another
86Case Study Activity Instructions Hints Analyze any person in the case Infer behavior- dig deepThink in terms of the theorist to formulate possibilities for the behaviorEach psychologist will have a different explanation for why and how the person in the case study develops their personality.In pairs you will be given a case studyMust apply the case to AT LEAST (1) concept forFreudJungHorneyAdlerBanduraRogersMaslow1 Trait TheoristFake book
87Other Social Learning Theories Walter MischelPeople do not behave the same across situations so…behavior is characterized more by situational specificity than by consistencythis position has generated controversy (person vs. situation)but has increased awareness about situational determinants of behavior
88What factors might influence personality ? Birth Order – (Howarth, 1980)First Born, Later Born ChildrenSex Role – (Bem, 1981)Masculine, Feminine, or AndrogynousClinton—1st BornLetterman—Last Born