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Unit 4 – European Politics and Economy,

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1 Unit 4 – European Politics and Economy, 1871-1914
Modern Europe II Unit 4 – European Politics and Economy,

2 Advance of Democracy Characteristics of 1871-1914 Europe
Expansive material and industrial growth Domestic stability International peace New wave of imperialism Expansion of global economy Period after 1871 was marked by stability Period of constitutional and representative governments Extension of voting rights to working class Extension of self-government (democracy) Growth of the welfare state to counteract growth of socialism

3 Third French Republic France had troubles establishing a democratic republic The Second Empire fell after its surrender to Prussia in January 1871 New government was to be established with universal male suffrage Conservative provisional government moved to Versailles Elections of 1871 Monarchists won the majority in the National Assembly Divided mainly between two groups: Legitimists and Orléanists Legitimists wanted Bourbon dynasty (Charles X) reinstated Orléanists wanted the Orléans dynasty (Louis-Philippe) Only 150 republicans were elected as many French distrusted them as too radical

4 Makeup of the 1871 National Assembly

5 Third French Republic Parisian working class refused to accept the new government Were the ones who sacrificed the most during the war and the subsequent siege of Paris Paris refused to surrender to the Germans Paris Commune (March 18 – May 28, 1871) Paris proclaimed itself to be the true government of France Set up a government called the Paris Commune Pitted the nation against the radical city of Paris Policies were similar to the Jacobins Very anti-bourgeoisie and upper class Contained some socialists but mainly republicans

6 Paris Commune Barricade (March 18, 1871)

7 Third French Republic Government sends troops to Paris in March 1871
Barricades and street fighting Troops were able to take the city in May In total, over 25,000 died, most of them executed Over 30,000 were arrested and 7,500 deported to New Caledonia What form should the new government take? Monarchists had the majority but could not agree Legitimists and Orléanists ended up cancelling each other out Third Republic continued to exist Worked different constitutional plans

8 Third French Republic French Constitutional Laws of 1875
Formally established a republic headed by a president Senate elected by an indirect system Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage Included a Council of Ministers headed by a Premier Passed by one vote Over the next few years the political roles would become more defined President essentially became a ceremonial figure True power rested in the hands of the Premier

9 Third French Republic Stable government?
Became difficult to form majority in the parliament due to dozens of political parties Control formed through alliances or blocs Neither President nor Premier could dissolve the Chamber to hold new elections Kept the government stable for the rest of 19th century Troubles of the Third Republic Many were fearful of the concept of a republic Rise in anti-Semitism Numerous political scandals in the 1880s and 1890s

10 Édouard Drumont ( )

11 Rise of Anti-Semitism French Anti-Semitism Édouard Drumont (1844–1917)
Rose out of the defeat in 1870 Right-wing movement that was nationalist, anti-liberal, and antiparliamentary Nationalism was no longer associated with the left and was now linked to xenophobia Édouard Drumont (1844–1917) Successful anti-Semitic journalist Attributed all of France’s problems to a Jewish conspiracy Merged three strands of anti-Semitism Christian – “Jews as Christ killers” Economic – Rothschild as representative of all Jews Racial thinking - Jews as an inferior race

12 Rise of Anti-Semitism Drumont helped to spread an ideology of hatred
Claimed that Jews in the army subverted national purpose Mass culture corrupted French culture “Greedy Jewish socialists and trade unionists” preyed on the peasants and small shopkeepers La France Juive (Jewish France, 1886) Called for the exclusion of Jews from French society Sold 100,000 copies in the first two months La Libre Parole (Free Speech) Very popular newspaper Founded through his Anti-Semitic League

13 Alfred Dreyfus ( )

14 Dreyfus Affair Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) The Affair
Jewish captain in the French army Officers accused him of selling secrets to the Germans Was convicted in November 1894 Sentenced to life imprisonment in the Devil’s Island penal colony in French Guiana The Affair In 1896, evidence was found that identified another officer as the true spy Documents used against Dreyfus were found to be forgeries However, Dreyfus was not exonerated

15 Dreyfus Affair Émile Zola (1840–1902) backed Dreyfus
Wrote an open letter in 1898 accusing the government of being anti-Semitic and unjust Described the lack of evidence in the letter Was published on the front page of L'Aurore Zola was found guilty of libel and was forced to leave France Dreyfus eventually pardoned by the president in 1899 Cleared of all guilt in 1906 by the supreme court Reinstated into the army Republican reaction against the church Saw both the church and army as hostile to the state Passed laws ( ) separating church and state

16 Dreyfus’ hut on Guiana

17 Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths of the Third French Republic Garnered the loyalty of most of the French population Showed that democratic republicanism can work Most classes lived in economic comfort Weaknesses Still lagged behind in industry compared to Britain and Germany Excessive fragmentation of political parties More than 50 ministries from Working class was still unhappy Continued rise of socialism

18 Victoria ( )

19 British Constitutional Monarchy
Characteristics of Britain under Victoria ( ) Era of expanding industry and material progress Numerous literary accomplishments Political stability Two major political parties: Liberals and Conservatives Victoria in seclusion In 1861, Prince Consort Albert died of typhoid fever Victoria went into a period of seclusion This seclusion helped to bolster the republican movement inside of England

20 British Constitutional Monarchy
Parties alternated control during this period Conservatives had the support of the landed aristocracy Liberals had the support of industrial and commercial interests Both sought the support of the working class Increasing suffrage Second Reform Bill (1867) extended suffrage to 1/3 male population In 1884, another law extended it to ¾ of the male population Universal male suffrage and limited women’s suffrage were enacted in 1918

21 William E. Gladstone Prime Minister of Britain ( )

22 British Constitutional Monarchy
William E. Gladstone ( ) Liberal Prime Minister four times during the Victorian Era Gladstone’s First ministry ( ) Cardwell Reforms (1869) terminated the sale and purchase of army commissions Forster's Education Act (1870) set framework for public schools for children 5-12 University Test Act (1871) abolished religious tests for Cambridge and Oxford Ballot Act (1872) introduced the use of secret ballot Formally legalized labor unions

23 British Constitutional Monarchy
Benjamin Disraeli ( ) Conservative who held position of Prime Minister twice Second Disraeli Ministry ( ) Supported laissez-faire policies Public Health Act (1875) regulated public sanitation to stop the spread of diseases such as cholera and typhus Regulated workplace safety in the mines Allowed for peaceful picketing Gladstone’s Second Ministry ( ) Granted a form of workman’s compensation Included calls for shorter work days

24 Benjamin Disraeli Prime Minister ( )

25 British Politics after 1900
Independent Labour Party (1901) Labor emerged as a third political party Called for more protective measures for the working class Changes to the Liberal Party Changed from laissez-faire policies to more government regulation Focused more on social legislation to help the working poor Liberal welfare reforms ( ) Done during the ministry of Herbert Asquith ( ) Illustrated the shift to more progressive liberalism

26 British Politics after 1900
Reforms included: New forms of insurance (e.g., unemployment, sickness, accident) Minimum wage laws Removing restrictions on strikes and picketing People’s Budget of 1909 Pushed through by Chancellor of the Exchequer Lloyd George Designed to help pay new social reforms Called for progressive income and inheritance taxes Aimed primarily at the landed aristocracy Met tough resistance in both houses

27 British Politics after 1900
Parliament Act of 1911 Removed the right of the House of Lords to veto any economic matters Put in a two-year delaying veto for other legislation Liberals also worked on getting salaries for House of Commons Hoped it would get working class to run for seats However, Liberals were showing signs of collapse Wages were starting to fall after 1900 Major coal and railway strikes occurred in Labour Party continued to grow in popularity

28 Liverpool Transit Strike (1911)

29 Irish Question Act of Union (1800) Irish had numerous grievances
Ireland had been incorporated into the United Kingdom Part had to do with the Irish Rebellion of 1798 Other part was due to French sympathies generated during the French Revolution Irish had numerous grievances Tenant farmers had no recourse against their landlords Were subjugated to the Church of Ireland (Anglican) while most of the population was Catholic Gladstone attempted to address these issues Church of Ireland was no longer the official state church after the Irish Church Disestablishment Act 1869

30 Irish Question Home Rule Bills Ulstermen
First initiated by Gladstone in 1886 but it did not pass the Commons Started a split amongst the Liberals Were attempted again in 1893 and 1914 Passed in 1914 but suspended due to World War I Ulstermen Irish Protestants who strongly opposed the Home Rule Bill Were afraid of being outnumbered by the Catholics Gained the support of the Conservatives Began arming themselves to fight if the bill passed Signed Ulster Covenant in 1912 to support armed opposition

31 Signing the Ulster Covenant (September 28, 1912)

32 German Empire ( ) After 1871, Bismarck worked not with the Conservatives but with the National Liberals Conservatives were still against the concept of a united Germany Liberals were more eager to help centralize the state Setting up the new administration Sought to create the centralizing institutions of a modern state Created a bicameral parliament Bundesrat – Upper house with appointed delegates Reichstag - Lower house elected through universal male suffrage Executive power rested solely with Wilhelm who was both king and kaiser (emperor)

33 German Empire (1871-1890) Three problems facing Bismarck:
Divide between Catholics and Protestants Growing Social Democratic party Divisive economic interests of agriculture and industry Addressing the Catholic Church Bismarck wanted to subordinate the Church to the state First Vatican Council reaffirmed papal infallibility in 1870 which would cause issues for Catholics in Germany Catholics created a strong Center party that upheld church pronouncements

34 German Empire (1871-1890) Kulturkampf (cultural struggle)
Bismarck unleashed an anti-Catholic campaign Appealed to sectarian tensions over public education and civil marriages Popular with Liberals who were strongly anticlerical Passed laws that imprisoned priests for political sermons Banned Jesuits from Prussia The campaign backfired Catholic Center party won seats in the Reichstag in 1874 Bismarck negotiated an alliance with the Catholic Center

35 German Empire ( ) Economic downturn of the late 1870s forced Bismarck to create a new coalition Combined agricultural and industrial interests as well as socially conservative Catholics Passed protectionist legislation that upset laissez-faire supporters and the working class Social Democrats became the new enemies German Social Democratic party (SPD) was formed in 1875 Blend of Marxian socialists and moderate reformers Attempted assassinations In 1878, there were two failed assassination attempts against Wilhelm

36 German Empire (1871-1890) Anti-SPD legislation
Bismarck associated socialism with the anarchy Passed numerous antisocialist laws between 1878 and 1880 Expelled socialists from major cities The party still managed to win elections even though it was technically illegal Bismarck did pass some social welfare Workers guaranteed sickness and accident insurance Rigorous factory inspection Limited working hours for women and children Old-age pensions Still failed to win over the working class

37 Wilhelm II ( )

38 Wilhelm II (1888-1918) By 1890, support for the SPD continued to grow
Votes for SPD quadrupled between 1881 and 1890 William II (1888–1918) Wanted Germany to go on a “new course” in 1890 He wanted to rule Germany, not Bismarck Called for the resignation of Bismarck Suspended antisocialist legislation and legalized the SPD SPD continued to gain in popularity Received 1/3 total votes in election of 1912 Received 110 members into the Reichstag However, they were still excluded from the highest government positions

39 Political cartoon depicting Wilhelm I “dropping the pilot” (Bismarck)

40 Russia: Road to Revolution
Russia was plagued with problems after 1871 The autocratic political system was unable to handle the conflict and pressures from modern society Threatened by Western industrialization and political doctrines Russia responded with some reform but repression as well Russian industrialization (1880s–1890s) State-directed industrial development Serfs emancipated in 1861 No independent middle class capable of raising capital Rapid industrialization heightened social tensions Workers left their villages temporarily to work in factories, and then returned for planting and harvest

41 Russia: Road to Revolution
The legal system had not been modernized No recognition of trade unions or employers’ associations Still distinguished between nobles and peasants rather than modern society Contained outdated banking and finance laws Alexander III (1881–1894) Steered the country toward the right Believed Russia had nothing in common with the west Focused on repression, especially of liberal ideas Curtailed power of the zemstvos Increased authority of the secret police

42 Russia: Road to Revolution
Nicholas II (1894–1917) Continued these “counter-reforms” Advocated Russification over non-Russian subjects Targeted the Jews with pogroms and open anti-Semitism Rise of the Populists Believed that Russia should modernize on its own terms, not those of the West Wanted egalitarianism based on the village commune (mir) Formed secret bands with the hope of overthrowing the tsar through anarchy and insurrection Read Marx’s Das Capital and emphasized peasant socialism Played a role in the creation of the Social Revolutionary Party in 1901

43 Russia: Road to Revolution
Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) Main form of Russian Marxism Grew in response to growing Populism Concentrated on urban workers rather than peasantry Believed that Russian autocracy would give way to capitalism Capitalism would eventually give way to a classless society Blended radicalism with a scientific approach to history In 1903, the Social Democratic party split Occurred at the Second Congress which met in London Was over the major points of the Party’s program

44 Russia: Road to Revolution
Bolsheviks (“majority”) Called for a central party organization of active revolutionaries Rapid industrialization meant they did not have to follow Marx Could “skip a stage” straight into revolution Eventually would become the foundation of the Communist Party Mensheviks (“minority”) Believed in a “gradualist” approach of slow changes Reluctant to depart from Marxist orthodoxy Able to regain control of the Social Democratic Party

45 Vladimir Lenin ( )

46 Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
Older brother was executed for his involvement in the assassination of Alexander II Was under suspicion for a plot against Alexander III in 1896 In exile in Siberia from Remained in political exile from 1900 to 1917 in western Europe Becomes the leader of the Bolsheviks Believed in the need for a coordinated socialist movement What Is to Be Done? (1902) Denounced gradualists and called for revolution Wanted to form a smaller organization of vanguards to lead the working class

47 First Russian Revolution (1905)
Took most of the revolutionaries by surprise Number of factors led to it The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War ( ) Rapid industrialization had transformed Russia unevenly Economic downturn of the 1900s lead to high unemployment Low grain prices eventually led to peasant uprisings All combined with student radicalism to turn it all into a politically based movement Russian government was not able to handle the problems Radical workers organized strikes and demonstrations Trust in the tsar declined dramatically

48 First Russian Revolution (1905)
“Bloody Sunday” (January 22, 1905) Group of 200,000 workers demonstrated at the Winter Palace Guard troops killed 130 and wounded several hundred Led to mass strikes throughout the country Stores and factories were shut down The autocracy had lost control Nicholas II issued October Manifesto (October 14, 1905) Guaranteed individual liberties Established the Duma as the legislative body based on moderate suffrage Effectively ended the strikes and protests Designed to set up a constitutional monarchy

49 Demonstration of October 17 - Ilya Repin

50 Russia After 1905 Revolution
Not everyone was happy with the October Manifesto Radicals wanted greater changes included universal male suffrage Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change was needed Wanted to hold on to autocratic power Revoked most of the promises made in October Deprived the Duma of its principal powers Pyotr Stolypin (1862–1911) Was the Prime Minister under Nicholas II Wanted to repress revolutionary movement in Russia At the same time wanted to bring in agrarian reforms

51 Russia After 1905 Revolution
Stolypin Reforms (1906–1911) Included the sale of five million acres of royal land to peasants Granted peasants permission to withdraw from the mir to form independent farms Canceled peasant property debts Legalized trade unions Established sickness and accident insurance Problems for Russia Liberals and radicals wanted more changes Nicholas II refused to budge Russian agriculture suspended between emerging capitalism and the peasant commune

52 Close-up of a Bessemer Converter

53 Second Industrial Revolution
Usually dated from Focused mainly on four industries: steel, electric, chemical, and petroleum Steel Between the 1850s and 1870s, the cost of producing steel decreased Iron was too soft and wore down too quickly for use as railroad tracks so there was a need to develop a tougher metal Three main role players in development of steel: Bessemer, the Sieman brothers, and Pierre Martin

54 Second Industrial Revolution
By the late 1890s, there were a variety of cheaper ways to make steel Led to the rapid expansion of the steel industry Britain embraced the use of steel for its ships Steel industry was dominated by Germany and the U.S. Electricity Alessandro Volta invented the chemical battery in 1800 Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction which led to the first electromagnetic generator in 1866 By the 1880s, alternators and transformers produce high- voltage alternating current Edison invented the incandescent-filament lamp in 1879

55 Second Industrial Revolution
Chemicals Efficient production of alkali and sulfuric acid Transformed manufacture of paper, soaps, textiles, and fertilizer British led the way in soaps and cleaners and in mass marketing German production focused on industrial uses (e.g., synthetic dyes and refining petroleum) Petroleum Development of liquid-fuel internal combustion engine Mainly pushed by the rise of the automotive and aviation industries By 1914, most navies had converted from coal to oil Discovery of oil fields in Russia, Borneo, Persia, and Texas

56 Second Industrial Revolution
Other technological developments included: First of the great tunnels: Mount Cenis (1873) and the Simplon (1906) in the Alps Large canals: Suez (1869), Kiel (1895), and Panama (1914) Telephone (1875) Transatlantic wireless communications (1902) Started in Britain and Belgium Spread to the rest of Europe and the United States Major European manufacturers were Britain, Germany, and France Accounted for 7/10’s manufacturing in 1914 Produced 4/5 of Europe’s steel, coal, and machinery

57 Paris Bon Marché Department Store

58 Effects of Technology on Industry
New technology brought changes in scope and scale to industry Part of the race toward a bigger, faster, cheaper, and more efficient world Rise of heavy industry and mass marketing Creation of national mass cultures Followed the news and how Europe spread its influence throughout the world Feats of engineering mastery including canals, railroads, and dams Generated enormous income for builders, investors, and entrepreneurs

59 Effects of Technology on Industry
Impact of these changes on Europe Population grew constantly, especially in central and eastern Europe Food shortages declined due to improvements in crop yields and shipping Improvements in medicine and hygiene led to the decline of many diseases including cholera and typhus Led to longer life spans and reduced infant mortality rates Creation of consumption culture Consumption as a center of economic activity and theory Appearance of the department store Development of modern advertising Introduction of credit payments to help the working class

60 Advertisement for Motocycles Comiot (1899)

61 Rise of the Corporation
Prior to this period, most businesses were financed either by individual investors or joint-stock operations This began to change in the late 19th century Due to economic growth and demands of mass consumption Needed to mobilize funds to help grow large-scale enterprises Rise of the modern corporation Limited-liability laws gave protection to stockholders Would only lose their share value in the event of bankruptcy Middle classes now considered corporate investment promising

62 Rise of the Corporation
Larger corporations became necessary for survival Focused mainly on the desire for increased profits Shifted control from the family to distant bankers and financiers Demand for technical expertise which led to the rise of technical degrees Creation of the white collar class: middle-level salaried managers, neither owners nor laborers Consolidation of smaller businesses would protect industries from cyclical fluctuations and unbridled competition

63 Rise of the Corporation
Vertical integration Industries controlled every step of production From acquisition of raw materials to distribution of finished goods Horizontal integration Organized into cartels Companies in the same industry would band together Fixing prices and controlling competition Coal, oil, and steel were particularly well-adapted Dominant trend was increased cooperation between government and industry Appearance of businessmen and financiers as officers of state

64 Carville Power Station Newcastle upon Tyne (c. 1904)

65 International Economics
Rapid industrialization led to stronger competition amongst nations Search for markets, goods, and influence fueled imperial expansion Creation of an interlocking, worldwide system of manufacturing, trade, and finance Trade barriers arose to protect home markets All nations except Britain raised tariffs Needs of nation-states trumped laissez-faire economics Near-universal adoption of the gold standard Allowed for the exchange of currency Also allowed the use of a third country to mediate trade imbalances

66 European “Balance of Payments”
Development of free trade Initiated by Britain after the repeal of Corn Laws in 1846 France adopted free trade in 1860 By 1914, most European countries adopted free trade Most European countries imported more goods than they exported Britain and other industrial countries (Europe’s “inner zone”) imported mainly raw materials for its manufacturing and food This led to an unfavorable balance of trade Big question: how to pay for all the goods imported? How to develop a favorable “balance of payments”?

67 European “Balance of Payments”
Invisible Exports Included shipping and insurance and interested on money lent Example: British ship owners would be paid to bring goods to across the Atlantic Development of insurance: Lloyds of London Helped bridge the gap in trade Export of European capital European financiers would invest in foreign companies Included areas such as U.S., South America, and Asia Europe also exported people to colonies Mainly poorer classes would be used to help jump-start economies in the colonies

68 The Gold Standard International economy was dependent on an international money system Development of the gold standard First adopted by England in 1821 £1 Sterling = 113g of fine gold Value of most European currencies remained stable through 1914 Problems Gold production lagged behind expanding industries Led to a fall of prices between Farming class was hit hardest as they were constantly borrowing money

69 The Gold Standard Some did benefit from falling prices
Included wage earners and wealthy Financiers did well as the money they received in payments was worth more than the original loan London was center of global economy Benefitted from large indemnities post-Napoleon Banks gave out loans for countries fighting in wars Because they began the gold standard, many people outside of Britain kept their funds in British sterling Also became the main center for currency exchange Center of world’s shipping and international corporations

70 Labor Politics Changes in the European working class
Workers resented corporate power Labor unions had been frowned upon by European leaders In the 18th century, extensive legislation was passed making them illegal Even revolutionaries were against them Changed with the rise of “bourgeois” liberalism Unions started to become accepted and formally legalized in the second half of the 19th century Bolstered by the prosperity of the 1850s

71 Labor Politics “New Model” Unionism Took the unions out of politics
Began in the 1850s in Britain Restricted to a particular trade (e.g., coal miners) instead of all workers Focused on the advancement of that specific trade Took the unions out of politics Gave labor power to negotiate wages and conditions of work Leaders started working with employers to avoid strikes Provided the framework for the socialist mass party Industrial unionism Brought unskilled workers into the ranks

72 Labor Politics Britain led the pack in unions
Partially due to its advanced industrialism Made it less socialist than its continental counterparts Taff-Vale Decision (1901) Court decision that stated a union was responsible for business losses during a strike Opposition to this decision helped to bolster the Labour Party Changes in national political structure Opened the political process to new participants New constituencies of working-class men Labor’s struggle with capital cast on a national scale Socialist organizations turned to reform

73 Membership form for the International Working Men’s Association

74 Socialism After 1850 The Marxist appeal First International (1864)
Provided a crucial foundation for building a democratic mass politics Made powerful claims for gender equality The promise of a better future First International (1864) First meeting of the International Working Men’s Association Marx was eventually given leadership of the organization Used it as means to publicize his ideas Kicked out those whose ideas conflicted with his own Believed workers should not negotiate with the state but take it over

75 Socialism After 1850 Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)
Disagreed with Marx Believed the state was the cause of worker’s problems It should be attacked and abolished Marx kicked him out of the First International in 1872 Karl Marx’s Das Kapital (1867) Expanded upon the principles set forth in Communist Manifesto Attacked capitalism in terms of political economy A systematic analysis of production Complete edition was not fully published until after Marx’s death

76 Socialism After 1850 Reaction to the Paris Commune (1851)
Was looked upon with hope by the First International Marx saw it as a precursor to the “dictatorship of the proletariat” Ended up having a negative backlash against it instead People associated Marx’s ideas with violence and radicalism Turned many people off Britain would have nothing to do with Marxist supporters Led to the end of the First International in 1876

77 Socialism After 1850 Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)
German socialist who conflicted with Marxist ideas Was willing to work with Bismarck to put through reforms Founded the General German Workers' Association (ADAV) in 1863 Gotha Conference (1875) Marxist socialists and Lassallean socialists put aside their differences Merged the ADAV and the Social Democratic Workers' Party (founded 1869) into the SPD Effective in helping spread socialism throughout Germany

78 Socialism After 1850 After 1880, socialist parties rose up throughout Europe French Socialist parties: French Worker’s Party (1880) led by Jules Guesde called for strict Marxism Federation of Socialist Workers of France (1882) led by Paul Brousse who wanted change through legislation French Socialist Party (1902) led by Jean Jaurès who wanted to keep ties to the old revolutionary ideals All were merged into the French Section of the Workers' International in 1905

79 Socialism After 1850 Other socialist parties:
Belgian Socialist Party (1879) Social Democratic Federation (1881) in England Russian Social Democratic Party (1883) in Russia which would become the basis of communism Second International ( ) Became the main organization of all the European socialist parties Continued on the work of the First International At its first meeting (July 14, 1889), 20 countries participated Met every three years until 1916

80 Jean Jaurès ( )

81 Evolution of Socialism
Socialism post-1880 was inspired by Marx “Scientific socialism” Strongest in Germany and France Unsuccessful in Italy, Spain, and England Taming of socialism Socialism became less revolutionary Emerged as “parliamentary socialism” focused on reform Wanted changes such as social insurance, minimum wages, maximum hours, and factory regulations No “workers impoverishment” as Marx had predicted Due to real wages dramatically increasing 50% between

82 Evolution of Socialism
Revisionists Believed that class conflict may not be inevitable Capitalism may transform to benefit the working class As long as workers had the vote, they did not need revolution Supported in France by Jaurès In Germany, Eduard Bernstein (1850–1932) published Evolutionary Socialism Orthodox Marxism First International argued that parliaments could be used as a forum but members were not allowed to run for office One of the main reasons behind the split in Russian Marxism in 1903

83 Evolution of Socialism
Syndicalism Demanded that workers share ownership and control of the means of production The capitalist state must be replaced by workers’ syndicates or trade associations Called for mass forms of direct action, including general strike and industrial sabotage Popular among agricultural laborers in France, Italy, and Spain Even after 1900 when wages stagnated, socialism remained moderate Capitalists had created safer and better working environments Higher standard of living Were politically enfranchised

84 Women's Social and Political Union poster (1909)

85 Feminism ( ) By 1884, Germany, France, and Britain had enfranchised most men Women relegated to status as second-class citizens Received less pay then men Had restrictions on owning private property, voting, and attending universities Women pressed their interests through independent organizations and forms of direct action On the continent, efforts were on legal and social reform In Britain, it was on the right to vote In 1888, American and European feminists established the International Council of Women

86 Feminism (1880-1914) Feminism in Britain
Main organization was the Women’s Social and Political Union (founded in 1903) Wanted equal voting rights in both local and national elections All their measures were turned down by Parliament Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928) Founder of the WSPU Adopted tactics of militancy and civil disobedience Women chained themselves to the visitor’s gallery in the House of Commons Slashed paintings in museums Disrupted political meetings Burned the homes of politicians

87 Feminism ( ) In 1910, large protest was organized against Parliament Led by Emmeline Pankhurst Largest suffragette protest held in Britain up to this date Turned into a six hour riot Emily Wilding Davison ( ) Joined WSPU in 1906 Turned to the more militant aspect of the movement When she was arrested, she went on hunger strike and had to be force fed Bombed Lloyd George's house in Surrey in 1913 Died in 1913 after being run over by a horse at the Epsom Derby as part of a possible protest She was seen as a martyr to the cause

88 Feminism (1880-1914) Suffragettes did not receive any accolades
Were ridiculed by the media and Parliament British government countered this violence with repression Women did not get the right to vote in Britain until 1918 Only women over the age of 30 could vote German Feminism General German Women’s Association was founded in 1875 Pressed for educational and legal reforms Wanted women to be educated so they could find gainful means of employment

89 Cartoon regarding the British women’s suffrage movement

90 Changing Roles of Women
Campaign for women’s suffrage helped redefine Victorian gender roles Increase of middle-class women in the workplace Worked as social workers and clerks, nurses and teachers More jobs led to changes in clothing Expansion of educational opportunities British women established their own colleges at Oxford and Cambridge in the 1870s and 1880s Impact on politics and reform Women worked towards a variety of movements Included poor relief, prison reform, temperance movements, abolition of slavery, education

91 Changing Roles of Women
The “new woman” Demanded education and a job Claimed the right to be physically and intellectually active Opposition Never exclusively male opposition Mrs. Humphrey Ward believed women in politics would sap the strength of the empire Christian commentators criticized suffragists Others argued that feminism would dissolve the family

92 Charles Darwin ( ) Picture c. 1854

93 Birth of Evolution Organic evolution by natural selection transformed the conception of nature itself An unsettling new picture of human biology, behavior, and society Jean Lamarck (1744–1829) Behavioral changes could alter physical characteristics within a single generation New traits could be passed on to offspring Charles Darwin (1809–1882) The Origin of Species (1859) Five years aboard H. M. S. Beagle Observed manifold variations of animal life

94 Birth of Evolution Darwin theorized that variations within a population made certain individuals better adapted for survival Drew on the population theories of Thomas Malthus (1766– 1834) Malthusian competition led to adaptation and ultimately survival Used natural selection to explain the origin of new species Applied to plant and animal species as well as to man The Descent of Man (1871) The human race had evolved from an apelike ancestor

95 Birth of Evolution Darwinian theory and religion
Challenged deeply held religious beliefs Sparked a debate on the existence of God For Darwin, the world was not governed by order, harmony, and divine will but by random chance and struggle Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895) Biologist who championed Darwin’s theory Argued against Christians appalled by the implications of Darwinism Called himself an agnostic Opposed to all dogma Follow reason as far as it can take you

96 Thomas Henry Huxley ( )

97 Impact of Darwinism Darwinism had a large influence on many of the social sciences Included sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics New ways of quantifying and interpreting human experience Social Darwinism Applied the ideas of evolution to human society Once again, it was a struggle for existence with the only the fit surviving Very popular in both Europe and America

98 Impact of Darwinism Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)
Applied individual competition to classes, races, and nations Coined the expression “survival of the fittest” Condemned all forms of collectivism Believed the individual who “fit” was all-important Popularized notions of social Darwinism were easy to comprehend Integrated into popular vocabulary Justified the natural order of rich and poor Nationalists used social Darwinism to rationalize imperialism and warfare Also used to justify racial hierarchy and white superiority

99 Gregor Mendel ( )

100 Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology
Gregor Mendel ( ) Austrian monk Experimented with cross-pollination of garden peas Explained how heredity works and how hybridization takes place Became the foundation of genetics Rise of Anthropology Applied the theory of natural selection to evolution Physical anthropologists worked on an analysis of “superior” races (e.g., those that survived evolution best) Cultural anthropologists focused on a possibly superior culture Discovered there was not one but everything was a matter of opinion

101 Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology
Sir James Frazer ( ) Published The Golden bough Examined how many practices of Christianity were not unique Could be found in many pre-modern societies Worked to undermine traditional religious beliefs Psychology Science of human behavior Emerged in the 1870s Analyzed the irrational and animalistic side of human nature Would lead to upsetting implications about freedom and rationality

102 Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology
Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) “Classical conditioning” A random stimulus can produce a physical reflex reaction Development of behaviorism: focused on physiological responses to the environment Sigmund Freud (1856–1936) Viennese physician Believed behavior largely motivated by unconscious and irrational forces Unconscious drives and desires conflict with the rational and moral conscience Believed the psyche drove all: id, ego, and superego

103 Sigmund Freud ( )

104 The New Physics A revolution also took place in physics in the 1890s
Antoine Henri Becquerel ( ) French scientist who discovered radioactivity in 1896 Occurred while he was investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts Won the Nobel Prize in 1903 Marie Curie ( ) Gave the first theory of radioactivity: that radiation emits from atoms themselves, not from any sort of reaction Discovered two new elements: polonium and radium Also won the Nobel Prize in 1903

105 The New Physics Max Planck Niels Bohr German physicist
Founder of quantum theory (1900) Units of energy are emitted or absorbed in certain units or bundles (quantum) Niels Bohr Danish physicist Developed the structure of the atom: of a nucleus of protons with electrons revolving around the nucleus (1913) Was awarded the Noble Prize in 1922 for his atomic work Eventually will work on the Manhattan Project for the U.S.

106 The New Physics Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Impact
Earlier work was based on thermodynamics Realized that matter could be turned into energy (e=mc2) in 1905 Theory of special relativity (1905) states that rest and motion are relative (not absolute) to the observer Theory of general relativity (1915) unified Newton's law of universal gravitation and his own special relativity Stated that gravity is a geometric property of space and time Impact Development of new science of nuclear physics

107 Albert Einstein ( )

108 Modern Religion Religion was displaced after 1870
Main cause was the growth of science Also was attacked by Darwinists and anthropologists Catholic church remained resistant to change Went on the defensive Pope Pius IX ( ) Syllabus of Errors (1864) denounced materialism, free thought, liberalism, science, and religious relativism Reaffirmed the church’s belief in the supernatural and miracles Convoked a church council (first one since Council of Trent in 1563)

109 Modern Religion First Vatican Council (1869-1870)
Put forth the doctrine of papal infallibility Denounced by the governments of several Catholic countries Capture of Rome (1870) Rome was captured by Italian nationalists during the Council Popes refused to recognize the loss of Rome until 1929 Pope Leo XIII ( ) Brought a more accommodating climate to the church Declared socialism to be a Christian idea in principle Acknowledged that there is good and evil in modern civilization Added a scientific staff to the Vatican and opened archives

110 Modern Religion Protestants
Little in the way of doctrine to help them defend their faith Took on a very pragmatic attitude Truth was whatever produced useful, practical results If belief in God provided mental peace, then that belief was true Division between modernists and fundamentalists Modernists were able to embrace the ideas of science with the Bible being more allegorical Fundamentalists believed in the literal word of the Bible and tended to deny science (found more in U.S. than in Europe)


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