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Modern Europe II Unit 4 – European Politics and Economy, 1871-1914.

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1 Modern Europe II Unit 4 – European Politics and Economy, 1871-1914

2 Advance of Democracy  Characteristics of 1871-1914 Europe  Expansive material and industrial growth  Domestic stability  International peace  New wave of imperialism  Expansion of global economy  Period after 1871 was marked by stability  Period of constitutional and representative governments  Extension of voting rights to working class  Extension of self-government (democracy)  Growth of the welfare state to counteract growth of socialism

3 Third French Republic  France had troubles establishing a democratic republic  The Second Empire fell after its surrender to Prussia in January 1871  New government was to be established with universal male suffrage  Conservative provisional government moved to Versailles  Elections of 1871  Monarchists won the majority in the National Assembly  Divided mainly between two groups: Legitimists and Orléanists  Legitimists wanted Bourbon dynasty (Charles X) reinstated  Orléanists wanted the Orléans dynasty (Louis-Philippe)  Only 150 republicans were elected as many French distrusted them as too radical

4  Makeup of the 1871 National Assembly

5 Third French Republic  Parisian working class refused to accept the new government  Were the ones who sacrificed the most during the war and the subsequent siege of Paris  Paris refused to surrender to the Germans  Paris Commune (March 18 – May 28, 1871)  Paris proclaimed itself to be the true government of France  Set up a government called the Paris Commune  Pitted the nation against the radical city of Paris  Policies were similar to the Jacobins  Very anti-bourgeoisie and upper class  Contained some socialists but mainly republicans

6  Paris Commune Barricade (March 18, 1871)

7 Third French Republic  Government sends troops to Paris in March 1871  Barricades and street fighting  Troops were able to take the city in May  In total, over 25,000 died, most of them executed  Over 30,000 were arrested and 7,500 deported to New Caledonia  What form should the new government take?  Monarchists had the majority but could not agree  Legitimists and Orléanists ended up cancelling each other out  Third Republic continued to exist  Worked different constitutional plans

8 Third French Republic  French Constitutional Laws of 1875  Formally established a republic headed by a president  Senate elected by an indirect system  Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage  Included a Council of Ministers headed by a Premier  Passed by one vote  Over the next few years the political roles would become more defined  President essentially became a ceremonial figure  True power rested in the hands of the Premier

9 Third French Republic  Stable government?  Became difficult to form majority in the parliament due to dozens of political parties  Control formed through alliances or blocs  Neither President nor Premier could dissolve the Chamber to hold new elections  Kept the government stable for the rest of 19 th century  Troubles of the Third Republic  Many were fearful of the concept of a republic  Rise in anti-Semitism  Numerous political scandals in the 1880s and 1890s

10  Édouard Drumont  (1844-1917)

11 Rise of Anti-Semitism  French Anti-Semitism  Rose out of the defeat in 1870  Right-wing movement that was nationalist, anti-liberal, and antiparliamentary  Nationalism was no longer associated with the left and was now linked to xenophobia  Édouard Drumont (1844–1917)  Successful anti-Semitic journalist  Attributed all of France’s problems to a Jewish conspiracy  Merged three strands of anti-Semitism  Christian – “Jews as Christ killers”  Economic – Rothschild as representative of all Jews  Racial thinking - Jews as an inferior race

12 Rise of Anti-Semitism  Drumont helped to spread an ideology of hatred  Claimed that Jews in the army subverted national purpose  Mass culture corrupted French culture  “Greedy Jewish socialists and trade unionists” preyed on the peasants and small shopkeepers  La France Juive (Jewish France, 1886)  Called for the exclusion of Jews from French society  Sold 100,000 copies in the first two months  La Libre Parole (Free Speech)  Very popular newspaper  Founded through his Anti-Semitic League

13  Alfred Dreyfus  (1859-1935)

14 Dreyfus Affair  Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)  Jewish captain in the French army  Officers accused him of selling secrets to the Germans  Was convicted in November 1894  Sentenced to life imprisonment in the Devil’s Island penal colony in French Guiana  The Affair  In 1896, evidence was found that identified another officer as the true spy  Documents used against Dreyfus were found to be forgeries  However, Dreyfus was not exonerated

15 Dreyfus Affair  Émile Zola (1840–1902) backed Dreyfus  Wrote an open letter in 1898 accusing the government of being anti-Semitic and unjust  Described the lack of evidence in the letter  Was published on the front page of L'Aurore  Zola was found guilty of libel and was forced to leave France  Dreyfus eventually pardoned by the president in 1899  Cleared of all guilt in 1906 by the supreme court  Reinstated into the army  Republican reaction against the church  Saw both the church and army as hostile to the state  Passed laws (1901-1905) separating church and state

16  Dreyfus’ hut on Guiana

17 Strengths and Weaknesses  Strengths of the Third French Republic  Garnered the loyalty of most of the French population  Showed that democratic republicanism can work  Most classes lived in economic comfort  Weaknesses  Still lagged behind in industry compared to Britain and Germany  Excessive fragmentation of political parties  More than 50 ministries from 1871-1914  Working class was still unhappy  Continued rise of socialism

18  Victoria  (1837-1901)

19 British Constitutional Monarchy  Characteristics of Britain under Victoria (1837-1901)  Era of expanding industry and material progress  Numerous literary accomplishments  Political stability  Two major political parties: Liberals and Conservatives  Victoria in seclusion  In 1861, Prince Consort Albert died of typhoid fever  Victoria went into a period of seclusion  This seclusion helped to bolster the republican movement inside of England

20 British Constitutional Monarchy  Parties alternated control during this period  Conservatives had the support of the landed aristocracy  Liberals had the support of industrial and commercial interests  Both sought the support of the working class  Increasing suffrage  Second Reform Bill (1867) extended suffrage to 1/3 male population  In 1884, another law extended it to ¾ of the male population  Universal male suffrage and limited women’s suffrage were enacted in 1918

21  William E. Gladstone  Prime Minister of Britain  (1868-1885)

22 British Constitutional Monarchy  William E. Gladstone (1809-1898)  Liberal Prime Minister four times during the Victorian Era  Gladstone’s First ministry (1868-1874)  Cardwell Reforms (1869) terminated the sale and purchase of army commissions  Forster's Education Act (1870) set framework for public schools for children 5-12  University Test Act (1871) abolished religious tests for Cambridge and Oxford  Ballot Act (1872) introduced the use of secret ballot  Formally legalized labor unions

23 British Constitutional Monarchy  Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1888)  Conservative who held position of Prime Minister twice  Second Disraeli Ministry (1874-1880)  Supported laissez-faire policies  Public Health Act (1875) regulated public sanitation to stop the spread of diseases such as cholera and typhus  Regulated workplace safety in the mines  Allowed for peaceful picketing  Gladstone’s Second Ministry (1880-1885)  Granted a form of workman’s compensation  Included calls for shorter work days

24  Benjamin Disraeli  Prime Minister  (1874-1880)

25 British Politics after 1900  Independent Labour Party (1901)  Labor emerged as a third political party  Called for more protective measures for the working class  Changes to the Liberal Party  Changed from laissez-faire policies to more government regulation  Focused more on social legislation to help the working poor  Liberal welfare reforms (1906-1914)  Done during the ministry of Herbert Asquith (1906-1916)  Illustrated the shift to more progressive liberalism

26 British Politics after 1900  Reforms included:  New forms of insurance (e.g., unemployment, sickness, accident)  Minimum wage laws  Removing restrictions on strikes and picketing  People’s Budget of 1909  Pushed through by Chancellor of the Exchequer Lloyd George  Designed to help pay new social reforms  Called for progressive income and inheritance taxes  Aimed primarily at the landed aristocracy  Met tough resistance in both houses

27 British Politics after 1900  Parliament Act of 1911  Removed the right of the House of Lords to veto any economic matters  Put in a two-year delaying veto for other legislation  Liberals also worked on getting salaries for House of Commons  Hoped it would get working class to run for seats  However, Liberals were showing signs of collapse  Wages were starting to fall after 1900  Major coal and railway strikes occurred in 1911-1912  Labour Party continued to grow in popularity

28  Liverpool Transit Strike (1911)

29 Irish Question  Act of Union (1800)  Ireland had been incorporated into the United Kingdom  Part had to do with the Irish Rebellion of 1798  Other part was due to French sympathies generated during the French Revolution  Irish had numerous grievances  Tenant farmers had no recourse against their landlords  Were subjugated to the Church of Ireland (Anglican) while most of the population was Catholic  Gladstone attempted to address these issues  Church of Ireland was no longer the official state church after the Irish Church Disestablishment Act 1869

30 Irish Question  Home Rule Bills  First initiated by Gladstone in 1886 but it did not pass the Commons  Started a split amongst the Liberals  Were attempted again in 1893 and 1914  Passed in 1914 but suspended due to World War I  Ulstermen  Irish Protestants who strongly opposed the Home Rule Bill  Were afraid of being outnumbered by the Catholics  Gained the support of the Conservatives  Began arming themselves to fight if the bill passed  Signed Ulster Covenant in 1912 to support armed opposition

31  Signing the Ulster Covenant (September 28, 1912)

32 German Empire (1871-1890)  After 1871, Bismarck worked not with the Conservatives but with the National Liberals  Conservatives were still against the concept of a united Germany  Liberals were more eager to help centralize the state  Setting up the new administration  Sought to create the centralizing institutions of a modern state  Created a bicameral parliament  Bundesrat – Upper house with appointed delegates  Reichstag - Lower house elected through universal male suffrage  Executive power rested solely with Wilhelm who was both king and kaiser (emperor)

33 German Empire (1871-1890)  Three problems facing Bismarck:  Divide between Catholics and Protestants  Growing Social Democratic party  Divisive economic interests of agriculture and industry  Addressing the Catholic Church  Bismarck wanted to subordinate the Church to the state  First Vatican Council reaffirmed papal infallibility in 1870 which would cause issues for Catholics in Germany  Catholics created a strong Center party that upheld church pronouncements

34 German Empire (1871-1890)  Kulturkampf (cultural struggle)  Bismarck unleashed an anti-Catholic campaign  Appealed to sectarian tensions over public education and civil marriages  Popular with Liberals who were strongly anticlerical  Passed laws that imprisoned priests for political sermons  Banned Jesuits from Prussia  The campaign backfired  Catholic Center party won seats in the Reichstag in 1874  Bismarck negotiated an alliance with the Catholic Center

35 German Empire (1871-1890)  Economic downturn of the late 1870s forced Bismarck to create a new coalition  Combined agricultural and industrial interests as well as socially conservative Catholics  Passed protectionist legislation that upset laissez-faire supporters and the working class  Social Democrats became the new enemies  German Social Democratic party (SPD) was formed in 1875  Blend of Marxian socialists and moderate reformers  Attempted assassinations  In 1878, there were two failed assassination attempts against Wilhelm

36 German Empire (1871-1890)  Anti-SPD legislation  Bismarck associated socialism with the anarchy  Passed numerous antisocialist laws between 1878 and 1880  Expelled socialists from major cities  The party still managed to win elections even though it was technically illegal  Bismarck did pass some social welfare  Workers guaranteed sickness and accident insurance  Rigorous factory inspection  Limited working hours for women and children  Old-age pensions  Still failed to win over the working class

37  Wilhelm II  (1888-1918)

38 Wilhelm II (1888-1918)  By 1890, support for the SPD continued to grow  Votes for SPD quadrupled between 1881 and 1890  William II (1888–1918)  Wanted Germany to go on a “new course” in 1890  He wanted to rule Germany, not Bismarck  Called for the resignation of Bismarck  Suspended antisocialist legislation and legalized the SPD  SPD continued to gain in popularity  Received 1/3 total votes in election of 1912  Received 110 members into the Reichstag  However, they were still excluded from the highest government positions

39  Political cartoon depicting Wilhelm I “dropping the pilot” (Bismarck)

40 Russia: Road to Revolution  Russia was plagued with problems after 1871  The autocratic political system was unable to handle the conflict and pressures from modern society  Threatened by Western industrialization and political doctrines  Russia responded with some reform but repression as well  Russian industrialization (1880s–1890s)  State-directed industrial development  Serfs emancipated in 1861  No independent middle class capable of raising capital  Rapid industrialization heightened social tensions  Workers left their villages temporarily to work in factories, and then returned for planting and harvest

41 Russia: Road to Revolution  The legal system had not been modernized  No recognition of trade unions or employers’ associations  Still distinguished between nobles and peasants rather than modern society  Contained outdated banking and finance laws  Alexander III (1881–1894)  Steered the country toward the right  Believed Russia had nothing in common with the west  Focused on repression, especially of liberal ideas  Curtailed power of the zemstvos  Increased authority of the secret police

42 Russia: Road to Revolution  Nicholas II (1894–1917)  Continued these “counter-reforms”  Advocated Russification over non-Russian subjects  Targeted the Jews with pogroms and open anti-Semitism  Rise of the Populists  Believed that Russia should modernize on its own terms, not those of the West  Wanted egalitarianism based on the village commune (mir)  Formed secret bands with the hope of overthrowing the tsar through anarchy and insurrection  Read Marx’s Das Capital and emphasized peasant socialism  Played a role in the creation of the Social Revolutionary Party in 1901

43 Russia: Road to Revolution  Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP)  Main form of Russian Marxism  Grew in response to growing Populism  Concentrated on urban workers rather than peasantry  Believed that Russian autocracy would give way to capitalism  Capitalism would eventually give way to a classless society  Blended radicalism with a scientific approach to history  In 1903, the Social Democratic party split  Occurred at the Second Congress which met in London  Was over the major points of the Party’s program

44 Russia: Road to Revolution  Bolsheviks (“majority”)  Called for a central party organization of active revolutionaries  Rapid industrialization meant they did not have to follow Marx  Could “skip a stage” straight into revolution  Eventually would become the foundation of the Communist Party  Mensheviks (“minority”)  Believed in a “gradualist” approach of slow changes  Reluctant to depart from Marxist orthodoxy  Able to regain control of the Social Democratic Party

45  Vladimir Lenin  (1870-1924)

46 Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)  Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)  Older brother was executed for his involvement in the assassination of Alexander II  Was under suspicion for a plot against Alexander III in 1896  In exile in Siberia from 1897-1900  Remained in political exile from 1900 to 1917 in western Europe  Becomes the leader of the Bolsheviks  Believed in the need for a coordinated socialist movement  What Is to Be Done? (1902)  Denounced gradualists and called for revolution  Wanted to form a smaller organization of vanguards to lead the working class

47 First Russian Revolution (1905)  Took most of the revolutionaries by surprise  Number of factors led to it  The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Rapid industrialization had transformed Russia unevenly  Economic downturn of the 1900s lead to high unemployment  Low grain prices eventually led to peasant uprisings  All combined with student radicalism to turn it all into a politically based movement  Russian government was not able to handle the problems  Radical workers organized strikes and demonstrations  Trust in the tsar declined dramatically

48 First Russian Revolution (1905)  “Bloody Sunday” (January 22, 1905)  Group of 200,000 workers demonstrated at the Winter Palace  Guard troops killed 130 and wounded several hundred  Led to mass strikes throughout the country  Stores and factories were shut down  The autocracy had lost control  Nicholas II issued October Manifesto (October 14, 1905)  Guaranteed individual liberties  Established the Duma as the legislative body based on moderate suffrage  Effectively ended the strikes and protests  Designed to set up a constitutional monarchy

49  Demonstration of October 17 - Ilya Repin

50 Russia After 1905 Revolution  Not everyone was happy with the October Manifesto  Radicals wanted greater changes included universal male suffrage  Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change was needed  Wanted to hold on to autocratic power  Revoked most of the promises made in October  Deprived the Duma of its principal powers  Pyotr Stolypin (1862–1911)  Was the Prime Minister under Nicholas II  Wanted to repress revolutionary movement in Russia  At the same time wanted to bring in agrarian reforms

51 Russia After 1905 Revolution  Stolypin Reforms (1906–1911)  Included the sale of five million acres of royal land to peasants  Granted peasants permission to withdraw from the mir to form independent farms  Canceled peasant property debts  Legalized trade unions  Established sickness and accident insurance  Problems for Russia  Liberals and radicals wanted more changes  Nicholas II refused to budge  Russian agriculture suspended between emerging capitalism and the peasant commune

52  Close-up of a Bessemer Converter

53 Second Industrial Revolution  Second Industrial Revolution  Usually dated from 1870-1914  Focused mainly on four industries: steel, electric, chemical, and petroleum  Steel  Between the 1850s and 1870s, the cost of producing steel decreased  Iron was too soft and wore down too quickly for use as railroad tracks so there was a need to develop a tougher metal  Three main role players in development of steel: Bessemer, the Sieman brothers, and Pierre Martin

54 Second Industrial Revolution  By the late 1890s, there were a variety of cheaper ways to make steel  Led to the rapid expansion of the steel industry  Britain embraced the use of steel for its ships  Steel industry was dominated by Germany and the U.S.  Electricity  Alessandro Volta invented the chemical battery in 1800  Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction which led to the first electromagnetic generator in 1866  By the 1880s, alternators and transformers produce high- voltage alternating current  Edison invented the incandescent-filament lamp in 1879

55 Second Industrial Revolution  Chemicals  Efficient production of alkali and sulfuric acid  Transformed manufacture of paper, soaps, textiles, and fertilizer  British led the way in soaps and cleaners and in mass marketing  German production focused on industrial uses (e.g., synthetic dyes and refining petroleum)  Petroleum  Development of liquid-fuel internal combustion engine  Mainly pushed by the rise of the automotive and aviation industries  By 1914, most navies had converted from coal to oil  Discovery of oil fields in Russia, Borneo, Persia, and Texas

56 Second Industrial Revolution  Other technological developments included:  First of the great tunnels: Mount Cenis (1873) and the Simplon (1906) in the Alps  Large canals: Suez (1869), Kiel (1895), and Panama (1914)  Telephone (1875)  Transatlantic wireless communications (1902)  Started in Britain and Belgium  Spread to the rest of Europe and the United States  Major European manufacturers were Britain, Germany, and France  Accounted for 7/10’s manufacturing in 1914  Produced 4/5 of Europe’s steel, coal, and machinery

57  Paris Bon Marché Department Store

58 Effects of Technology on Industry  New technology brought changes in scope and scale to industry  Part of the race toward a bigger, faster, cheaper, and more efficient world  Rise of heavy industry and mass marketing  Creation of national mass cultures  Followed the news and how Europe spread its influence throughout the world  Feats of engineering mastery including canals, railroads, and dams  Generated enormous income for builders, investors, and entrepreneurs

59 Effects of Technology on Industry  Impact of these changes on Europe  Population grew constantly, especially in central and eastern Europe  Food shortages declined due to improvements in crop yields and shipping  Improvements in medicine and hygiene led to the decline of many diseases including cholera and typhus  Led to longer life spans and reduced infant mortality rates  Creation of consumption culture  Consumption as a center of economic activity and theory  Appearance of the department store  Development of modern advertising  Introduction of credit payments to help the working class

60  Advertisement for Motocycles Comiot (1899)

61 Rise of the Corporation  Prior to this period, most businesses were financed either by individual investors or joint-stock operations  This began to change in the late 19 th century  Due to economic growth and demands of mass consumption  Needed to mobilize funds to help grow large-scale enterprises  Rise of the modern corporation  Limited-liability laws gave protection to stockholders  Would only lose their share value in the event of bankruptcy  Middle classes now considered corporate investment promising

62 Rise of the Corporation  Larger corporations became necessary for survival  Focused mainly on the desire for increased profits  Shifted control from the family to distant bankers and financiers  Demand for technical expertise which led to the rise of technical degrees  Creation of the white collar class: middle-level salaried managers, neither owners nor laborers  Consolidation of smaller businesses would protect industries from cyclical fluctuations and unbridled competition

63 Rise of the Corporation  Vertical integration  Industries controlled every step of production  From acquisition of raw materials to distribution of finished goods  Horizontal integration  Organized into cartels  Companies in the same industry would band together  Fixing prices and controlling competition  Coal, oil, and steel were particularly well-adapted  Dominant trend was increased cooperation between government and industry  Appearance of businessmen and financiers as officers of state

64  Carville Power Station Newcastle upon Tyne (c. 1904)

65 International Economics  Rapid industrialization led to stronger competition amongst nations  Search for markets, goods, and influence fueled imperial expansion  Creation of an interlocking, worldwide system of manufacturing, trade, and finance  Trade barriers arose to protect home markets  All nations except Britain raised tariffs  Needs of nation-states trumped laissez-faire economics  Near-universal adoption of the gold standard  Allowed for the exchange of currency  Also allowed the use of a third country to mediate trade imbalances

66 European “Balance of Payments”  Development of free trade  Initiated by Britain after the repeal of Corn Laws in 1846  France adopted free trade in 1860  By 1914, most European countries adopted free trade  Most European countries imported more goods than they exported  Britain and other industrial countries (Europe’s “inner zone”) imported mainly raw materials for its manufacturing and food  This led to an unfavorable balance of trade  Big question: how to pay for all the goods imported?  How to develop a favorable “balance of payments”?

67 European “Balance of Payments”  Invisible Exports  Included shipping and insurance and interested on money lent  Example: British ship owners would be paid to bring goods to across the Atlantic  Development of insurance: Lloyds of London  Helped bridge the gap in trade  Export of European capital  European financiers would invest in foreign companies  Included areas such as U.S., South America, and Asia  Europe also exported people to colonies  Mainly poorer classes would be used to help jump-start economies in the colonies

68 The Gold Standard  International economy was dependent on an international money system  Development of the gold standard  First adopted by England in 1821  £1 Sterling = 113g of fine gold  Value of most European currencies remained stable through 1914  Problems  Gold production lagged behind expanding industries  Led to a fall of prices between 1870-1900  Farming class was hit hardest as they were constantly borrowing money

69 The Gold Standard  Some did benefit from falling prices  Included wage earners and wealthy  Financiers did well as the money they received in payments was worth more than the original loan  London was center of global economy  Benefitted from large indemnities post-Napoleon  Banks gave out loans for countries fighting in wars  Because they began the gold standard, many people outside of Britain kept their funds in British sterling  Also became the main center for currency exchange  Center of world’s shipping and international corporations

70 Labor Politics  Changes in the European working class  Workers resented corporate power  Labor unions had been frowned upon by European leaders  In the 18 th century, extensive legislation was passed making them illegal  Even revolutionaries were against them  Changed with the rise of “bourgeois” liberalism  Unions started to become accepted and formally legalized in the second half of the 19 th century  Bolstered by the prosperity of the 1850s

71 Labor Politics  “New Model” Unionism  Began in the 1850s in Britain  Restricted to a particular trade (e.g., coal miners) instead of all workers  Focused on the advancement of that specific trade  Took the unions out of politics  Gave labor power to negotiate wages and conditions of work  Leaders started working with employers to avoid strikes  Provided the framework for the socialist mass party  Industrial unionism  Brought unskilled workers into the ranks

72 Labor Politics  Britain led the pack in unions  Partially due to its advanced industrialism  Made it less socialist than its continental counterparts  Taff-Vale Decision (1901)  Court decision that stated a union was responsible for business losses during a strike  Opposition to this decision helped to bolster the Labour Party  Changes in national political structure  Opened the political process to new participants  New constituencies of working-class men  Labor’s struggle with capital cast on a national scale  Socialist organizations turned to reform

73  Membership form for the International Working Men’s Association

74 Socialism After 1850  The Marxist appeal  Provided a crucial foundation for building a democratic mass politics  Made powerful claims for gender equality  The promise of a better future  First International (1864)  First meeting of the International Working Men’s Association  Marx was eventually given leadership of the organization  Used it as means to publicize his ideas  Kicked out those whose ideas conflicted with his own  Believed workers should not negotiate with the state but take it over

75 Socialism After 1850  Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)  Disagreed with Marx  Believed the state was the cause of worker’s problems  It should be attacked and abolished  Marx kicked him out of the First International in 1872  Karl Marx’s Das Kapital (1867)  Expanded upon the principles set forth in Communist Manifesto  Attacked capitalism in terms of political economy  A systematic analysis of production  Complete edition was not fully published until after Marx’s death

76 Socialism After 1850  Reaction to the Paris Commune (1851)  Was looked upon with hope by the First International  Marx saw it as a precursor to the “dictatorship of the proletariat”  Ended up having a negative backlash against it instead  People associated Marx’s ideas with violence and radicalism  Turned many people off  Britain would have nothing to do with Marxist supporters  Led to the end of the First International in 1876

77 Socialism After 1850  Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)  German socialist who conflicted with Marxist ideas  Was willing to work with Bismarck to put through reforms  Founded the General German Workers' Association (ADAV) in 1863  Gotha Conference (1875)  Marxist socialists and Lassallean socialists put aside their differences  Merged the ADAV and the Social Democratic Workers' Party (founded 1869) into the SPD  Effective in helping spread socialism throughout Germany

78 Socialism After 1850  After 1880, socialist parties rose up throughout Europe  French Socialist parties:  French Worker’s Party (1880) led by Jules Guesde called for strict Marxism  Federation of Socialist Workers of France (1882) led by Paul Brousse who wanted change through legislation  French Socialist Party (1902) led by Jean Jaurès who wanted to keep ties to the old revolutionary ideals  All were merged into the French Section of the Workers' International in 1905

79 Socialism After 1850  Other socialist parties:  Belgian Socialist Party (1879)  Social Democratic Federation (1881) in England  Russian Social Democratic Party (1883) in Russia which would become the basis of communism  Second International (1889-1916)  Became the main organization of all the European socialist parties  Continued on the work of the First International  At its first meeting (July 14, 1889), 20 countries participated  Met every three years until 1916

80  Jean Jaurès  (1859-1914)

81 Evolution of Socialism  Socialism post-1880 was inspired by Marx  “Scientific socialism”  Strongest in Germany and France  Unsuccessful in Italy, Spain, and England  Taming of socialism  Socialism became less revolutionary  Emerged as “parliamentary socialism” focused on reform  Wanted changes such as social insurance, minimum wages, maximum hours, and factory regulations  No “workers impoverishment” as Marx had predicted  Due to real wages dramatically increasing 50% between 1870- 1900

82 Evolution of Socialism  Revisionists  Believed that class conflict may not be inevitable  Capitalism may transform to benefit the working class  As long as workers had the vote, they did not need revolution  Supported in France by Jaurès  In Germany, Eduard Bernstein (1850–1932) published Evolutionary Socialism  Orthodox Marxism  First International argued that parliaments could be used as a forum but members were not allowed to run for office  One of the main reasons behind the split in Russian Marxism in 1903

83 Evolution of Socialism  Syndicalism  Demanded that workers share ownership and control of the means of production  The capitalist state must be replaced by workers’ syndicates or trade associations  Called for mass forms of direct action, including general strike and industrial sabotage  Popular among agricultural laborers in France, Italy, and Spain  Even after 1900 when wages stagnated, socialism remained moderate  Capitalists had created safer and better working environments  Higher standard of living  Were politically enfranchised

84  Women's Social and Political Union poster (1909)

85 Feminism (1880-1914)  By 1884, Germany, France, and Britain had enfranchised most men  Women relegated to status as second-class citizens  Received less pay then men  Had restrictions on owning private property, voting, and attending universities  Women pressed their interests through independent organizations and forms of direct action  On the continent, efforts were on legal and social reform  In Britain, it was on the right to vote  In 1888, American and European feminists established the International Council of Women

86 Feminism (1880-1914)  Feminism in Britain  Main organization was the Women’s Social and Political Union (founded in 1903)  Wanted equal voting rights in both local and national elections  All their measures were turned down by Parliament  Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928)  Founder of the WSPU  Adopted tactics of militancy and civil disobedience  Women chained themselves to the visitor’s gallery in the House of Commons  Slashed paintings in museums  Disrupted political meetings  Burned the homes of politicians

87 Feminism (1880-1914)  In 1910, large protest was organized against Parliament  Led by Emmeline Pankhurst  Largest suffragette protest held in Britain up to this date  Turned into a six hour riot  Emily Wilding Davison (1872-1913)  Joined WSPU in 1906  Turned to the more militant aspect of the movement  When she was arrested, she went on hunger strike and had to be force fed  Bombed Lloyd George's house in Surrey in 1913  Died in 1913 after being run over by a horse at the Epsom Derby as part of a possible protest  She was seen as a martyr to the cause

88 Feminism (1880-1914)  Suffragettes did not receive any accolades  Were ridiculed by the media and Parliament  British government countered this violence with repression  Women did not get the right to vote in Britain until 1918  Only women over the age of 30 could vote  German Feminism  General German Women’s Association was founded in 1875  Pressed for educational and legal reforms  Wanted women to be educated so they could find gainful means of employment

89  Cartoon regarding the British women’s suffrage movement  (c. 1913)

90 Changing Roles of Women  Campaign for women’s suffrage helped redefine Victorian gender roles  Increase of middle-class women in the workplace  Worked as social workers and clerks, nurses and teachers  More jobs led to changes in clothing  Expansion of educational opportunities  British women established their own colleges at Oxford and Cambridge in the 1870s and 1880s  Impact on politics and reform  Women worked towards a variety of movements  Included poor relief, prison reform, temperance movements, abolition of slavery, education

91 Changing Roles of Women  The “new woman”  Demanded education and a job  Claimed the right to be physically and intellectually active  Opposition  Never exclusively male opposition  Mrs. Humphrey Ward believed women in politics would sap the strength of the empire  Christian commentators criticized suffragists  Others argued that feminism would dissolve the family

92  Charles Darwin  (1809-1881)

93 Birth of Evolution  Organic evolution by natural selection transformed the conception of nature itself  An unsettling new picture of human biology, behavior, and society  Jean Lamarck (1744–1829)  Behavioral changes could alter physical characteristics within a single generation  New traits could be passed on to offspring  Charles Darwin (1809–1882)  The Origin of Species (1859)  Five years aboard H. M. S. Beagle  Observed manifold variations of animal life

94 Birth of Evolution  Darwin theorized that variations within a population made certain individuals better adapted for survival  Drew on the population theories of Thomas Malthus (1766– 1834)  Malthusian competition led to adaptation and ultimately survival  Used natural selection to explain the origin of new species  Applied to plant and animal species as well as to man  The Descent of Man (1871)  The human race had evolved from an apelike ancestor

95 Birth of Evolution  Darwinian theory and religion  Challenged deeply held religious beliefs  Sparked a debate on the existence of God  For Darwin, the world was not governed by order, harmony, and divine will but by random chance and struggle  Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895)  Biologist who championed Darwin’s theory  Argued against Christians appalled by the implications of Darwinism  Called himself an agnostic  Opposed to all dogma  Follow reason as far as it can take you

96  Thomas Henry Huxley  (1825-1895)

97 Impact of Darwinism  Darwinism had a large influence on many of the social sciences  Included sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics  New ways of quantifying and interpreting human experience  Social Darwinism  Applied the ideas of evolution to human society  Once again, it was a struggle for existence with the only the fit surviving  Very popular in both Europe and America

98 Impact of Darwinism  Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)  Applied individual competition to classes, races, and nations  Coined the expression “survival of the fittest”  Condemned all forms of collectivism  Believed the individual who “fit” was all-important  Popularized notions of social Darwinism were easy to comprehend  Integrated into popular vocabulary  Justified the natural order of rich and poor  Nationalists used social Darwinism to rationalize imperialism and warfare  Also used to justify racial hierarchy and white superiority

99  Gregor Mendel  (1822-1884)

100 Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology  Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)  Austrian monk  Experimented with cross-pollination of garden peas  Explained how heredity works and how hybridization takes place  Became the foundation of genetics  Rise of Anthropology  Applied the theory of natural selection to evolution  Physical anthropologists worked on an analysis of “superior” races (e.g., those that survived evolution best)  Cultural anthropologists focused on a possibly superior culture  Discovered there was not one but everything was a matter of opinion

101 Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology  Sir James Frazer (1854-1941)  Published The Golden bough  Examined how many practices of Christianity were not unique  Could be found in many pre-modern societies  Worked to undermine traditional religious beliefs  Psychology  Science of human behavior  Emerged in the 1870s  Analyzed the irrational and animalistic side of human nature  Would lead to upsetting implications about freedom and rationality

102 Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology  Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)  “Classical conditioning”  A random stimulus can produce a physical reflex reaction  Development of behaviorism: focused on physiological responses to the environment  Sigmund Freud (1856–1936)  Viennese physician  Believed behavior largely motivated by unconscious and irrational forces  Unconscious drives and desires conflict with the rational and moral conscience  Believed the psyche drove all: id, ego, and superego

103  Sigmund Freud  (1856-1939)

104 The New Physics  A revolution also took place in physics in the 1890s  Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908)  French scientist who discovered radioactivity in 1896  Occurred while he was investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts  Won the Nobel Prize in 1903  Marie Curie (1867-1934)  Gave the first theory of radioactivity: that radiation emits from atoms themselves, not from any sort of reaction  Discovered two new elements: polonium and radium  Also won the Nobel Prize in 1903

105 The New Physics  Max Planck  German physicist  Founder of quantum theory (1900)  Units of energy are emitted or absorbed in certain units or bundles (quantum)  Niels Bohr  Danish physicist  Developed the structure of the atom: of a nucleus of protons with electrons revolving around the nucleus (1913)  Was awarded the Noble Prize in 1922 for his atomic work  Eventually will work on the Manhattan Project for the U.S.

106 The New Physics  Albert Einstein (1879-1955)  Earlier work was based on thermodynamics  Realized that matter could be turned into energy (e=mc 2 ) in 1905  Theory of special relativity (1905) states that rest and motion are relative (not absolute) to the observer  Theory of general relativity (1915) unified Newton's law of universal gravitation and his own special relativity  Stated that gravity is a geometric property of space and time  Impact  Development of new science of nuclear physics

107  Albert Einstein  (1879-1955)

108 Modern Religion  Religion was displaced after 1870  Main cause was the growth of science  Also was attacked by Darwinists and anthropologists  Catholic church remained resistant to change  Went on the defensive  Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)  Syllabus of Errors (1864) denounced materialism, free thought, liberalism, science, and religious relativism  Reaffirmed the church’s belief in the supernatural and miracles  Convoked a church council (first one since Council of Trent in 1563)

109 Modern Religion  First Vatican Council (1869-1870)  Put forth the doctrine of papal infallibility  Denounced by the governments of several Catholic countries  Capture of Rome (1870)  Rome was captured by Italian nationalists during the Council  Popes refused to recognize the loss of Rome until 1929  Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)  Brought a more accommodating climate to the church  Declared socialism to be a Christian idea in principle  Acknowledged that there is good and evil in modern civilization  Added a scientific staff to the Vatican and opened archives

110 Modern Religion  Protestants  Little in the way of doctrine to help them defend their faith  Took on a very pragmatic attitude  Truth was whatever produced useful, practical results  If belief in God provided mental peace, then that belief was true  Division between modernists and fundamentalists  Modernists were able to embrace the ideas of science with the Bible being more allegorical  Fundamentalists believed in the literal word of the Bible and tended to deny science (found more in U.S. than in Europe)

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