Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Peers, Play, and Popularity Peer Relationships and Friendships By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook)"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11: Peers, Play, and Popularity Peer Relationships and Friendships By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook)
Peer Relation and Friendships Peers – People who are about the same age as one another. Friendship – A close, mutual, and voluntary relationship between peers that persists over time (Rubin, Coplan, Nelson, Cheah, & Lagace-Seguin, 1999). Childhood friendships: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d46/ps y/dev/Spring99/schoolage/peers.html
Social Relations among Infants and Toddlers By 2 months, infants show special interest in other people their own size. Mutual gaze – Intent eye contact between two people, as when young infants stare at each other (Eckerman, 1979; Fogel, 1979). By 6 months, interact with each other by babbling, smiling, and touching (Vandell, Wilson, & Buchanan, 1980). Infants vary in social responsiveness.
Social Relations among Infants and Toddlers After 1 year, emerging language and motor skills allow toddlers to interact in increasingly complex ways. Age 2 – Coordinated imitation becomes more frequent – Interaction in which toddler playmates take turns imitating each other and are aware that they are being imitated (Eckerman, 1993; Rubin et al., 1998) Toddler interactions evolve around games repeated from prior experiences or created on the spot. By age 2, pairs of children begin to select each other as mutually preferred playmates (Vandell & Mueller, 1980).
Social Relations among Infants and Toddlers Playmates averaged just over 2 instances of conflict for every 15-minute session. Most are struggles over toys (Hay & Ross, 1982). Parents, child-care workers, and others who work frequently with young children often need to help toddlers resolve their disputes. Toddler Conflict: http://www.nncc.org/Guidance/dc13 _handl.todl.conflict.html
Friendships during the Preschool and Childhood Years Children’s social contacts increase dramatically when they enter school. Number of “best friends” increases until about age 11; then become more selective in whom they designate as their best friends (Epstein, 1986; Rubin et al., 1998). Close friendships progress through 3 phases (Berndt, 1986; Bigelow, 1977; Rubin et al., 1998; Smollar & Youniss, 1982): Play-based friends (ages 3-7 years) Loyal and faithful friends (ages 8-11 years) Intimate friends (adolescence and beyond)
Gender Segregation among Childhood Friends Gender segregation – The tendency for children to associate with others of their same sex. By 2-3 years, children begin to show clear preference for playing with other children of their own sex (Serbin, Moller, Gulko, Powlishta, & Colburne, 1994).
Gender Interactions among Preschoolers (Fabes, 1994)
Gender Segregation among Childhood Friends Reasons for gender segregation Play compatibility – Seek partners whose play styles match or complement their own (Serbin et al., 1994). Cognitive schemas – Develop concepts about what boys and girls are typically like. Operant conditioning – Rewards and punishment. Psychoanalytic theory – Occurs as children repress their sexual feelings during the “latency” stage of development. Gender Segregation: http://www.scre.ac.uk/rie/nl69/nl69airnes.html
Gender Segregation among Childhood Friends Effects of Gender Segregation Boys and girls grow up in different gender cultures – Different spheres of social influence between male and female groups and affiliations (Leaper, 1994; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). Boys are more physically aggressive; play in larger groups. Girls emphasize social closeness and sensitivity; develop closer ties in smaller groups. Carry over to adolescence and adulthood. Different conversational styles set up an imbalance in intimate cross-gender relationships. Adults should help children develop more flexible expectations and skills in interacting with the opposite sex.
Friends and Peers in Adolescence Adolescents spend twice as much time with their friends outside of the classroom as with their parents, siblings, and other adults (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984). Those with close and supportive friendships tend to have higher self-esteem, understand other people’s feelings better, be more generally popular, be better behaved, get better grades, and have higher IQs (Williams & Berndt, 1990). Similarity and shared intimacy is important.
Friends and Peers in Adolescence Cliques – Small groups, usually including three to nine friends, who hang out together on a voluntary basis (Rubin et al., 1998). Most children report clique membership by age of 11 (Crockett, Losoff, & Petersen, 1984). By 11-18, bonds loosen and begin associating with several loosely defined cliques (Rubin et al., 1998).
Friends and Peers in Adolescence Crowds – Groups of adolescent peers who have similar reputations or share primary attitudes or activities (Brown, 1990). Membership based on stereotyped perceptions such as “jocks,” “druggies,” “loners.” Members of ethnic minority groups often seen as separate crowds.
Friends and Peers in Adolescence Concern about alcohol and drug abuse, pressure to engage in violence or aggression (Espelage, Holt, & Henkel, 2003). Greatest peer pressures are getting along with others, getting good grades, graduating from high school, and attending college (B. Brown, 1990) Link between self-esteem and membership in particular crowds. Crowd affiliation softens by end of high school.
Alcohol and Drug Use in 9 th and 12 th Grades (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000)
Dating and Sexual Activity Cross-sex relationships begin in midadolescence usually between similar groups (Dunphy, 1963). Gradually, boundaries dissolved as more members begin dating. Share intimacy increasingly with opposite sex.
Dating and Sexual Activity Majority of adolescents in US have sexual intercourse by the time they finish high school; 1/3 by 9 th grade, 2/3 by 12 th grade (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000a). 12% of males and 4% of females have sex by age 13 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000a). 1 million US teenagers become pregnant each year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000a). Sexually active teens at high risk for STDs. More info: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_teen_sex.html
Percentages of High School Students Who Ever Had Sexual Intercourse (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000a)
Dating and Sexual Activity Homosexual orientation – Sexual attraction primarily to people of the same sex. Homosexual experience – Sexual activities with someone of the same sex. Most people who had homosexual experiences were not gay or or lesbian. Heterosexual assumption – The erroneous idea that all adolescents are heterosexual at first and “discover” their homosexuality only after having several failed relationships with members of the opposite sex (Hunter & Mallon, 2000).
Dating and Sexual Activity Many lesbian and gay adolescents report feeling separated and emotionally isolated from peers (Savin-Williams, 1994). At higher risk of failing a grade, skipping school, dropping out, running away, being kicked out of their home, and engaging in substance abuse and prostitution. Suicide risk is 2-3 times higher (Savin-Williams, 1994). Many try to avoid family conflict by hiding their homosexual feelings.
Picture on Slide 4: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 425). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Graph on Slide 9: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 429). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Graph on Slide 16: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 434). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Graph on Slide 19: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 437). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.