Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pre-WWI Europe A tenuous balance of power. Several underlying causes lead to WWI… Domestic Issues of political & social unrest Colonial conflicts (new.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pre-WWI Europe A tenuous balance of power. Several underlying causes lead to WWI… Domestic Issues of political & social unrest Colonial conflicts (new."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre-WWI Europe A tenuous balance of power

2 Several underlying causes lead to WWI… Domestic Issues of political & social unrest Colonial conflicts (new imperialism) Nationalistic Motives Power Alignments (alliances) Armaments (militarism) International Crises (Morocco and the Balkans)

3 Domestic Uncertainty In general many countries were facing political divisions between Left Wing socialists and anarchists vs. an emerging Right that tended towards nationalism and anti-Semitism Both opposed the liberalism of the late 19 th century Encouraged growth of a new Zionist movement and desire for a native Jewish homeland

4 The Democratic Countries GB Tensions with Ireland Hostilities in House of Lords over social reform programs like Old Age Pensions Women’s suffrage movement becoming militant

5 France The 3 rd Republic facing fight from Left and Right to take down democracy Lacked effective leadership The Dreyfuss Affair had the Assembly divided 1905 – Separation of Church and State = violent uprisings Labour problems

6 Italy Though unified in 1860 was still quite divided Only 3% of population had suffrage rights The 50 years since unification had included massive population growth and the country couldn’t manage Martial law used to violently repress peasant and industry uprisings June 1914 – a national strike. It took 100,000 soldiers and 10 days to restore order

7 The Autocratic Countries -- faced even more uncertainty than the democracies Ottoman Empire Advanced state of dissolution – internal secession, violent despot, coup by Young Turks in July 1908 – lead to “Turkification” Ongoing unrest created a weak nation; by 1911 Italy occupied Libya; Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia formed the Balkan League; Albania was independent; Macedonia was partitioned … The Ottoman Empire is essentially eliminated

8 Russia - you know the story Tsar is struggling to maintain order Challenges of modernity Young intellectuals questioning the autocratic system Revolutionary groups mounting 1905 – Bloody Sunday October Manifesto to Fundamental Laws Suspended Dumas

9 Austria-Hungary Intense nationalism fraught with ethnic tension Challenges and lack of unity in combined Austrian and Hungarian armies Hungary wants out of dual monarchy Austrian side had 30 ethnically based political parties → parliament at a standstill

10 Germany Had a parliament but it was answerable to the Kaiser Prussia, the most reactionary region of country had a dominant influence Even under Bismarck’s reforms, there was growing dissent and strengthening of Socialist and Catholic Center parties Intense labour militancy Increased calls for parliamentary system

11 Germany cont’d When Bismarck was dismissed as Chancellor by Kaiser Wilhelm II, both domestic and international deterioration increased Weltpolitik – increase navy, acquire colonies, gain power amongst the Great Powers – created international tensions and impacted alliances

12 New Imperialism By mid 18 th Century empire building had slowed but there was unprecedented imperialism (European powers subjugated 50% of the world’s non-European population) Massive migration – b/w 1840 and million Europeans moved overseas Search was for new wealth and potential markets in Asia and Africa Refer to New Imperialism sheet for additional motives

13

14 Nationalistic Motives Empire building (via imperialism) was largely motivated by nationalist desires. Prove your power and worth, and therefore, superiority. Bitter rivalries formed b/w the Great Powers.

15 Power Alignments Refer to Bismarck summary sheet for much more detail 1882 – Triple Alliance; Ger, A-H, Italy 1904 – Br and Fr, Entente 1907 – Anglo-Russian Entente

16

17 Militarism / Armaments Hague disarmament conferences of 1899 and 1907 fail Between 1875 and 1914 Germany increased arms spending by 230%, Britain by 189% and France by 109% GB and Germany in naval race from 1890 (Dreadnoughts)

18 Nation# of aircraft in 1914 Size of Army in 1914 # of soldiers who fought in war Austria-Hungary343 million7.8 million Britain million France1604 million8.4 million Germany million11 million Russia3006 million12 million United States million

19 International Crises Moroccan Crises 1905 and 1911 Balkan Crises 1908 and 1914 Which leads us to Franz Ferdinand …


Download ppt "Pre-WWI Europe A tenuous balance of power. Several underlying causes lead to WWI… Domestic Issues of political & social unrest Colonial conflicts (new."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google