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Medina mosque Mecca mosque Muhammad preaches to early converts.

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2 Medina mosque Mecca mosque Muhammad preaches to early converts

3 Central Mosque Erin-Osun, Nigeria 2005

4 Mosques in Erin-Osun, Nigeria 2005 Imam’s home/mosque Mosque next to Iyaloja’s

5 Key terms  Islam = “submission to the will of Allah (God)”; name of religion passed down from Allah to Muhammad  Muslim = “one who submits”; one who practices the Islamic religion  Qu’ran = “recitation”; Allah’s revelations to Muhammad for 23 years  114 chapters (surahs)  6,000 verses (ayahs)  Poetic, spiritual, moral teachings  Pre-hijra revelations = belief in Allah’s spirituality  Post-hijra = how to organize politically, economically, poor, disabled, crime, etc.

6 Muhammad ibn Abdullah  Born in Mecca in Saudi Arabia (c.570 – 632)  Querysh ethnicity = nomadic traders who controlled Mecca politically & economically  Khadijah = wife & 4 daughters  40 yrs.= Mt. Hira to fast & meditate, received revelations from Allah through Jibral, 1. Only 1 God, Allah, Muhammad is last prophet 2. Abraham founded the religious tradition, 1 st prophet 3. Jews & Christians strayed from their faith, M’s role was to restore faith for all people  Next 23 yrs. = continued to receive revelations

7 Muhammad ibn Abdullah  preached in Mecca  New beliefs challenged Querysh religious beliefs & political/economic interests  Querysh persecuted M so moved to Medina  622 = “Hijra”: emigration to Medina, 1 st year of Islamic calendar  ruled as supreme judge & political leader of 1 st Islamic state & returned to control Mecca  632 = Mohammad died at age 72

8 Shia, Sunni, & Sufi Islam  Who should become caliph upon M’s death?  Ali, husband of Fatima: Shia Ali  Abu Bakr, M’s disciple  M selected Abu Bakr: Sunni  Shia today: 10-15% of Muslims  Sunni today: 85-90% of Muslims  Sufism = mystical & ascetic spiritual practices, no Sharia, spiritual teachers have direct union w/Allah (shayks, pirs, walis, marabouts)

9 Stereotypes  Orientalism = (Edward Said’s Orientalism, 1979); Western style of dominating, imagining, misrepresenting & having authority over the East  Islam = inherently violent, called for holy wars to convert people  Post 9/11/01 = backward religion, terrorists, violent fanatics who want to suppress freedom & dissent Reality = fastest growing of major religions: 1.3 billion pple, 1/5 world population

10 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Shahada = profess faith in Allah & Muhammad 2. Salat = pray 5 times/day, facing Mecca 3. Sawam = fast during Ramadan (9 th month) 4. Zakat = give alms to support poor, orphans, disabled in your community 5. Hajj = make pilgrimage to Mecca (12 th month)

11 Aspects of Islam  Cosmology = heaven, earth, hell  Humans = represent God on earth, judged according to deeds  Must follow God’s will, path of righteousness  Weak & easily tempted, must repent  “Islam” = submit to the will of Allah  Day of reckoning = righteous to heaven, evil to hell  Sharia = Islamic law: politics & codes for criminal law, family, marriage; different schools of Islamic law (Maliki, Hanifa, Al-Shafi, Hanbali)

12 Gender, family, marriage  Early research: focused on texts, distorted realities, male researchers no access to women  Qu’ran: forbids female infanticide & all sexual immorality  Sharia law:  Women inherit ½ parents’ estate  Women are ½ legal status of men  Polygyny practiced but not universally  Arranged marriages: education, age, class, sex  Economic, political, cultural factors influence practices: no rigid norms

13 The Veil

14  Pre-Islamic origins: Mesopotamian, Persian, Jewish, Christian, Byzantine cultures  Hijab meanings  Sacred divide between men & women  Outward symbol of separation  Modesty  Morality  Purdah = enforced seclusion of women  Revival movements: women reclaim veil  Protection from strangers  Desexualizes work environment  Anti-western colonialism & imperialism: attacked Islamic cultural identity

15 Islamic Civilizations  Islam spread from Arabic region (Middle East) to: North Africa, Spain, and Asia  Early civilizations: Baghdad (Iraq), Cairo (Egypt), Cordoba (Spain), Palermo (Sicily)  Baghdad (750 – 1258)  Universities  Translated texts from Greek, Roman, Hindu, & Persian cultures into Arabic; synthetic philosophy  Algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, astronomy, philosophy, art, architecture, medicine  Arabic = ( , Middle Ages) world’s major intellectual & scientific language & influenced the West

16 Western colonization  = “Crusades,” EU launched military expeditions to defeat Islamic dynasties & return Holy Land to Christian rule  EU wanted control of Eastern trade routes (spices, silk, cotton)  1400’s = Portuguese establish ports from Arabia to SE Asia, controlled spice trade  1800’s = EU colonizes Middle East: seeking raw materials & new markets

17 British & French colonies  Suez canal: 1869, connected Mediterranean Sea W/Gulf of Suez  101 miles long  immediate and dramatic effect on world trade  combined w/ American Transcontinental railroad, allowed entire world to be circled in record time  British & French owned  increased EU penetration & colonization of Africa

18  Egypt: British colony in 1882; sugar, cotton  Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco: French colonies; railroads, mining, agriculture  Iran: N. Iran was Russian colony, S. Iran was British; tobacco  SE Asia: Dutch in 1917; sugar, coffee, tobacco, indigo  Malaysia: British; tin, rubber, Chinese labor

19 Post-WWII colonies  French: North Africa, Lebanon, Syria  British: Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, South Asia  Dutch: SE Asia  Colonial economies based on cash crops: tea, coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton, opium  Independence/nationalist movements, new nation-states in 1960’s: Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kuwait, Iraq, Tunisia, Syria, Jordan

20 Post-colonial Islamic Reform movements  Egypt  Women are equal to men in constitution  Anti-sexual discrimination laws  Women involved in medicine, law, engineering, management, government, etc.  Liberal divorce laws  Turkey & Tunisia: prohibit polygyny  Saudi Arabia  Gender segregation: schools, jobs, transport, public entrances, etc.

21 Why Islamic resurgent movements in 1970’s? Arab-Israeli war: Arab territories lost to Israel, turned to Islamic faith for strength 2. Oil boom: Allah’s will; revenues in Libya, Iran, Saudi supported fundamentalist movements 3. Disillusionment w/capitalism & socialism: looked to Islamic solution 4. Iran success: Islamic revolution overthrew secular, Western- influenced shah

22 Iran’s Islamic Revolution  1500’s: Shia Islam became state religion; today, 90% of Iranians are Shia  Shia leaders:  Mullahs = village preachers  Mujtahids = religious judges  Ayatollahs = religious scholars, moral & political leaders  Shahs = political rulers

23  Iran “modernizes”  economy, military, education  Educated elite: Western democratic values & representative govt.  Opposed Shah’s absolute power  Shia critique: shah gave West permission to undermine Islam  Pahlavi dynasty  Shia leaders viewed as obstacles to modernization  Secular laws replaced Sharia law  No more veil  1963 “White Revolution”  Shah was “Great Satan,” puppet of US govt.  Commercial agriculture, land reform, capitalism, landless peasants, women vote, SAVAK secret police  Ayatollah Khomeini arrested

24 Opposition increases 1. Rural migrants: sided with Islamic clergy 2. Westernized middle class: democratic hopes 3. University students: Shia Islam like liberation theology, free them from foreign control *Demonstrations, protests, fervor* 1979: Ayatollah Khomeini led revolution “Islamic Republic of Iran” = theocracy ruled by Shia clergy Political, cultural, social transformation

25 Islamic Republic of Iran  Mosques = government offices, places of worship, local police; all Iranians forced to register  Purge Iran of Western influences  Women forced to wear head scarves  Family Protection Act abolished  Minimum marriage age was 13, polygyny, divorce at will  10 year war against Iraq  Struggle: moderate democrats v. conservative fundamentalists

26 Afghanistan  1800’s  British supported leaders  Modernization (built roads, etc.)  Unify/pacify ethnic groups  1920’s-30’s  Economic development & democracy failed  Soviet Union supported Marxist movements  1970’s  Soviet Union sponsored 2 successful coups

27 Resistance forms  Afghanistan ethnic groups: Pashtuns (47%), Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen, Kirghiz, Hazara, Baluchis, Sunni (88%), Shia (12%)  Mujahidin = “holy warriors” launched jihad (holy war) against Soviet-sponsored govt.  1979: Soviet Union invaded AF to repress resist.  West gave financial & military aid to Mujahidin  Afghans fled to Pakistan  Soviets withdrew  1980’s-90’s  Islamic & ethnic groups fought for power  West w/drew support from Mujahidin, fearing revolution like Iran

28 Taliban emerges  Taliban = “religious students”  1994 Islamic faction  Afghan religious students recruited from schools in Pakistan  Militia gained control over most of Afghanistan  Strict Islamic guidelines & norms  No music, dancing, singing, kite flying, cards, chess, etc  Men can’t trim beards, women wear burqas  Al Qaeda supports Taliban  Headed by Osama Bin Laden = Saudi multi- millionaire terrorist

29 Take-home messages 1. We must interpret multiple forms of Islam with respect to local cultural, historical, & political contexts 2. No essential “Islamic tradition” 3. Islamic fundamentalisms have emerged within the context of: Western colonialism, Western imperialism & internal factional, sectarian, and class differences

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