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What movement started in Germany in response to Nappy & the FR? German Nationalism.

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Presentation on theme: "What movement started in Germany in response to Nappy & the FR? German Nationalism."— Presentation transcript:

1 What movement started in Germany in response to Nappy & the FR? German Nationalism

2 What type of government was favored by the Congress of Vienna? Legitimate Monarchy

3 How did the COV attempt to isolate France? sets up buffer states around it (Netherlands, Swiss Confed., Sardinia, etc.)

4 In what two areas did romanticism flourish? Why? Germany and GB, most impacted by actions of Napoleon

5 What is the volksgeist? spirit of the German people

6 What period of history did many romantics look to for inspiration? How can this be seen in their architecture? Middle Ages, gothic revival

7 What was Hegel’s view of the ongoing pattern of history? Thesis vs. anti-Thesis = Synthesis (which becomes the new thesis)

8 Identify at least three English romantic poets. Keats, Byron, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Johnson

9 Name 3 things Nationalists use to define nations language, ethnicity, history, culture

10 What kind of people did liberals tend to be? Wealthy, educated & excluded

11 Who did liberals want to deny representation to? Why? lower classes, unfit for rep (nothing special about them)

12 What country eventually met reform with accommodation instead of repression? What’s the best example of this? Great Britain, Great Reform Bill of 1832

13 Who were the two main architects of the Congress of Vienna? Castleragh & Metternich

14 Why did the Great Powers decide to support the Greek Revolution? Further weaken the Ottoman Empire

15 Why was the British Great Reform Bill of 1832 such a success? revolution unnecessary, kept institutions, brought economic interests into line with political interests

16 What did the Protocol of Troppau do? Gave the Great Powers permission to intervene in revolutions “for the good of Europe”

17 What kind of people were the biggest proponents of Nationalism? writers & historians

18 What kind of people were usually conservatives? aristocratic monarchists

19 What time would the Conservatives liked to return to? Pre-French Rev. Europe

20 Name 3 ideals the Liberals took from the Enlightenment. Free press, religious tolerance, equality before the law, unrestricted economy

21 How did conservatives view Constitutions? worse than the plague

22 Who did the Russian Decembrists want to be Tsar? Were they more liberal or conservative? Constantine, liberal

23 Identify two characteristics of the reign of Nicholas I of Russia. Repressive, gendarme of Europe, Official Nationality protects from corruption of West

24 What king was ousted in the July Revolution? What did he do to provoke revolution? Charles X, ousted liberal ministry – issued 4 (July) ordinances

25 What class ousted him? Bourgeoisie, with force provided by the working class

26 Who backed the independent Serbs against the Austrians? Russia

27 What was the purpose of GB’s Six Acts? Make it easier to repress the reform demanders in GB

28 Who were the Burchenshaften? Student Nationalist groups in Germany

29 What happened to them? banned by Metternich & Carlsbad Decrees

30 What was the basic idea of the Concert of Europe? Great Powers would get together to solve problems

31 What problems led to calls for reform in GB after 1815? Hunger & Unemployment

32 What country/statesman had the most to lose from Nationalism? Austria (Metternich)

33 Name 2 reasons why GB was able to maintain industrial dominance. foreign markets, quality of goods, strong navy, coal & iron

34 Name 2 factors that contributed to the rise of the proletariat. wage labor market, end of guilds, no longer controlled means of production

35 Name 2 things that happened to the family as a result of industrialization. mother provides domestic support, less time together, just unit of consumption

36 What did the Factory Act of 1833 do? limited child labor to 9 hrs/day, must be 9, 2 hrs. of ed.

37 What action was intended to help feed the poor in Ireland but led to more free grain trade? Repeal of the Corn Laws

38 What is the primary basis for classical economic thought? the free market (Laissez Faire)

39 Who thought the population would eventually outstrip the food supply? Malthus

40 Whose Iron Law of Wages justified low wages? What else did this justify? Ricardo, opposition to labor unions who push for high wages

41 Who pushed the concept of utility combined with reason? Bentham

42 What did Europeans use as a model for prison reform? prisons in U.S. (Philadelphia system)

43 What was the driving force behind the creation of the modern urban police force? Rising crime and the desire of the MC for order

44 Who thought he could successfully build utopias based on textile manufacturing? Where did he succeed? Fail? Owen, Scotland & Indiana

45 What was Marx’s major work? Communist Manifesto

46 Name 4 parts of the Charter. universal suff, salaries for Commons, no prop. req., annual elections, equal districts

47 What did Marx feel was necessary to reorganize society? Would this entity be permanent? Dictatorship of the proletariat, no

48 What did Marx believe would be the culminating event of history? clash between P & B, leading to a society without oppression

49 What did the anarchists want? Why? end to ind. & Gov’t, because ind. & gov’t limit freedom in people’s lives

50 What were 3 general causes of the Revs. of 1848? Hunger (bad harvests), unemployment, poor living & working conditions, political oppression

51 How many separate revolts took place in 1848? Which was the first major uprising? Over 50, the February Revolution in France

52 What was the chief cause of the start of the February French Rev. of 1848? Repression by Louis Phillippe (banning the banquets)

53 What was the first example of class warfare? Who were the two groups involved? June Days of the French Rev. of 1848, the radical working poor and the French Army

54 What was the main thing that helped Louis Napoleon get elected? name recognition & desire for order

55 Who led the revolt in Vienna? What major figure fled at the start of their uprising? academic legions (student nationalists), Metternich

56 The Magyars blew it because they ______ when they tried to rebel against the Austrians. annexed Romania, Croatia & Serbia (treated others like the Austrians had treated them)

57 How did rulers all over the Germanic Confederation respond to the uprisings by workers and peasants in 1848? Made concessions, promised constitutions, and sent reps to the Frankfurt Parliament

58 Why did the members of the Frankfurt Parliament fail? Too liberal (ignored Conservatives & workers) and too slow

59 What group did Guiseppe Mazzini lead? What did the group want? Young Italy, a united Italy with a republican government

60 How did the Pope respond to the declaration of a Roman Republic? He fled, was not as liberal as he claimed to be

61 Who goes in to Italy to squash revolt & put the Pope back? France & Louis Napoleon

62 What two Great Powers fought Russia in the Crimean War? What 2 powers stayed neutral? France & GB, Prussia & Austria

63 What were the Russians’ goals in the Crimean War? Protect the Xians in Ottoman Empire, territorial gains (WWPs)

64 What impact did the Crimean war have on the Concert of Europe? Ended it (broke up order of COV)

65 What impact did this break up have on Germany & Italy? Allowed for their unification (since powers couldn’t unite against it)

66 Why was Piedmont the natural place for Italian unification to start? most independent & industrial

67 What did Cavour think was the key to unification of Italy? Economic strength that would make Italy a viable state and a monarchy

68 Which “romantic republican” founded the Young Italian Society? What was their goal? Guiseppe Mazzini, a unified Italy with a republican gov’t

69 Why did the Pope resist Italian unification? wanted to keep the independence of the Papal States (which were under his control)

70 Who did Cavour secure help from in Piedmont’s fight against Austria? Napoleon III (France)

71 What priorities did Garibaldi demonstrate when he turned over Southern Italy to Cavour? nationalism over republicanism

72 Who was the first king of a united Italy? Victor Emmanuel (of Piedmont)

73 What state was sick of being second to Austria in Germany? Who was it’s chief minister in 1862? Prussia, Otto von Bismarck

74 Bismarck wanted unification by ____ & ____, which symbolized what? blood & iron, war & industrial strength

75 What was the first “war of German unification” & what was at stake? Danish War (1864), Holstein & Schleswig

76 How did Bismarck use the Danish war to deal with Austria? Conflict over spoils of war leads to Austro-Prussian War in 1866

77 What document played on French fears & started the Franco-Prussian War? What did the French fear? Ems Dispatch, a Hohenzollern king of Spain (Germans on both sides)

78 Name 2 key outcomes of the Franco-Prussian War. end of Nap III (start of 3rd Rep.), finalizes Ger. Uni. (southern states), new mil. tactics

79 How did Bismarck, a conservative, overcame the Ger. Libs.? Using cons. Institutions (e.g. army), F-P war, N. Ger. Confed.

80 What forced Napoleon III to be more liberal at home? foreign policy failures (Italy & Mexico)

81 What group lay siege to Paris to remove the Commune from power? What did Marxists call this? French Army under orders of NA, class warfare

82 Why did French Monarchists in the NA fail to establish a monarchy? Couldn’t find a king (Bourbon refused)

83 What was the Dreyfus Affair? Jewish French Army captain unjustly accused of spying for Germany

84 Name two key outcomes of the Dreyfus Affair. cleared way for 3rd Rep., embarrassed Conservs., demonstrated anti- Semitism of the era

85 What were 3 chief characteristics of Austria in 1860? Why did these characteristics conflict with the rest of Europe? dynastic, absolutist & agrarian, rest of Europe was becoming more industrial and democratic

86 What forced the Hapsburgs to deal with the Magyars in 1867? no support from Russia, loss in A-P war

87 Name two characteristics of the Dual Monarchy of A-H. one king, separate legislatures, separate countries, some common ministers, common foreign policy & defense

88 What area were Austria & Russia rivals for influence in the late 1800s? What major event will this lead to? The Balkans, World War I

89 How did the other nats. in the Austrian emp react to the Dual Monarchy? Which nat. was most outspoken for equality? Wanted similar deal, Czechs

90 What did many Irish landlords do with their peasants during the Potato famine? evicted them & shipped them to the U.S.

91 Name two things that use the internal combustion engine. cars, subs, planes

92 Name the industries associated with the 2nd ind rev. steel, chemicals, oil

93 What created a real interest in public health? MC fear of cholera, new understanding of disease

94 What is parliamentary socialism? working within assembly to make change

95 What country took the lead in social reform? GB

96 How did Nicholas II respond to the December Revolution? October Manifesto

97 What made Marxism the main brand of socialism in the 1870s? 1st International

98 Why did revisionists like Bernstein believe revolts would never happen in Ger. & France? stock ownership, broader franchise, improved standard of living (conditions are just getting too good for revolution)

99 What were the two principles of Bolshevism? dual revolution and elite revolutionary force

100 Name 2 problems with Russian industrialization. inefficient farming, profits leaving to other countries, small WC, bad conditions

101 How did Bismarck respond to failed repression of the GSPD? Social reforms (insurance & pensions)

102 What improvements were made to cut down on cholera? sewers & water systems, eliminate slaughterhouses

103 Name two components of Russian anti-Semitism. pogroms, internal passports, living restrictions, censorship, limited jobs & educ.

104 What did the educational revolution of the late 1800s help people break free from? intellectual surroundings

105 How has Freud’s thinking affected our modern world? Changed the way we view things, events, and most importantly people

106 What did Nietzsche insist man must do to achieve greatness? follow his instincts and pursue ecstasy (ubermensch)

107 What did Nietzsche claim Christianity and Democracy had done to man? made him meek and mediocre

108 What did Weber claim was the most significant development of the 19th Cent.? Bureaucratization

109 What did impressionists attempt to depict? their full impression of the scene (sight, sound, emotion, light, etc.)

110 What is social Darwinism? belief in “survival of the fittest” in the social world - those who suffer do so because they are weak

111 Identify three reasons for New Imperialism. nationalism, industrialism, belief in cultural superiority, spread religion

112 In what continent was this new imperialism most evident? Africa

113 Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI. industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances

114 What two nations started the colonization of Africa? What part? GB & France, northern sections

115 What was GB’s goal in Africa? Cape to Cairo

116 Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s? internal turmoil

117 What was the worst example of European exploitation in Africa? King Leopold in the Congo

118 What were the only two parts of Africa not colonized by 1900? Ethiopia and Liberia

119 What were the two clashes in Africa that fed animosity against GB? Fashoda Crisis and the Boer War

120 What was the U.S. policy for trade in China? What British settlement came out of this policy? Open Door Policy, Hong Kong

121 Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans? Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe

122 What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy? Boxer Rebellion

123 What were the two examples of economically successful colonies in the 1800s? Dutch Indonesia and British India

124 What was Bismarck’s primary foreign policy goal? avoid 2 front conflict

125 What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia? territorial interests in the Balkans

126 Why did France ultimately make an alliance with Russia? lots of $ invested in Russian industry

127 Why did Germany antagonize GB in the early 1900s? to make themselves look powerful so GB will want to ally with them

128 In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance? Italy, Germany, A-H

129 In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente? GB, France & Russia

130 What event triggered war between these two alliances? Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

131 Who came in to back A-H? Serbia? Germany and Russia

132 What were the basics of the Schlieffen Plan? swing through France with strong right, defeating them quickly then beating the Russians

133 Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail? What did this lead to? weak right, digging trenches on Western Front

134 What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916? German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme

135 What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Galipoli? break through & reestablish connection with Russia

136 Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI. machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas

137 What is a war of attrition? you try to win by wearing down the other side

138 Identify at least 4 causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917. reform-revolt-repress, industrialism, Nicky’s a weenie, Rev. of 1905, Crimea, R-J War, Duma- Duma-Duma

139 Who took control in the March Revolution? liberals/cadets (Provisional Gov’t lead by Kerensky)

140 Who snuck Lenin back into Russia? Germans

141 What brought the U.S. into WWI? Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania

142 What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered? Launched an all out attack on the Western Front

143 What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault? help from the U.S.

144 How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade? with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)

145 What was Kerensky (and the provisional gov’t)’s biggest mistake? staying in the war vs. Germany

146 What did the treaty of Brest- Litovsk give the Germans? lots of land & an indemnity

147 Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign this treaty? needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control

148 Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader? Lenin, Trotsky

149 Identify three of Wilson’s 14 Points. free seas, self determination, open diplomacy, League of Nations, “Peace Without Victory”

150 Identify 4 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany. blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demil- Rhineland

151 What did the T of V do to Austria-Hungary? split it into 6 states, made it a nationalist & economic mess

152 What did Wilson cash in his idealism for? League of Nations

153 Why was WWI truly an end to the old order? all old monarchies no longer exist (A-H & Russia)

154 Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons) machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire

155 Name 2 things that squash Wilson’s vision for peace. Natty, economics, & conservatism

156 Who most wanted the Treaty of Versailles enforced? Why? France, most damaged & all alone vs. Ger.

157 Name 2 groups who fought the Reds in the Russian Civil War. Whites (Cadets), peasants, allies

158 What was Lenin’s solution to the economic problems the Communists faced after the Russian Civil War? New Economic Policy (NEP)

159 What did the NEP allow peasants to do? sell grain

160 What impact did the NEP have on the communist party? split it

161 Lenin's death led to a power struggle between whom? Who was the victor? Stalin & Trotsky, Stalin

162 What was the main threat that fascist regimes responded to? spread of communism

163 What did fascist rulers insist the individual must put before everything? the State

164 How did Mussolini become Prime Minister? appointed by king after Black Shirts march on Rome

165 What two things did France do immediately after WWI to secure themselves? Enforce T of V & East Alliances (C, R & Y)

166 What did France do in 1923 when Ger. fell behind on reps.? occupied Ruhr

167 How did this impact the Ger. economy? huge inflation, some unemployment

168 Describe the economy in GB after WWI. sluggish

169 What group of states was supposed to get self determination after WWI? the successor states

170 Out of which three former empires were the successor states composed? Germany, A-H, & Russia

171 Which was the only successful one? Czechoslovakia

172 Which state wanted to unify with Ger.? Austria

173 Name 1 flaw of the Weimar Constitution. small party representation & dictatorial powers

174 Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform. repudiation of T of V, unification of Aust & Ger., eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.

175 What was the first attempted takeover by the Nazi Party? Beer Hall Putsch (Munich, 1923)

176 What two things helped reconstruct the Weimar Republic between 1925-1929? Dawes Plan & Locarno agreements

177 What did the Dawes Plan do? restructured rep pay back (tied to Ger. economy)

178 Name 2 of the key causes of the Great Depression. Crisis in currency & investments, commodities crisis, lack of leadership

179 How did the crash of ‘29 affect U.S. investment in Europe? stopped it

180 Why couldn’t farmers pay their debts in the ‘20s? glut of agricultural goods in market

181 How did most European gov’ts respond to the GD? cut spending, wage & price controls

182 Who did the Popular Front in France oppose? right wingers (fascists)

183 Who rose to power in response to the GD in Ger.? Who did they use as scapegoats? Nazis, Jews and Communists

184 What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power? Reichstag Fire

185 What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality? Kristallnacht

186 What was the name of Hitler’s elite secret police force? Who led it? SS, Himmler

187 What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda? marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels

188 What was the Nazis’ economic policy? Gear all production toward strong military state

189 What happened to the rights of organized labor in Germany & Italy? What rights?, they were taken away

190 What two organizations did the Italian Fascists use to control the economy? corporations & syndicates

191 What instrument guided the Soviet economy between 1927 & 1942? the Five Year Plans

192 What did these plans call for? rapid industrialization w/ specific goals for production

193 How did the plans expect to pay for these increases? grain exports from collectivized farms

194 What class strongly opposed collectivized farming? kulaks

195 What was done to those who opposed? death or imprisonment

196 How much did Soviet industrial production increase between 1928 & 1940? 400%

197 What was the cost of this industrialization? millions of deaths, lack of economic equality, years of self denial

198 What is the Cult of Personality? worship of the ruler who embodies the greatness of the state

199 What was Stalin’s goal in the great Purges? eliminate all opposition w/in the Party (old Bolsheviks)

200 Who would replace these people? new faces loyal only to him

201 At what point before WWII did Hitler say he was “done” adding territory? after Sudetenland

202 What 1939 treaty guaranteed Hitler’s security on the eastern front? Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

203 Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor? the U.S cut off shipments of oil

204 Where was there a great deal of island hopping? Pacific Theater

205 What was the goal of Operation Barbarossa? What delayed its start? take the USSR before winter, Germans had to go bail out Mussolini in N. Africa

206 What was the Allied invasion of Normandy called? D-Day/Op. Overlord

207 What were Truman’s two main options to defeat Japan? Which did he choose? invasion or A-Bomb, A-Bomb

208 What was the Vichy government? controlled non-occupied France during WWII

209 What event led to hardships on the German homefront? failure of Barbarossa

210 Name the last two big peace conferences. Yalta & Potsdam

211 How was Germany divided after WWII? 4 zones, one each for US, GB, Fr., USSR

212 How did the U.S. respond to the 1948 blockade of West Berlin? Airlift

213 What divided eastern & western Europe after WWII? iron curtain

214 Name two things Khruschev did to lessen Stalin’s influence. some freedoms, ag reform, more consumer goods, Secret Speech

215 How did the Soviets respond to the 1968 uprising in Cz.? sent in troops

216 Who led Vietnamese resistance to French control? Ho Chi Minh

217 What movement led to independence for Poland in 1989? solidarity

218 Name the 2 people that created a desire for buffer states in the USSR. Napoleon & Adolf Hitler

219 What slowed UN actions after WWII? Soviet veto on the Security Council

220 What provided US aid to European nations to keep them free from Communism? Marshall Plan

221 What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War? NATO & Warsaw Pact

222 What was the basic idea of the Truman Doctrine? containment of Communism

223 Name two of the Crises of 1956. Suez, Poland, Hungary

224 What organization was opposed to peace between Israel & Egypt? PLO

225 How did the U.S. respond to Sputnik? space raceola

226 Who’s set of major reforms brought an end to the USSR? Gorbachev

227 What were deGaulle’s priorities for France? hostility to U.S. & GB, nukes, tension w/ NATO

228 Which half did the US back in both Vietnam & Korea? south

229 What were the two parts of Gorbachev’s reforms? perestroika and glasnost

230 How did the satellite states respond to the weakness of the USSR in 1989? “revolted” for independence

231 Identify four areas that “revolted” in 1989. Poland, E Ger., Czech., Romania, Hungary,

232 Who backed the State of Israel right from the beginning? the U.S. & western Europe

233 What were the three possible ways Europe could be unified? Which was most likely? political, military, economic

234 Give two examples of student protest in Europe in 1968. Prague and Paris

235 What has the focus of European feminism been for the last 60 years? social & workplace equality

236 Who led the movement for Indian independence? Mohandas Gandhi

237 What 1977 agreement started to lessen tension between Israel & Egypt? Camp David Accords

238 What is the basic nature of the problem in the former Yugoslavia? many different ethnic/religious groups, discrimination outside common areas

239 Where is the current conflict there? Kosovo/Serbia

240 Give two examples of Americanization in Europe. McDonalds, English, Levis, etc.

241 What impact did decolonization have on em/immigration? former colonizers & colonial subjects go to Europe

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