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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 23 THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH-CENTURY CRISIS: Revolution & Depression."— Presentation transcript:


2 War and revolution Q: What were the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and why did the Bolsheviks prevail in the civil war and gain control of Russia?

3 Collapse of Old Order Tsars reliance on military power to uphold regime –Industry ill equipped to arm soldiers led to devastating losses in war 2 million dead/4-6 million killed or captured –Failed to address declining conditions of peasants and workers –Invested in war rather than the people

4 The Women’s March in Petrograd “Peace & Bread” March 8, 1917, Petrograd © Bettmann/CORBIS

5 Internal unrest, 1917 Series of strikes in capital of Petrograd Bread rationing imposed –Tsar sent military to repress the movements, soldiers joined instead Workers continued to join and called for a General Strike –Total shut down of factories

6 Struggle for power Duma (legislative body) met and declared power, tsar abdicated –New Provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky –Soviets (councils of workers and soldier deputies) formed in army units, factory towns and rural areas. Represented interests of working classes Many socialists One were the Marxist-socialist democrats

7 Marxist Socialist Democrats Established in 1898, Split in 1903 Mensheviks – goal to create a mass electoral socialist party based on the western model Bolsheviks: –Russian social democrats led by Vladimir Lenin (lawyer) Dedicated to violent overthrow of capitalist system Vanguard – small party of disciplined professional revolutionaries to lead the masses

8 Vladamir Lenin November 8, 1917 Announced the new government at The Council of People’s Commissar’s With himself as leader © Getty Images

9 Factors of Success of Bolsheviks “Peace, land & Bread” –Land reform redistributed land to peasants “Worker control of Production” –Transfer of factories & industry to committees of workers “All power to the soviets” –Relegation of power from provisional government to soviets

10 “Peace” with Germany Treaty of Brest-Litvok, march 3, 1918 Ceded East Poland, Ukraine, Baltic Provinces to Germany –Ended war externally –Civil war ensued as a result of opposition to new government Opponents –Loyal Tsarists –Bourgeois & aristocratic liberals –Anti-leninists

11 Civil War, 1918 - 1921  Anti-Bolshevik (Whites) forces attacked to be defeated by Red Army (Bolsheviks)  Bolshevik or “communist regime” expanded into Georgia, Russian Armenia & Azerbaijan  Tsar family killed

12 Leon Trotsky Red Army well disciplined & Organized by Trotsky –Reinstated draft –Rigid discipline –No tolerance for desertion or lack of obedience © Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS

13 War Communism Policy Nationalization of Banks & Industry Compulsory requisition of grain from peasants Centralized Bolshevik Control Use of Revolutionary Terror Cheka – secret police- to destroy opponents

14 Russia, 1921 Creation of a centralized state & Single- Party political system Economic collapse as a result of Industrial decline and agricultural disaster NEP New Economic Policy –Modified version of capitalism instituted by Lenin to create rapid economic recovery Considered a temporary tactical retreat from goal of communism

15 USSR, 1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Alexandra Kollantai – social reform program of Bolsheviks –Women’s rights & Social welfare programs “Palaces for protection and maternity for women” established healthcare for women & children Marriage established as a civil act and divorce legalized Decree on equity between the sexes Permitted Abortions Zhenotdel – women & men sent out to explain new social order

16 Politburo & Power struggle Lenin’s death, 1924 –7 member Politburo divided Trotsky wanted to end NEP & Launch rapid Industrialization at expense of peasants & continued revolution & spread of communism Others rejected cause of world revolution & wanted to construct a socialist state

17 Joseph Stalin Gained control of Communist Party Expelled Trotsky by 1927 Eliminated Bolsheviks Established a dictatorship –Form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations. –Tyranny: resorts to force or fraud to gain despotic political power, maintained through use of intimidation, terror and Suppression of basic civil rights

18 Aftermath of War The Great Depression What was the aftermath of the Great War? What problems did Europe and the United States face in the 1920s?

19 1. Global Issues at the end of WWI A. Economic concerns over “ peace ” John Maynard Keynes infuriated by terms of Treaty of Versailles Failure of victors to develop adequate economic rehabilitation plan for Europe

20 Economic Consequences of Peace Dangers of governments not dealing more directly with economic recovery in Europe. –Internal Productivity – Falling dramatically –Internal transport & exchange broken down Markets, supply & demand non-functional

21 Predictions Last phase of war and afterwards – Governments responded incorrectly to inflation printing more paper money, failed to regulate supply of essential commodities –Conditions persisted Only rich would have purchasing power –Consequence: “ An inefficient, unemployed, disorganized Europe faces us, torn by internal strife and international hate, fighting, starving, pillaging and Lying ”

22 B. Economic Outcomes of Europe ’ s predicament Western World began to work on credit –U.S. Europe ’ s creditor Potential investors began to lose confidence in the economic system –High levels of credit & slow-to-recover productive capacity

23 Creditor Relationship Germany found it impossible to recover economically U.S. loans to Germany to pay reparations to Britain and France –Dawes Plan: stabilized Germany’s ability to pay (1924-29) –200 million loan for recovery

24 C. Political Outcomes Uncertainty & political discontent What model to follow in Europe – capitalist or socialist? National Survival becomes primary goal – no matter what …

25 Nature of World Economy Disparity of Wealth increased Unstable monetary & banking system Strengthened business cartels & unions Reparations, war debts & cost of war damaged post war economy

26 D. Post-Developments in U.S. “ Roaring Twenties ” –Optimism & Prosperity prevailed –1924-29 veil of 20% Reality – longer term pattern emerging –Optimism a shallow veneer

27 What happened next: By mid – 1920 ’ s 5% of population received 1/3 of all its income Some people getting wealthy quickly Wages for majority stagnating –Wages kept low –Unions discouraged Repressive political period A shortage of purchasing power

28 II. Results: Great Depression Begins A. Downward spiral of Spending –Decline of income – decline in demand & spending –In response – decline in production –Led to – decline in employment –Income further depressed, spiraling downward in that pattern Affecting investors confidence

29 B. Stock Market Crash October 29, 1929 –Black Tuesday 12 million shares traded – prices plummeted – chaos –Loss of 75% of investments Suicides began

30 Keep In Mind Crash was not the cause of the depression Overall economic situation of the world post WWI

31 An 18 Year Old Mother in a Camp Former Tenant Farmers at a Camp A Refugee Camp Along a Highway

32 An Ex-Migrant Farmer at Home An Ex-Migrant Farmer & Her Son at Home

33 A Mother & Baby On the Way To California

34 IV. Global Effects Devastating International banking collapsed European Industries shut down Britain 1929-1931 –Unemployment 25% German 1930-1932 –Unemployment 50% –44% decline in production

35 V. Responses A. United States Franklin D. Roosevelt elected 1932 Campaign of “ New Deal ” –The federal government would intervene to stop the depression by Creating jobs to stimulate demand Raising income taxes on the richest

36 John Maynard Keynes Rejected idea that depression should be left to work them selves out Unemployment stems from decline in demand Increase demand by putting people back to work –Deficit spending by government –Stimulate the economy –Government investment in domestic economy

37 Examples: Emergency Banking Act –Federal loans available to private bankers Economy Act –Committed Government to balancing the budget Unemployment Relief Act –Civilian Conservation Core – 2 million single men Federal Emergency Relief Act –National Relief System – Civil Works Administration- 4 million/400,000 small scale government projects

38 B. Populist Critics Banking Reforms Agricultural Adjustment Act – –Reduced cultivation and supply, tenant farmers and laborers out of work Public Works Administration –Internal improvements, Infrastructure –3 large dams constructed Favored Large economic interests, not the ordinary citizen –Classic liberal remedy: deflationary policy of “balanced budgets” –Cut costs by lowering wages and raising tariffs & taxes

39 C. Rebirth of Labor Shared working class experience Labor Unions: workers fired for joining a union in violation of laws. Corporation not held accountable. Pleas unanswered Strikes – full scale riots – deaths and millions of dollars of property damage Took it to the Polls

40 Rise of Radical 3 rd Parties Voters prepared to abandon democrats who refused to endorse a more socialist or at least comprehensive program of reform Growing appeal for socialism and communist Party

41 D. 2 nd New Deal Roosevelt in response to Labor unrest of 1934 sought to reinvigorate appeal among poorer Americans and turn them away from radical solutions. Social Security Act –Foundation of American Welfare state National Labor Relations Act – –right to join a union, obligation of employers to bargain in good faith.

42 Mobilized voters 6 million people voted for the first time –Many of them ethnics – 5 million voted for Roosevelt –Among the poorest, he received 80% of their vote –Black voters deserted the Republican party for the “ party of the common man ”

43 Rhetoric Vs. Reality Promises radical, legislation conservative and on the side of corporations, the wealthy, and white supremacy –Holding Companies he promised to break up, remained in tact –Took Considerably less taxes from wealthy and estates than promised –Little effort to protect basic civil rights or restore black suffrage

44 Nations Poor Did not benefit from Social Security act or other legislation that promised to help the poor –Farm workers –African American Share croppers –Chicano farm workers

45 Set Backs for Women Job Competition –Women seen as taking jobs Legislation against hiring married women Blamed women for unemployment of men –Solution: fire 10 million working women

46 Overall Efforts slowed depression, did not stop it Reinvigorated Democracy Created beginnings of a welfare state Broke with Laissez-faire policy Increased military spending and mobilization for war Responses by European countries –Ultra-nationalistic, fascist, depended on mobilization to create jobs and boost economy

47 Weimar Republic, Germany Inflation & economic devestation Pushed middle class to right wing radical parties hostile to republic 1924-29 3 mill unemployed grew to 4.4 mill

48 The Great Depression: Bread Lines in Paris © Roger Viollet/Getty Images


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