Psychsexual Stages of Development In Freudian theory, five developmental periods during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally
The Development of Personality ORAL STAGE First year –Related to later mistrust and rejection issues ANAL STAGE Ages 1-3 –Related to later personal power issues PHALLIC STAGE Ages 3-6 –Related to later sexual attitudes LATENCY STAGE Ages 6-12 –A time of socialization GENITAL STAGE Ages 12-60 –Sexual energies are invested in life Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (1)
Huffman, 2005 Oral Stage 0-18 months—infant receives satisfaction through sucking, eating, biting, etc. Erogenous zone is the mouth. Overindulgent—gullible, dependent, and passive Underindulgent—aggressive, sadistic person Oral fixated adults orient their life around their mouth by overeating, alcoholism, smoking, talking too much
Huffman, 2005 Anal Stage 18 months-3 years—the child receives satisfaction by having and retaining bowel movements. Erogenous zone is the anus. Fixation results in retentive or explosive personality Anal-retentive—highly controlled, compulsively neat Anal-explosive—messy, disorderly, rebellious, and destructive
Huffman, 2005 Phallic Stage 3-6 years—center of pleasure is the genitals, typically a time of exploration of pleasure through masturbation and “playing doctor” Child resolves the Oedipus Complex—(the period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are sexually attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent Castration anxiety in males and penis envy in girls
Huffman, 2005 Latency Stage Age 6 to puberty—children repress sexual thoughts and engage in nonsexual activities such as developing social and intellectual skills Task is to develop successful interactions with same-sex peers and refine appropriate gender roles
Huffman, 2005 Genital Stage Adolescence on—genitals are again the erogenous zones. Individual seeks to fulfill his or her sexual desires through emotional attachment to members of the opposite sex. Unsuccessful outcomes lead to sexual relationships based on lustful desires rather than respect and commitment.
The Structure of Personality THE ID — The Demanding Child –Ruled by the pleasure principle THE EGO — The Traffic Cop –Ruled by the reality principle THE SUPEREGO — The Judge –Ruled by the moral principle Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (2)
Huffman, 2005 Freud’s Personality Structure Id—According to Freud, the source of instinctual energy, which works on the pleasure principle (seeking immediate pleasure) and is concerned with immediate gratification. Ego—In Freud’s theory, the rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the id while also satisfying the superego; (from the Latin ego meaning I)
Huffman, 2005 Freud’s Personality Structure Reality principle—According to Freud, the principle on which the conscious ego operates as it tries to meet the demands of the id and the superego and the realities of the environment. Superego—In Freud’s theory, the part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards of morality
Huffman, 2005 Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories Levels of consciousness –Conscious—In Freudian terms, thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering –Preconscious—Freud’s term for thoughts or motives that one can become aware of easily –Unconscious—Freud’s term for thoughts or motives that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness but that can be made available through psychoanalysis.
The Unconscious Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious: –Dreams –Slips of the tongue –Posthypnotic suggestions –Material derived from free-association –Material derived from projective techniques –Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (3)
Ego-Defense Mechanisms Ego-defense mechanisms: –Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality –Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed –Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (4)
Huffman, 2005 Ego Defense Mechanisms When the ego fails to satisfy both the id and the superego, anxiety occurs. In order to avoid the discomfort of anxiety, the ego distorts reality by the use of defense mechanisms.
Huffman, 2005 Ego Defense Mechanisms Repression—preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness Sublimation—Working off unmet desires or unacceptable impulses in activities Denial—Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it Rationalization—Substituting socially acceptable reasons
Huffman, 2005 Ego Defense Mechanisms Intellectualization—Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words or ideas Projection—Transferring unacceptable motives or impulses to others Reaction formation—Refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges, thoughts or feelings by exaggerating the opposite state
Huffman, 2005 Ego Defense Mechanisms Regression—Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age or level of development Displacement—Substituting a less threatening object for the original object or impulse
Psychoanalytic Techniques Free Association –Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts Interpretation –Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed Dream Analysis –Therapist uses the “royal road to the unconscious” to bring unconscious material to light Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (5)
Transference and Countertransference Transference –The client reacts to the therapist as he did to an earlier significant other This allows the client to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible ANALYSIS OF TRANSFERENCE — allows the client to achieve insight into the influence of the past Countertransference –The reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (6)
Resistance Resistance –Anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the production of unconscious material Analysis of Resistance –Helps the client to see that canceling appointments, fleeing from therapy prematurely, etc., are ways of defending against anxiety These acts interfere with the ability to accept changes which could lead to a more satisfying life Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (7)
Gilliland & James, 1998 Assumptions that drive Psychoanalytic Theory Access to unconscious functioning comes through the associative process Later mental structures have to be explained by earlier experiences, by turning back to the past Psychic continuity is a lifelong process Mental life has meaning
Gilliland & James, 1998 Assumptions that drive Psychoanalytic Theory Determinism, the conviction that nothing that happens is accidental is an accepted principle Instinct, that is, as the source of motivation in bodily processes, is an accepted concept The assumption of the concept of the unconscious is necessary because conscious experiences leave gaps in mental life that unconscious processes bridge