Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Revolution and the Reimposition of Order, 1848-1870 Section 12.58: Paris: The Specter of Social revolution in the West."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 12: Revolution and the Reimposition of Order, Section 12.58: Paris: The Specter of Social revolution in the West
Introduction Never before or since had Europe been in a universal upheaval as revolution breaks out spontaneously from many sources Secret societies Demand for constitutional governments Demand for independent national groups Demand for an end of serfdom Powers that were faced by the revolutionaries –Catholic Church –Habsburgs Only Russia and Britain escape revolutions in 1848 Revolution failed as rapidly as it succeeded Succumbed to military repression and actually strengthened conservatives Some goals were achieved –national unity –Constitutional government –Limited representation
Paris: the Specter of Social Revolution in the West July Monarchy only covered republicanism (which was becoming socialistic) Few interests were represented in the Chamber of Deputies Graft and corruption common, fraud July Monarchy was built over a volcano of repressed republicanism Movement to expand suffrage increased demands Radicals want universal, liberals ask for broadening voting Louis Philippe (and Prime Minister Guizot) did not respond Honore DaumieHonore Daumie. Gargantua. 1831
The February Revolution in France Reformers planned a banquet and demonstrations in Paris on Feb 22 2/21/1848 King forbade any demonstrations in Paris Revolutionaries barricade the streets of Paris Used paving blocks, stones, furniture across streets, intersections National guard refused to move against insurgents 20 revolutionaries are killed outside the house of Guizot 1 guard had been shot republican parade corpses on torch lit carts 2/24/1848 Louis Philippe abdicated and fled for England reformers had hoped to replace him with his grandson
Proclamation of Republic and Blanc Republicans proclaimed the Republic Set up a Provisional government of 10 men Elections through universal suffrage were to follow 3 of the 10 were social revolutionaries Louis Blanc Blanc pushes for economic & social reforms Called for a Ministry of Progress to set up “Social Workshops” (collective manufacturing establishments) Labor Commission was created and produced little Created “National Workshops” A political concession to Blanc –Never given anything important Abolition of slavery in the French colonies was achieved Go hang yourself somewhere else.
National Workshops Became an unemployment relief project Really a political concession by Provisional Gov No important work was ever assigned them Women were excluded Dug roads, fortifications Paid 2 Francs a day Unemployment outpaced the Workshops ability to provide relief work 120 thousand enrolled by mid June 200 thousand idle men in Paris = (trouble!!) Lacoste, Eugène, 1848 Liberty Trees.
Constituent Assembly 5/4/1848 replaced the Provisional Government No social republicans were included executive board members (5) were all outspoken enemies of Blanc Lines are drawn between revolutionary Paris and more conservative land and property interests Workers in Paris more numerous than in 1792 less satisfied with capitalism want less hours greater concern about unemployment workers saw no future in capitalism had no compunction about violence against elected assemblies (tradition of violence) so many regime changes since 1789 based on insurrections major difference between France and England The Republic, 1848, Daumier
The June Days of /15/1848 the Workers and social revolutionaries (feeling social republic slipping away) attacked the Constitutional assembly Social revolutionaries set up a new provisional government National Guard turned against the social revolutionaries Restored the Constituent Assembly Assembly prepared to root out socialism Attacked the national workshops –Offer them place in army, go to country, or get lost Labor class begins to resist Martial law is proclaimed and General Cavaignac takes over Class warfare breaks out as more than half of Paris is barricaded Gave military a tough time (lacked tanks) 6/24/to 6/26/1848 Bloody Days of June 10,000 are killed, 11 thousand taken prisoner Military defeated the resistance Prisoners are exiled to the colonies Militant workers were confirmed in a hatred and loathing of the bourgeois class capitalism existed by the callous shooting of working class men and women People above the labor class were in a panic Louis Eugène Cavaignac
Revival of Chartist Agitation England experienced a revival of chartist agitation Revolutionary committee drew up plans for arson, barricades Petition weighing 584 pounds was presented to HOC but contained only 2 mil sigs and was rejected One secret organizer was gov spy who revealed plan Rev committee was arrested Military clashes occurred Fervor dies down The specter of social revolution was more real than the potential for social revolution Those that had something to lose to social revolution took steps to prevent it Fear of social revolution shapes the Second French Republic
The Emergence of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Constituent Assembly drafts a new constitution Create a strong executive power Call for immediate elections Louis Napoleon was elected by a landslide Supposed to be a friend of the common people At the same time a believer in order Rode the coattails of Napoleon’s name Born in 1808, nephew of Napoleon Father was Louis king of Holland Napoleon own son died in 1832 Had tried to seize power at Strasbourg in 1836 and Boulogne in 1840 (Putsches) (both miserably failed) Was sentenced to life in prison at Ham but escaped in 1846 by walking off ground dressed as stonemason Wrote Napoleonic Ideas (Uncle was misunderstood) and Extinction of Poverty (anti capitalist tract) 1840 Napoleon’s body was buried in Invalides Bonaparte was only name voters had heard of!!! Napoleon III of France
President by Popular Mandate Constituent assembly dissolved itself and elections were held (500) Two thirds of the selected members were monarchists (but they were divided between: Legitimists (Charles X) Orleanists (Louis Philippe) One third were republicans 180 were socialists whose main issue was the form of society 70 were old fashioned republicans whose main issue was the form of government
Antirepublican Government President and Assembly work to stamp out socialist interests use an abortive insurrection as a pretext to oust 33 socialist deputies, suppress meetings, censor press 1850 they take the vote away from the lowest and most socialist class Falloux Law puts the schools under the direction of the Catholic Church School teacher had made schools political ground for promoting socialist ideas French Republic is actually anti republican French military moves against Mazzini’s republic in Rome Bonaparte now knows that he is champion of the conservatives he now goes about trying to win over the radicals
Louis Napoleon undermines the Assembly On Dec 2, 1851 (anniversary of Austerlitz) he had placards placed in Paris which dissolved the Assembly and gave vote for all adult males back When Assembly tries to meet he has them arrested Calls for new elections with universal suffrage Louis Napoleon is elected by huge majority 10 year term In the following year the Empire is declared Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III The republic was dead Killed by its reputation for radicalism Liberalism and constitutionalism were dead Bourgeois and property owning monarchists supported constitutions Hopelessly divided they were weak and the door was open for the Bonapartists