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PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Members were divided socially, personally, and politically –All lacked government experience –Had sympathy for the poor but were.

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Presentation on theme: "PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Members were divided socially, personally, and politically –All lacked government experience –Had sympathy for the poor but were."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Members were divided socially, personally, and politically –All lacked government experience –Had sympathy for the poor but were unwilling or unable to contemplate changes which might alter the existing social system –Saw their role as preserving order and administrative continuity Anxious to keep their acts to a minimum until a Constituent Assembly could be elected to write a new constitution Saw role as essentially that of “caretaker” government

2 ACTS OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Implemented universal manhood suffrage, freedoms of speech, the press, and assembly Opened membership in National Guard to all who wished to serve Social reform was pushed only by Ledru-Rollin, Louis Blanc, and Albert –Issued decree which recognized the right to work and created the National Workshops Provided work for unemployed on public works projects –Shortened work day –Abolished sweatshops –Established Luxembourg Commission Headed by Blanc Investigate working and living conditions and propose reforms to improve them

3 CREATION OF THE FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY Liberals from western and southern Germany elected a committee of seven on March 5, 1848 –Charged them with the responsibility for organizing a general meeting of representatives of all the German states To meet at Frankfurt Function would be to draw up a constitution for a united Germany

4 POPULAR MOBILIZATION Diverse groups attempted to take advantage of the revolutionary situation and seek recognition for their vital interests –One manifestation was the creation of political clubs, discussion groups and newspapers –In Paris, political clubs had over 100,000 members at their peak and worker associations about 40,000

5 CONTINUED DISORDER Widespread, but sporadic, disorder –Workers protested unemployment and low wages –Peasants complained about taxes and growth of capitalist farming which threatened their traditional ways of life –Peasants denounced Jewish “usurers” in eastern France and southwest Germany Abstract, universalist, political principles were reinterpreted by various groups to address their own immediate interests –Revealed deep aversion to the existing social order

6 PROBLEMS Most post-February protest movements died out on their own because of lack of formal organization and a clear program –But they nonetheless forced new liberal administrations to employ existing institutions of repression to restore and maintain order –Created atmosphere of uncertainty Negative impact on economy and a renewal of economic crisis Liberals had serious problems –Had to alleviate social problems caused by economic crisis and limit further disorders –But they were also involved in a complex debate on constitutional reform and were anxious to conciliate radicals and conservatives Alphonse Lamartine Leader of Provisional Government

7 FRANCE Provisional Government was primarily concerned with promoting business confidence as means to restore prosperity –This required maintaining public order and avoidance of socialistic measures –Made regime dependent on the military 50,000 troops deployed to repress rural disorders Peasants upset about 45% increase in land tax –Alienated peasant support for the Republic

8 PRUSSIA Liberals wanted parliamentary government with increased opportunities for members of middle class to participate in politics –Firmly opposed to extending right to vote to uneducated and politically immature masses –Denied that state had obligation to provide public assistance –Insisted Prussia must retain autonomy in a future united Germany Social tension increased in Berlin –Multitude of new newspapers, pamphlets, and political clubs appear Some called for division of large estates among poor

9 FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY I Restricted franchise and mass indifference resulted in the election of an assembly dominated by lawyers, professionals, and bureaucrats Factions developed over whether to included Austria in a united Germany, over who would be allowed to vote, and over social reform –Acriminous debate over these issues ate away at credibility of Assembly

10 FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY II Presents final proposal in April 1849 to Frederick William IV –Created federal union of all German states (except Austria), an elected national legislature, and an emperor with substantial executive power Offered position of emperor to Frederick William –Rejects offer –“I will not accept a crown from ‘the gutter” Assembly thrown for a loop –Was already divided over proposal –Had no armed force to enforce its will –Masses could care less Assembly dissolved itself

11 TIDE BEGINS TO TURN IN PRUSSIA In Prussia, government presented proposal to the United Diet to grant right to vote to all men over the age of 24 –They would then elect an assembly which would prepare to write a constitution –Diet approved plan and assembly was elected in May 1848 Dominated by liberals but had sizable minority of radicals –Determined to reduce power of nobles through elimination of their tax privileges and limiting their local administrative and judicial authority »These demands angered the king and he made it clear he had no intention of ever being a constitutional monarch »Liberals in assembly gradually lost their confidence while that of conservatives increased »King began to fire liberal ministers and replace them with conservatives

12 ITS OVER IN GERMANY Uprisings, organized by radicals and workers, become frequent –As it became clear that Frederick William would not keep earlier promises –Mainly strengthened hand of conservatives who blamed liberals for all the trouble –Liberal leaders were meanwhile frightened by the unrest and drifted away from their commitment to reform Radical democrats feel betrayed and unleash one final explosion of unrest in May and June of 1849 –Baden, Westphalia, Saxony and Prussian Rhineland All failed Frederick William and other rulers withdraw all concessions –Killing dream of a united Germany under a liberal constitutional government

13 BACK TO FRANCE Political clubs and worker associations demand profound social reforms –Major demonstrations erupted on March 17 and April 16 –Club leaders form Club des clubs Sent representatives to the provinces to start clubs there All this frightened conservatives and contributed to rise in social tension

14 ELECTIONS TO THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY In elections to Constituent Assembly, rural voters elected conservative candidates –Because conservative propaganda was better organized –Confusing multitude of candidates caused inexperienced rural voters to turn to their traditional advisors –Intimidation –Indifference Results –300 republicans (only about 70- 80 of them interested in social reform) –600 monarchists

15 UPRISING OF MAY 15 Large crowd breaks in assembly hall and demands that France aid rebellion in Poland and take immediate measures to provide French workers with food and work –Some demanded creation of a Committee of Public Safety and a special tax on the wealthy Uprising was easily put down –Leaders all arrested –Luxembourg Commission terminated and some political clubs closed Uprising strengthened the hand of those dedicated to restoring “order”

16 OUTBREAK OF THE JUNE DAYS Conservatives hated the National Workshops –Saw them as a pointless waste of money and a breeding ground for dangerous ideas and agitation On June 22, the government announced that National Workshops would be closed –Tens of thousands of workers would lose their only source of income and no alternative sources of relief for them were provided Spontaneous insurrection erupts in working class districts –June 23 –June Days

17 INEVITABLE OUTCOME As many as 40,000-50,000 workers involved in June Days uprising –Against them were army and National Guard units Commanded by General Eugene Cavaignac –Also given temporary dictatorial powers Crushed uprising in three days –Followed by 12,000 arrests Eugene Cavaignac

18 SHIFT TO THE LEFT IN THE COUNTRYSIDE New constitution provided for –Single house 800 seat legislature elected by manhood suffrage –A president (7-year term) In elections for new legislature, Montagnards (radicals) won 200 seats –Strong in Paris and cities –But also strong in many rural areas Result of success of Left in linking their political program to the pressing problems caused by depression in agriculture and rural industry

19 NEW LEGISLATURE Elections indicated that a large proportion of rural population had been won over to a radical, urban- based political program for first time But it was too late –Nearly 500 conservative deputies also elected –New legislature had significant radical minority but the vast majority was conservative

20 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF DECEMBER 1851 Overwhelming victor was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte –40 year old nephew of Napoleon I –Bankrupt adventurer and colossal opportunist –Won because of famous name and because he promised everything to everybody –Real agenda was to become absolute master of France

21 BEGINNING OF THE END Wanted to undo constitutional provision which limited him to one term –To do this he had to have support of conservatives in legislature and army Conservatives, with Louis Napoleon’s support, intensify repression of Left –Radical leaders harassed by police –Radical symbols banned –Most political clubs shut down To survive, radical groups in countryside forced underground and become secret societies

22 COUP D’ÉTAT OF DECEMBER 1851 Louis Napoleon fails to get constitution changed so that he could have another term –Launches coup d’état on December 2, 1851 Disbands legislature and announced that his term would be extended for the rest of his life and that his new title would be “Prince President” Little opposition in Paris but massive uprising in provinces –Put down with massive arrests –In December 1852, he proclaims himself emperor, Napoleon III

23 VIENNA 1848 In April 1848, government announces it would create bicameral legislature –With lower chamber elected by a restricted franchise –Upper chamber made up of large landowners appointed by emperor –Emperor had power of veto –Announcement provoked more street demonstrations Plan abandoned New plan announced creating single house legislature elected by all employed men over age of 24 Imperial Chamber –First met in July 1848

24 RURAL POPULATION DROPS OUT Government makes concessions to rural population –Abolishing compulsory labor services and all remaining feudal obligations –Satisfied peasants and they lost interest in revolutionary activity Isolated urban radicals and liberals from rest of population

25 BOHEMIA Small groups of militants demand linguistic equality and greater independence –Draw up petition in April 1848 asking for equal status of Czech language in schools and establishment of Bohemia Diet –Asked for union of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia into single unit subject to Bohemia Diet Moderate demands Mainly limited to small group of middle class intellectuals in Prague

26 BRUTAL AUSTRIAN REACTION All Czechs wanted was an improvement of their position within the Austrian Empire –Nonetheless, their demands received hostile reception in Vienna –Army commanded by General Windischgratz sent to Prague Actions provoke revolt –Windischgratz brutally represses revolt –Vienna rejects all Bohemian demands General Windischgratz

27 BACK TO ITALY Collapse of Austrian power in March 1848 encourages Charles Albert of Piedmont- Sardinia, Pope Pius IX and Grand Duke of Tuscany to create joint army to drive Austrians completely from Italy –Inspired by personal ambition and a complex mix of pressure from liberal elites Charles Albert I

28 PIUS IX PULLS OUT Italian military campaign was a fiasco –Pius IX withdraws support on April 29, 1848 Upset that war would be Catholics against Catholics and might upset unity of Church –Romans force him to flee city Democratic militants seize control of city and proclaim independent republic –Lasted a few months until crushed by French troops in July 1849 –Pope returned to Rome, protected by French troops from his own people

29 FROM BAD TO WORSE Ferdinand of Naples also abandons war against Austria Charles Albert of Piedmont- Sardinia hesitated to take action –Gave Austrian commander Radetzky chance to get reinforcements and recover momentum –Charles Albert also discovered he did not have support of rural population –Also there was division among ranks of Italian elite with militants such as Giuseppe Mazzini calling for a republic and “people’s war” Radetzky Mazzini

30 END OF THE LINE Charles Albert decisively defeated at Battle of Custoza –July 25, 1848 –Defeated again in March 1849 Charles Albert abdicates Austrian dominance gradually restored in northern Italy and they, the pope, and Ferdinand of Naples enact repressive measures to punish rebels and prevent future unrest Battle of Custoza

31 HUNGARY Louis Kossuth presented list of demands to emperor in April 1848 –Equality before law –Abolition of tithe and forced labor for peasants –Abolition of noble tax privileges –Establishment of liberal constitutional government for Hungary Austrian government initially accepts demands Louis Kossuth

32 DIVISIONS Hungarian appointed to serve as prime minister –Instead of Austrian viceroy Major victory for Hungarian aristocracy –Had achieved degree of autonomy but preserved their dominance within Hungary But their victory incited Croatians, Slovaks, and Transylvanians to demand autonomy for themselves –Magyars responded with violence, thereby increasing social tensions and weakening their own position Slovak couple

33 THE PLOT THICKENS Austrian government encouraged minority leaders in their agitation for greater autonomy –Also demanded that Hungary send troops to fight in Italy –Kossuth refused, created National Defense Committee and declared independence Put together army of 170,000 volunteers and started to head for Vienna

34 END OF THE ROAD Volunteer Hungarian army defeated outside of Vienna –Austrian army then attempts to invade Hungary but fails –Nicholas I of Russia offers his military assistance Hungarians are then defeated 50,000 men killed on each side 120 leaders executed and another 150 sent to prison for 20 years

35 LAST DAMN SLIDE Situation in Austrian Empire similar to that in France and Prussia –Liberals gradually lost power to the growing power of conservatives as they put down revolts in Bohemia, Italy, and Hungary Also due to liberals’ own fear of provoking unrest –Austrian government then rescinded its original concessions one-by-one until nothing was left Liberal leaders then arrested

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