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Personality Theory and Assessment Chapter 14 Copyright 2007 Horizon Textbook Publishing This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality Theory and Assessment Chapter 14 Copyright 2007 Horizon Textbook Publishing This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality Theory and Assessment Chapter 14 Copyright 2007 Horizon Textbook Publishing This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program Slide authors: Larry D. Thomas Landon O. Thomas Book authors: R.H. Ettinger

2 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis –Freud’s term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious –Freud believed that there are three levels of awareness in consciousness: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious –Conscious The thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment

3 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious (continued) –Preconscious The thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be brought to consciousness –Unconscious For Freud, the primary motivating force of behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts and wishes that have never been conscious

4 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis The id, the ego, and the superego –Feud proposed three systems of personality Id –The unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle Ego –In Freudian theory, the rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle Superego –The moral system of the personality, which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal

5 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis

6 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis Defense Mechanisms –An unconscious, irrational means used by the ego to defend against anxiety; involves self-deception and the distortion of reality –Repression Involuntarily removing an unpleasant memory or barring disturbing sexual and aggressive impulses from consciousness Several studies have shown that people do indeed try to repress unpleasant thoughts

7 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis Defense Mechanisms (continued) –Projection Attributing one’s own undesirable thoughts, impulses, traits, or behaviors to others Allows people to avoid acknowledging unacceptable traits and thereby to maintain self-esteem, but it seriously distorts their perception of the external world –Denial Refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening condition

8 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis Defense Mechanisms (continued) –Rationalization Supplying a logical, rational, socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason or an action When people rationalize, they make excuses for, or justify, failures and mistakes –Regression Reverting to a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development –Reaction formation Denying an unacceptable impulse, often a sexual or aggressive one, by giving strong conscious expression to its opposite

9 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis Defense Mechanisms (continued) –Displacement Substituting a less threatening object for the original object of an impulse –Sublimation Rechanneling sexual or aggressive energy into pursuits that society considers acceptable or admirable

10 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Sigmund Feud and Psychoanalysis The psychosexual stages of development –Psychosexual stages A series of stages through which the sexual instinct develops –Fixation Arrested development at a psychosexual stage occurring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage

11 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Neo-Freudians Carl Jung –Did not consider the sexual instinct to be the main factor in personality; nor did he believe that the personality is almost completely formed in early childhood –Conceived of the personality as consisting of three parts: the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious –Personal unconscious In Jung’s theory, the layer of the unconscious containing all of the thoughts and experiences that are accessible to the conscious, as well as repressed memories and impulses

12 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Neo-Freudians Carl Jung (continued) –Collective unconscious In Jung’s theory, the most inaccessible layer of the unconscious, which contains the universal experiences of humankind transmitted to each individual –Archetypes Existing in the collective unconscious, and inherited tendency to respond in particular ways to universal human situations

13 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler –Emphasized the unity of the personality rather than the separate warring components of id, ego, and superego –Maintained that the drive to overcome feelings of inferiority acquired in childhood motivates most of our behavior –Claimed that people develop a “style of life” at an early age-a unique way in which the child and later the adult will go about the struggle to achieve superiority

14 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Neo-Freudians Karen Horney –Did not accept Freud’s division of personality into id, ego, and superego, and she flatly rejected his psychosexual stages and the concepts of the Oedipus complex and the penis envy –Believed that personality could continue to develop and change throughout life –Argued forcefully against Freud’s notion that a woman’s desire to have a child and a man are nothing more than a conversion of the unfulfilled wish for a penis

15 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Neo-Freudians Karen Horney (continued) –Believed that many of women’s psychological difficulties arise from failure to live up to an idealized version of themselves –To be psychologically healthy women, she claimed, and men for that matter, must learn to over come irrational beliefs about the need for perfection

16 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Learning Theories and Personality Social-cognitive theory –Reciprocal determinism Bandura’s concept that behavior, cognitive factors, and environment all influence and are influenced by each other –One of the cognitive factors Bandura considers especially important is self-efficacy –Self-efficacy A person’s belief in his or her ability to perform competently in whatever is attempted

17 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Social-Cognitive Perspective Reciprocal Determinism –the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors Internal personal/ cognitive factors (liking high-risk activities) Behavior (learning to bungee jump) Environmental factors (bungee-jumping friends)

18 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Learning Theories and Personality Locus of control –Proposed by Julian Rotter –A concept used to explain how people account for what happens in their lives-people with an internal locus of control see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences; those with an external locus of control perceive what happens to be in the hands of fate, luck, or chance

19 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Humanistic Personality Theories Two humanistic theories –Abraham Maslow Found self-actualizers to be accurate in perceiving reality-able to judge honestly and to spot quickly the fake and the dishonest Self-actualization –Developing to one’s fullest potential –Carl Rogers Conditions of worth –Conditions on which the positive regard of others rests

20 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Humanistic Personality Theories Two humanistic theories (continued) –Carl Rogers Believes our parents set up conditions of worth For Rogers, a major goal of psychotherapy is to enable people to open themselves up to experiences and begin to live according to their own values rather than according to the values of others in order to gain positive regard Calls his therapy “person-centered therapy” Unconditional positive regard is designed to reduce threat, eliminate conditions of worth, and bring the person back to tune with his or her true self

21 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Humanistic Personality Theories Self-esteem –One source of variations in self-esteem arises from comparisons of actual to desired traits –Developmental psychologists have found that self- esteem is fairly stable from childhood through the late adult years –So, the self-worth beliefs we adopt in childhood can affect us for a lifetime

22 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation UNSTABLE STABLE choleric melancholic phlegmaticsanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active

23 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories Early trait theories –Gordon Allport Claimed that each person inherits a unique set of raw materials for given traits, which are then shaped by experiences –Raymond Cattell Referred to observable qualities of personality as surface traits Found certain clusters of surface traits that appeared together time after time Believed these were evidence of deeper, more general, underlying personality factors, which he called source traits

24 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories Early trait theories (continued) –Raymond Cattell Found 23 source traits in normal individuals, 16 of which he studied in great detail Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, commonly called the 16 PF, yields a personality profile Factor models of personality –Five-factor theory The most influential proponents of the five-factor theory are list in the following chart

25 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories

26 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories Factor models of personality (continued) –Costa and McCrae Developed the NEO Personality Inventory and, more recently, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory which are used to measure the Big Five dimensions of personality The NEO and other measures of the Big Five are currently being used in a wide variety of personality research studies

27 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories The situation versus trait debate –Walter Mischel Initiated the situation-trait debate, an on-going discussion among psychologists about the relative importance of factors within the situation and factors within the person that account for behavior Later modified his original position and admitted that behavior is influenced by both the person and the situation Views a trait as a conditional probability that a particular action will occur in response to a particular situation

28 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Trait Theories The situation versus trait debate (continued) –McCrae and Costa Studied personality traits of subjects over time and found them to be stable for periods of 3 to 30 years

29 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Nature, Nurture, and Personality Twin and adoption studies –Tellegen and others Found that identical twins are also quite similar on several personality factors, regardless of whether they are raised together or apart –Rushton and colleagues Found that nurturance, empathy, and assertiveness are substantially influenced by heredity –Miles and Carey Revealed that he habitability of aggressiveness may be as high as.50

30 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Nature, Nurture, and Personality Twin and adoption studies (continued) –Loehlin and others Assessed the personalities of 17-year-olds who had been adopted at birth When the adopted children were compared to other children in the family, the researchers found that the shared family environment had virtually no influence on their personalities –Loehlin and colleagues Measured change in personality of adoptees over a 10- year period and found that children tended “to change on the average in the direction of their genetic parents’ personalities”

31 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Nature, Nurture, and Personality Neurotransmitters and personality –Researchers hypothesize that genes contribute to personality through their influence on the brain’s neurotransmitter production, transport, and reuptake systems –Researchers propose that people who are emotionally unstable possess a serotonin system that is unusually sensitive to dangers and threats –Several DNA studies have shown direct links between the characteristics of individuals’ serotonin- controlling genes and emotional stability

32 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Nature, Nurture, and Personality The shared and nonshared environment –Shared environment Consists of those environmental influences that tend to make family members similar –Nonshared environment Consists of influences that operate in different ways among children in the same family

33 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Nature, Nurture, and Personality Personality and culture –Hofstede Analyzed questionnaire responses measuring the work- related values of more than 100,000 IBM employees in 53 countries around the world Factor analysis revealed four separate dimensions related to culture and personality Rank-ordered the 53 countries on each of the four dimensions –Individualism/collectivism dimension The term used to signify a culture’s emphasis either on individuals or on social relationships

34 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Nature, Nurture, and Personality Personality and culture (continued) –The clearest shared cultural value is a strong identification with and attachment to the extended family –Another important value is simpatia, the desire for smooth and harmonious social relationships –Constantine Sedikides and her colleagues Have argued that the goal of all individuals, regardless of cultural context, is to enhance self-esteem

35 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Observation, interviews, and rating scales –Using an observational technique known as behavioral assessment, psychologists can count and record the frequency of particular behaviors –Interviewers consider not only a person’s answers to questions but the person’s tone of voice, speech, mannerisms, gestures, and general appearance as well –Interviewers often use a structured interview, in which the content of the questions and even the manner in which they are asked are carefully planned ahead of time

36 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Observation, interviews, and rating scales (continued) –Rating scales are useful because they provide a standardized format, including a list of traits or behaviors to evaluate –A problem in evaluation is the halo effect-the tendency of raters to be excessively influenced in their overall evaluation of a person by one or a few favorable or unfavorable traits

37 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Personality inventories –Inventory A paper-and-pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which can be scored according to a standard procedure –Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The most extensively researched and widely used personality test; used to screen and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders Published in 1943 by McKinley and Hathaway and originally intended to identify tendencies toward various types of psychiatric disorders Because the original MMPI had become outdated, the MMPI-2 was published in 1989

38 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Hysteria (uses symptoms to solve problems) Masculinity/femininity (interests like those of other sex) T-score Hypochondriasis (concern with body symptoms) Depression (pessimism, hopelessness) Psychopathic deviancy (disregard for social standards) Paranoia (delusions, suspiciousness) Psychasthenia (anxious, guilt feelings) Schizophrenia (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts) Hypomania (overactive, excited, impulsive) Social introversion (shy, inhibited) Clinically significant range After treatment (no scores in the clinically significant range Before treatment (anxious, depressed, and displaying deviant behaviors)

39 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Personality inventories (continued) –Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (continued) The MMPI-2 is reliable, easy to administer and score, and inexpensive to use Does not reveal differences among normal personalities very well –California Psychological Inventory (CPI) A highly regarded personality test used to assess the normal personality Is valuable for predicting behavior, and it has been “praised for its technical competency, careful development, cross- validation and follow-up, use of sizable samples and separate sex norms”

40 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Personality inventories (continued) –Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) An inventory for classifying personality types based on Jung’s theory of personality Projective tests –A personality test in which people respond to inkblots, drawing of ambiguous human situations, incomplete sentences, and the like, by projecting their own inner thoughts, feelings, fears, conflicts onto the test materials

41 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Projective tests (continued) –Rorschach Inkblot Method A projective test composed of 10 inkblots to which a test taker responds; used to reveal unconscious functioning and the presence of psychiatric disorders One of the oldest and most popular projective tests Developed by Hermann Rorchach Can be used to describe personality, make differential diagnoses, plan and evaluate treatment, and predict behavior

42 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Assessing the Unconscious- Rorschach What might this be?

43 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Personality Assessment Projective tests (continued) –Exner Developed the Comprehensive System-a more reliable system for scoring the Rorschach Provides some normative data so that the responses of a person taking the test can be compared to those of others with known personality characteristics –Thematic Apperception Test A projective test consisting of drawings of ambiguous human situations, which the test taker describes; through to reveal inner feeling, conflicts, and motives, which are projected onto the test materials Developed by Henry Murray and his colleagues in 1935

44 Copyright © 2007 Horizon Textgook Publishing All rights reserved Assessing the Unconscious- TAT Sample Thematic Apperception Test Card


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