Presentation on theme: "Europe Since WWII Unit 13– the Last one!!!!. The Allies WIN!!!!! Big three meet at Yalta– 1945– discuss free elections –Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill Potsdam."— Presentation transcript:
The Allies WIN!!!!! Big three meet at Yalta– 1945– discuss free elections –Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill Potsdam Conference– late 1945 Truman replaces Roosevelt. Stalin refuses free elections!! Churchill– “Iron Curtain” Truman Doctrine– Containment Marshall Plan– rebuild Europe– Stalin refuses aid!!!
NATO and WARSAW PACT Common Market--- European Economic Community (EEC) Schulman Plan– international control of coal and steel Comecon--- Soviet counterpart to Common Market
Post WWII---- Decolonization of Africa and Asia India—China---Israel---Egypt Kenya However—France = neocolonization Algeria– Pres Charles DeGaulle extends European domination in some part of Africa for economic dependency
4 th Republic France-1945-58 Democratic but politically unstable (27 governments) Universal suffrage Weak president- powerful legislature Many political parties (coalition governmts) failure to gracefully leave Indo-China Botched the Suez War Failed to settle Algerian Crisis
5 th Republic France-1958-present Powerful president-Charles De Gaulle Weak cabinet—weak legislature Separation of powers
DeGaulle’s achievements Settle Algerian Crisis Made France a nuclear power Sustained general prosperity Maintained stable democratic government Made France more politically independent BUT– late 60’s student unrest and social changes challenged him– Resigned 1968 and died of heart attack in 1970
Atlee and Labour Party:1945-51 Limited Socialist program (modern welfare state) National Insurance Act and Health Service Act Nationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation and aviation Social Insurance legislation: cradle to grave security
Atlee Socialized medicine- free national health care Britain is in big debt Beginning of the end of the Empire: India- 1947; Palestine- 1948; Kenya- Mau- Mau uprising 1955 Churchill returns- 1951-55 but never tries to destroy “welfare state” created by Atlee
Federated Republic of Germany Created I 1949- capital Bonn Army limited to 12 divisions (275,000) Konrad Adenauer- 1 st president a Christian Democrat Coalition of moderates and conservatives Pro-western foreign policy German economic miracle
Italy-- post WWII Gasperi- was prime minister from 1948- 1953 Coalition governments– short and unstable
Soviet Union & Eastern Block 1945 Stalin wins “Great Patriotic War” Reinstates Stalinism Cold War- exchanges enemy “Hitler” with capitalism Repress Soviet citizens outside country During WWII– 2 million to work camps
Stalin Paranoia Deepens Denounces artists and entertainers (including Sergei Eisenstein) Repress freedom of speech and creativity Savage attack on Soviet Jews
Export Stalinism To Eastern Block countries-- one party rule, totalitarianism, puppet governments Only Yugoslavia under Tito resists Soviet economic exploitation Stalin purges dissident members of the “Communist Party” to get rid of “Tito” like members
STALIN DIES 1953!!! Reformers – look for innovations in Soviet Union DESTALINAIZATION– movement in Soviet Union to distant from Stalin oppressive policies in many areas. Meanwhile– “Politburo politics” Who would succeed Stalin????
Nikita Kruschev Emerged as leader in 1955 Manintain monopoly on political power but shook it up with “new blood” Economic policy changed to respond to need of people (more consumer goods) Relaxed control over workers Authors- Pasternak-Dr. Zhivago Solzhenitsen- Day in the Life of Ivan Denisonvich
Foreign Policy-Peaceful Coexistence Effort toward “super powers” and pressure on 3 rd world Destalinization gave hope to Eastern Bloc Anti- soviet uprisings in 1956– Poland and Hungary (Pres Nagy)– Soviets quickly put down!!!
Reasons for Kruschev Failure Foreign policy problems- U2, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Communist China Angered Stalin supporters( most in Central Committee) Forced to resign in 1964 (only Soviet leader who did not die in office)
Breshnev and Kosygin- 1964 Breshnev- head of Communist Party( this is where the power really exists) Kosygin- President Politburo(was normally jointly given to head of Party) – K will be forced out by 1968 and B will hold both titles. Re-stalinization– heavy industry, arms build up, strong show to the west and commitment to peaceful coexistence.
Social History- Post WWII “Big Science”- nuclear, DNA Sputnik, space exploration, physics 1942- Oppenheimer- Los Alamos- atomic bomb (Rutherford split the atom in 1919) CERN- European Council of Nuclear Research– trying to stop the “brain drain” to USA in 50’s and 60’s
Europe Pools Science resources Joint projects-- France and England the Concorde 1970’s - and the Chunnel- 1990’s
Class struggle– Class mobility Middle class loses its propertied advantage- included more professions, less self- employed– more middle management Movement toward Socialism Adopted social programs after US (EX. social security & workman’s Comp) Results in rise of Affluence Gadget revolution-consumerism
Women and the Family Women became more equal and independent; less confined & stereotyped Married earlier– children quickly “Baby Boom” 1945-1964 Birthrate declines by 1968 ---2.5, not 3.0. Women’s movement of the 1960 differs from women’s movement of early 1900’s= political versus economic
Why smaller family size??? Birth control Education Work-career-independence Expense Small families meant emancipation Rising women’s employment directly related to declining birthrate
Divorce Rate Rises Women educated– can leave and support themselves Interfered with career Reflected change in “defined” role of both genders Early marriage- raise children– move on– (remarriages increase) Divorce rate/1980-US-1 in 4;Sweden-1 in2