Presentation on theme: "The Asian Broad Bans: Laws affecting freedom of expression on the Internet."— Presentation transcript:
The Asian Broad Bans: Laws affecting freedom of expression on the Internet
BURMA Computer Science Development Law 1996 Web Regulation 2000 l Emergency Provision Act 1950 l Official Secrets Act 1923 l State Protection Law 1975
CHINA Complex series of laws and regulations that control the access to and publication of material online. Over 60 online writers have been detained. Most of them were imprisoned and charged under the Criminal Code. pornography on the Internet (State Council Order No.195, 1 February 1996) Other laws: Law on Protection of State Secret
INDIA and PAKISTAN l India IT Act (2000) regulates e-commerce, hacking, privacy Yahoo website was blocked for promoting sedition. l Pakistan censors “anti-Islamic” and “blasphemous” websites. In March 2006, Supreme Court directed government to block internet sites displaying sacrilegious cartoons. Laws that can be used: Penal Code, Maintenance of Public Order ordinance, Anti-terrorism law
MALAYSIA l Communications and Multimedia Act l Penal Code/Blasphemy l Internal Security Act l Official Secrets Act l Sedition Act l Defamation Act l College and University Act
SINGAPORE Singapore's Internet content regulation depends primarily on access controls (such as requiring political sites to register for a license) and legal pressures (such as defamation lawsuits and the threat of imprisonment) Telecommunication Act Bloggers registration with theMedia Development Authority (MDA) if they want to openly and regularly defend a political line. During election: no online discussion about politics at all. Other laws: Official Secrets Act, Sedition Act, Internal Security Act
VIETNAM Internet Law web content is extensively censored and is monitored 7 cyber-dissidents are in prison; most accused of spying and sentenced to up to 12 years in prison. Criminal Code: spying (Article 80), propaganda against the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Article 88); illegally using information in computer networks (Article 226) Various decrees and directives
Other Asian Countries l Bangladesh: Official Secrets Act, Special Power Act, Defamation l Cambodia: UNTAC Penal Code, draft Penal Code (defamation and insult) l East Timor: draft Penal Code (criminal defamation) l Japan: Public Offices Election Law l Indonesia: criminal and civil defamation laws; Anti- terrorism law; draft Antipornography and pornaction
Other Asian Countries l Nepal: revised TADO l Philippines: draft Anti-Terrorism bill, Penal Code (incitement to rebellion or insurrectiondefamation) l South Korea: law on viewing and distributing materials on the Internet, National Security Law l Sri Lanka: contempt of court l Thailand: Defamation laws in Criminal and Civil Codes.
Conclusion l Bloggers and on-line media are vulnerable to legal prosecution. l Defamation, sedition, OSA, ISA, anti-terrorism laws can be used to repress on-line FOE.
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