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M1.1 IAT 106 Spatial Thinking and Communicating Spring 2015.

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1 M1.1 IAT 106 Spatial Thinking and Communicating Spring 2015

2 M1.2 IAT 106 Course Team IAT 106 Spatial Thinking and Communicating —the best and most fun course you'll take— Instructor: Rob Woodbury Teaching Assistants: Naghmi Shireen, Mahsoo Salimi

3 M1.3 IAT 106 The SPATIAL THINKING Team Rob Woodbury Mahsoo Salimi Naghmi Shireen

4 M1.4 IAT 106 Acknowledgment Many people have made this course. InstructorsProf. John Dill, Prof. Halil Erhan, Prof. Mike Sjoerdsma, Prof. Ben Youssef, Prof. Rob Woodbury, SIAT # Learning DesignerBarb Berry, Course CoordinatorProf. Janet McCracken, While the course has evolved and been tuned each offering since its initial design, the essence remains. We had great fun in putting it together and in growing it, and hope you will enjoy the result. And have fun doing denotes initial team member # denotes continuing team member

5 M1.5 IAT 106 Course Objectives An introduction to: –Spatial thinking –Graphical representation –Communicating Graphically You will learn how to: –think and work in the world of 3D –sketch real-world 3D objects –build digital models using modern 3D modeling tools –turn sketches and computer-aided design models into real physical objects [course projects].

6 M1.6 IAT 106 Course Outline by Week – this may change Week 1:Part I: The Nature of Spatial Thinking Part II: Space, Objects, and Operations Week 2:Sketching and Dimensioning Week 3:Projections 1:intro to ortho proj; simple multi-view, pictorial (parallel) projections (intro to axonometric, isometric projections) Week 4:Missing view and missing line problems: using projections and isometric sketches; intro to SolidWorks Week 5:Isometric methods; perspective; model making. Modeling with SolidWorks Week 6Auxiliary Views & Cross-sections, Assemblies in SolidWorks; degrees of freedom Week 7:Representing Ideas with Sketches Week 8:Midterm Exam Week 9:3-D Solid Modelling - Creating Parts in SolidWorks Week 10:Solid works assemblies; constraints and mates. Week 11:Creating Physical models: materials and fabrication Week 12:Making an effective poster; industrial design examples; Week 13:Final Presentations and Course Wrap up F I N A L E X A M

7 M1.7 IAT 106 Course Schedule Lectures: Presentation and discussions Tuesdays: 10:30am– 12:20pm Labs: Hands-on learning, quizzes, TA feedback –Mondays 12:30-3:20Labs D105 (3130), D106 (3140) –Mondays 3:30-6:20Labs D107 (3130), D108 (3140) Office Hours: –Rob Tuesday –Naghmi – 430 Tuesday –Mahsoo 330 – 430 Tuesday –Check Canvas & with your instructor and TA NB: Course Week: Tuesday to following Monday NB: if you miss a lecture, you will be less able to do the lab.

8 M1.8 IAT 106 Assessment* Lab assignments and homework 23% Project 16% Project 26% Midterm exam20% SolidWorks quiz5% Final project with poster 15% Final exam 25% TOTAL100% * any changes will be minor & announced in advance

9 M1.9 IAT 106 Assessment Individual work earns 78% of the marks. Group work counts for 22%. These proportions may change slightly. NB: To pass, students must obtain at least 50% on combined Midterm & Final Exams. NB: Midterm Exam includes portion on use of 3D modeling system, SolidWorks.

10 M1.10 IAT 106 Logistics (1/5) Website: Lecture and Lab Material – –Login using your sfu id and password. Please verify this TODAY! General course info: Canvas Assignments: submit through Canvas (digital) or with TA (paper) General announcements – , or in Canvas’ “Announcements” –Check your often!

11 M1.11 IAT 106 Logistics (2/5) We use Canvas to manage course assignments. To Access Canvas: Look for “sign-in” drop-down menu on SFU home page You should be able to sign in using your assigned SFU user id and password. Please verify this TODAY! If you have a problem, see a TA or check with the SIAT office. Lecture slides & lab material are (or soon will be!) on the course website:

12 M1.12 IAT 106 Logistics (3/5) Text: Bertoline, G. & Wiebe, E. (2010), 6 th Ed., Fundamentals of Graphics Communication, McGraw Hill (special limited edition for this course) –Paper copy: at bookstore –E-copy of limited edition for $45.70 USD. –E-copy: available of full edition for about $90 US. Gives limited term access (e.g. 90 days).

13 M1.13 IAT 106 Logistics (4/5) Classroom etiquette described in the course syllabus: –…refrain from disruptive behavior such as holding side conversations and using laptops to surf the web or check e- mail. However, see next slide on SolidWorks. –Use of cellular phones, iPods, and PDAs is not permitted during lecture and lab. –Turn off your cell phone prior to start of each lecture and lab.

14 M1.14 IAT 106 Logistics (5/5) Bring to every class and lab: –Pencils and an eraser –A pen –Both plain and sketching paper Tools to acquire (needed for project labs): –X-acto knife or equivalent; Steel-backed ruler; compass; scissors; For sketching paper (we’ll show you where to get this): –Grid paper: starting from Week 3 –Isometric paper: starting from Week 4 Be prepared!

15 M1.15 IAT 106 SolidWorks An important part of this course is learning a powerful 3D modeling tool: SolidWorks. Many assignments & projects require using SolidWorks. Other courses you may take in later years also use SolidWorks. Where do you find the software? SIAT-supplied software on all Lab Computers Buy your own 12-month license ($150 US) Limited # (~20) free licenses (to 31 Dec 2015) –Your computer must meet SolidWorks’ system requirements: –If interested, me ASAP:

16 M1.16 IAT 106 Projects in IAT We use projects, large and small, to Provide examples of spatial thinking and to let you apply what you're learning in ways besides the usual homework exercises and To illustrate the power of using different kinds of “representations” to help us think spatially and to communicate our ideas As you’ll see, the projects will involve –Drawings/sketches –Digital representations –Physical representations

17 M1.17 IAT 106 Projects in IAT So … what are these “projects”? 1.LDD/Gimbal … to get started –Here you use digital and physical “representations” or models 2.A simple “polyhedron” –Then a more complex version, 2 polyhedrons, articulated –You’ll use sketches, SolidWorks (digital) and physical models 3.A linkage mechanism –Sketches, digital (SolidWorks and a simulation) and physical 4.Final project, an “Automated Mechanical Toy (AMT)” –Several sets/versions of sketches, a complete SolidWorks model and the actual physical model How do all these relate to one another … ??

18 M1.18 IAT 106 IAT 106 Spatial Thinking and Communicating Fall 2012 Part I: Nature of Spatial Thinking

19 M1.19 IAT 106 Objectives Describe spatial thinking and differentiate it from other modes of thinking Describe the importance of spatial thinking and communication in everyday life Appreciate the role of representations in spatial thinking Do a lot of spatial thinking. This is the fun part!

20 M1.20 IAT 106 For What Jobs is Spatial Thinking Needed? Jobs in Entertainment, eg Animation, Games, … Jobs in Design (Industrial, Engineering, Architecture) Jobs in Business Jobs in Science (Physics, Medicine, Biology, Engineering) Jobs in Medicine... Q: Doesn’t that seem like most all jobs? A: How very observant!

21 M1.21 IAT 106 Entertainment Movies Video Games Toys Tetris Lego (00:30) (00:18) Tetris --

22 M1.22 IAT 106 Entertainment: Halo 3 (3:13)

23 M1.23 IAT 106 Science Space DNA Human Body Challenger Case Sun-Earth-Moon DNA (00:07) (1:07) Earth-sun-moon clip Dna clip

24 M1.24 IAT 106 Science: Human Body Synovial joints (2:00)

25 M1.25 IAT 106 Sport Americas Cup –“Foiling” changes everything (3:18)

26 M1.26 IAT 106 Sport The skier’s perspective changes everything (0:21)

27 M1.27 IAT 106 Design: Antikythera Mechanism (100 – 150 BC) link to IEEE article

28 M1.28 IAT 106 Design: Antikythera Mechanism (3:13)

29 M1.29 IAT 106 Design: Architecture Design: Aviation Museum, Roham Sheikholeslami

30 M1.30 IAT 106 Design: Architecture Design: Beijing Airport, Foster + Partners

31 M1.31 IAT 106 Design: Architecture Design: Beijing Airport, Foster + Partners

32 M1.32 IAT 106 Design: Architecture Design: Beijing Airport, Foster + Partners

33 M1.33 IAT 106 Design: Engineering Design: Deutz High Performance Engine Build it …Then run it … (1:39)(1:21) Build EngineRun Engine

34 M1.34 IAT 106 Information: Geography and Spatial Information

35 M1.35 IAT 106 Other Modes of Thinking Beside Spatial Verbal, logical, mathematical, statistical… They can be distinguished in terms of their representational and reasoning system: –Verbal -> using linguistic symbols –Mathematical -> symbols or reasoning system (e.g., logic, algebra, calculus, set theory).

36 M1.36 IAT 106 Other Modes of Thinking Beside Spatial Verbal, logical, mathematical, statistical…

37 M1.37 IAT 106 A curve traced by a point that moves so that its distance from a given point is constant. vs. X 2 + y 2 = r 2. Mathematics language Verbal language Spatial language Other Modes of Thinking Beside Spatial

38 M1.38 IAT 106 Spatial thinking as a universal mode of thinking Accessible to everyone to different degrees in different contexts As a means of problem solving Three important elements of spatial thinking: concepts of space tools of representation processes of reasoning

39 M1.39 IAT 106 Spatial thinking entails knowing about Space: –relationships among units of measurement, different ways of calculating distance, the basis of coordinate systems, the nature of spaces –structuring problems, exploring solution alternatives, finding answers, expressing solutions. –Objects and Relationships Objects and … Assemblies: collections of objects and relationships Representation: –relationships among views (plan vs elev), projections (mercator vs equal area) –describe, explain, and communicate the structure, operation, and function of those objects and their relationships Reasoning –Answer questions about the operations of assemblies.

40 M1.40 IAT 106 Functions of Spatial Thinking Spatial thinking serves three purposes: 1.Describing –capturing, preserving, and conveying the properties of and relations among objects 2.Analysing –understanding the structure and behaviour of objects 3.Inferring intent –generating answers to questions about the design and function of objects

41 M1.41 IAT 106 IAT 106 Spatial Thinking and Communicating Fall 2012 Part II: Objects, Space and Operations

42 M1.42 IAT 106 Design a bridge For pedestrians Across a canyon Joining narrow paths on either side Paths are 10m above the river 20m N

43 M1.43 IAT 106 How did you work? What words did you use? What drawings did you make? What are the parts of your bridge? What measurements did you use? How many options did you make? How did your bridge change as you worked?

44 M1.44 IAT 106 The elements of spatial thinking : –Objects structure the domain –Space relates objects –Operations change and move objects and space

45 M1.45 IAT — Objects Objects are things we work with. For each domain there are different kinds of objects: –Bridges: pier, span, truss, arch, stay,… –Biology: gene, cell, protein, biota,… –Sociology: neighborhood, stereotype, organization,… –Astronomy: star, planet, gravity,… –Business: invoice, statement, organization, staff,… Objects have names. Objects relate to other objects.

46 M1.46 IAT — Space Allows us to capture the fundamental spatial properties of objects –One common concept of space is based on dimensionality and uses a dimensional system –By limiting ourselves to objects in three- space for the moment, we can think about objects as instances of a point, a line, an planar "area", or a "volume"

47 M1.47 IAT — Space Derive a series of spatial concepts from the location properties of sets of objects. We can specify distance, angle, and direction (relative to a given frame of reference), sequence and order, connection and linkage. We can understand the structural properties of sets of objects in terms of boundaries, density, dispersion, shape, pattern, region, volume…

48 M1.48 IAT — Operations Operations allow us to change and move objects in a space –transform (e.g., translate, rotate, scale, shear) sets of objects within the space –change the spatial scale at which we operate (by zooming in or out) –change the units of dimensions (yd m) –change the dimensionality of the space (collapsing from three to two dimensions-i.e. projections)

49 M1.49 IAT 106 Summarizing The Process of Spatial Thinking Define your basic objects (primitives) Define space: measures, concepts,… Develop operations based on spatial concepts to change and move space and objects Let’s apply the process to a Gimbal example

50 M1.50 IAT 106 Gimbal Example Objects: Pivot, Ring, Base, Support –Pivot: a support that enables an object attached to rotate about an axis –Ring: A circular structure that is supported by one or two pivots to either another ring or to the base. Space: –Inner rings are smaller than the outer ring supporting them. –Rotations occur about axes in space. –The base sits on the XY plane. –Each object has a local coordinate system. Operations change and move space and objects –If the outer ring rotates about X-axis, the inner ring rotates with it; and if the inner ring rotates about its Y-axis, the object on the inner ring can be rotated about X and Y axes simultaneously. Two-Gimbal Mechanism

51 M1.51 IAT 106 Another Example GUITAR MAKING

52 M1.52 IAT 106 Creating a virtual guitar in SecondLife: Suzanne Vega’s Guitar by Robbie Dingo (3:05)

53 M1.53 IAT 106 Building a real Yamaha guitar (3:02)

54 M1.54 IAT 106 Discussion How does the video clip of the virtual guitar express the objects and their relationships in virtual environment? How does Yamaha’s guitar (real) compare to Susan Vega’s guitar (virtual): differences and similarities in concepts, process, techniques, operations? How is the ‘space’ defined in both examples?

55 M1.55 IAT 106 Visualization of a Guitar and its Parts Objects, Language, Concepts, Operations? Spatial Context: Life, Physical, Intellectual?

56 M1.56 IAT 106 Space? Space: both abstract structure and tool for relating objects Space as an abstract term (see ) Space relates objects

57 M1.57 IAT 106 Space? Space relates objects

58 M1.58 IAT 106 Space in different contexts Mathematics: –An abstract conceptual framework within which we compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds. Physics: –a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move. –the standard space interval is called a meter: the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in about 1/ second. Architecture: –A volume defined by objects; when associated with a function, becomes a "place".

59 M1.59 IAT 106 Properties of Space …compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds number of dimensions for a space can be zero (a point), one (a line), two (a plane), more than three, finite or infinite… In our course, we study: –2D and 3D spaces, and sometimes with temporal (time) dimensions Space and objects as reference frames: contains, borders, divides

60 M1.60 IAT 106 Representation of Space Cartesian coordinate system: –Defined by X, Y, and Z axes, –the position of any point in three-dimensional space is given by means of three coordinates: x, y, z If any two axes are taken, they form 2D space, or a plane

61 M1.61 IAT 106 Representation of Space Cylindrical coordinate system: –Defined by polar and longitudinal axes, –the position of any point in three-dimensional space is given by means of three coordinates: r or ρ – radial distance Φ or φ – angular coordinate z – height Used in engineering analysis and in local navigation.

62 M1.62 IAT 106 Representation of Space Spherical coordinate system: –Defined by zenith and reference directions, –the position of any point in three-dimensional space is given by means of three coordinates: r or ρ – radial distance θ – polar angle Φ or φ – azimuth angle Used in celestial navigation, mathematics and physics.

63 M1.63 IAT 106 Objects in Space Location: –Absolute position in a coordinate system –Relative position with respect to another object existing in the same space –Tentative position, near, on top, south-west, behind. Distance: –To origin (of the base coordinate system) –To other object: in terms of coordinate system units, e.g. 100 meter, three block, four flours up Size: –Measured by coordinate system units –Measured by comparing another object, e.g. 1.5x bigger Shape (geometry): primitive (square, circle, triangle…) or complex (curvilinear, composite, nurbs …) Direction and orientation

64 M1.64 IAT 106 General Operations: move and rotate move and rotate, attach, detach, carve, cut… Move  Rotate 

65 M1.65 IAT 106 General Operations: attach and detach Attach  Detach 

66 M1.66 IAT 106 General Operations: cut and carve Cut  Carve 

67 M1.67 IAT 106 Discussion Did you see any other operations in: -the guitar making videos? -The gimbal? Look for Objects, Space and Operations.

68 M1.68 IAT 106 Understanding Complex Objects Objects made up of other objects: Assemblies

69 M1.69 IAT 106 Composing vs. Decomposing Problem-solving strategy: Divide-and-conquer strategy –Divide object into less complex sub-objects –Study relationship between them –Define the assembly rules –Use representations!

70 M1.70 IAT 106 Art and Engineering Spatial thinking crosses disciplines Objects … spatial relationships … assemblies…motion… Theo Jansen--engineering blends into art: Let’s decompose it … look at a “simple” sub-assembly of a single (wooden) Theo Jansen Linkage: A more pure (Kinetic) art eg:

71 M1.71 IAT 106 Assemblies Exploded view of Honda F1 car

72 M1.72 IAT 106 Assemblies: Animation Engine disassembly (in SolidEdge) YouTube online Link: LEGO disassembly YouTube online Link: (1:15)(1:04)

73 M1.73 IAT 106 Real Life Assembly Real engine disassembly (with wrenches and grease) YouTube online Link: (5:28)

74 M1.74 IAT 106 Canvas: Course Management System We use Canvas to manage course assignments. To Access Canvas: Click “LogIn” and look for your course (here, IAT106) We use a website for all course material To access lecture slides and lab material: Go to schedule and look for appropriate week Material will be published in time for each week

75 M1.75 IAT 106 Preparatory Lab Assignment: Work individually Download Lego Digital Designer (or use it in a lab—it is in 3130 and 3140 at least, and may be in other labs). Build a simple LDD model for one of the following objects: –Windmill –Watermill –Pinwheels Save your file as follows: –.lxf –E.g: JohnDill.lxf Submit the file to Canvas Lab Page under Lab 1 Preparatory

76 M1.76 IAT 106 Optional Readings for the curious “The Nature of Spatial Thinking” –Source: Learning to Think Spatially, National Research Council, The National Academies Press, 2006, pp "Using Computation to Decode the First Known Computer" –Source: Computer 44.7 (2011): Q: Where to find them? A: On the course website. –Go to Week 2 inside “Course Schedule” link.

77 M1.77 IAT 106 This applies to all writing in this course. We expect you to write to the best of your ability. We expect you use correct grammar, spelling and punctuation. We expect you to be concise, that is, to use fewer words rather than more. Poor writing will result in your work being given a zero mark, irrespective of its content. N.B. On Writing

78 M1.78 IAT 106 This applies to all work in this course. We expect you to understand what constitutes plagiarism. We expect that you will never plagiarize. There is a plagiarism tutorial in Canvas (click on Modules in the left menu). Plagiarism will result in application of SFU plagiarism rules. These are tough. DON'T PLAGIARIZE! N.B. On Plagiarism

79 M1.79 IAT 106 Lab 1: Example from a previous year

80 M1.80 IAT 106 References (Part I) Flight Pattern: Celestial Mechanics: Lego Commercial: Tetris: Halo3: DNA Animation: America’s Cup: Aerial Skiing: Antikythera Mechanism: Internet BackBone: Internet traffic: Deutz Engine Build: Deutz Engine Running:

81 M1.81 IAT 106 References (Part II) Suzanne’s Guitar: Yamaha guitar: Acoustic Guitar Part Names: Classical Guitar Picture and part names: Guitar Internal Parts: More Guitar Part Names: Guitar-exploded-view: Toiletseat: Finger Joint (for materials): Computer Exploded View:,_exploded_5.svg,_exploded_5.svg Jet Engine NASA: Engine Disassembly: LEGO Disassembly: Real Engine Disassembly:

82 M1.82 IAT 106 End of Lecture

83 M1.83 IAT 106 Appendix Details of modeling Vega’s Guitar 7 slides

84 M1.84 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - I

85 M1.85 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - II

86 M1.86 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - III

87 M1.87 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - IV

88 M1.88 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - V

89 M1.89 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - VI

90 M1.90 IAT 106 Vega’s Guitar: Details - VII

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