2 Polar Bonds and Molecules 8.4Snow covers approximately 23 percent of Earth’s surface. Each individual snowflake is formed from as many as 100 snow crystals. The polar bonds in water molecules influence the distinctive geometry of snowflakes.
3 8.4Bond PolarityBond PolarityHow do electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar bond?
4 8.4Bond PolarityWhen the atoms in a bond pull equally (as occurs when identical atoms are bonded), the bonding electrons are shared equally, and the bond is a nonpolar covalent bond.
5 8.4Bond PolarityThe bonding pairs of electrons in covalent bonds are pulled by the nuclei.The nuclei of atoms pull on the shared electrons, much as the knot in the rope is pulled toward opposing sides in a tug-of-war.
6 8.4Bond PolarityThe chlorine atom attracts the electron cloud more than the hydrogen atom does.This electron-cloud picture of hydrogen chloride shows that the chlorine atom attracts the electron cloud more than the hydrogen atom does. Inferring Which atom is more electronegative, a chlorine atom or a hydrogen atom?
7 8.4Bond PolarityA polar covalent bond, known also as a polar bond, is a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally.The more electronegative atom attracts electrons more strongly and gains a slightly negative charge. The less electronegative atom has a slightly positive charge.
9 8.4Polar MoleculesPolar MoleculesWhat happens to polar molecules between a pair of oppositely charged metal plates?
10 A molecule that has two poles is called a dipolar molecule, or dipole. 8.4Polar MoleculesIn a polar molecule, one end of the molecule is slightly negative and the other end is slightly positive.A molecule that has two poles is called a dipolar molecule, or dipole.
11 8.4Polar MoleculesWhen polar molecules are placed between oppositely charged plates, they tend to become oriented with respect to the positive and negative plates.
12 A hydrogen chloride molecule is a dipole. 8.4Polar MoleculesA hydrogen chloride molecule is a dipole.When polar molecules, such as HCl, are placed in an electric field, the slightly negative ends of the molecules become oriented toward the positively charged plate and the slightly positive ends of the molecules become oriented toward the negatively charged plate. Predicting What would happen if, instead, carbon dioxide molecules were placed between the plates? Why?
13 Polar MoleculesAnimation 10 Learn to distinguish between polar and nonpolar molecules.
14 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesAttractions Between MoleculesHow do intermolecular attractions compare with ionic and covalent bonds?
15 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesIntermolecular attractions are weaker than either ionic or covalent bonds.These attractions are responsible for determining whether a molecular compound is a gas, a liquid, or a solid at a given temperature.
16 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesVan der Waals ForcesThe two weakest attractions between molecules are collectively called van der Waals forces, named after the Dutch chemist Johannes van der Waals (1837–1923).
17 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesDipole interactions occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another.Polar molecules are attracted to one another by dipole interactions, a type of van der Waals force.
18 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesDispersion forces, the weakest of all molecular interactions, are caused by the motion of electrons.The strength of dispersion forces generally increases as the number of electrons in a molecule increases.
19 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesHydrogen BondsHydrogen bonds are attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom.
20 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesHydrogen Bonding in WaterThe strong hydrogen bonding between water molecules accounts for many properties of water, such as the fact that water is a liquid rather than a gas at room temperature.
21 Attractions Between Molecules 8.4Attractions Between MoleculesThe relatively strong attractive forces between water molecules cause the water to form small drops on a waxy surface.The strong attractions between water molecules cause the water to pull together into small drops rather than spread over the surface of the flower.
22 Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties 8.4Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular PropertiesIntermolecular Attractions and Molecular PropertiesWhy do network solids have high melting points?
23 Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties 8.4Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular PropertiesNetwork solids (or network crystals) are solids in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other.Network solids consist of molecules that do not melt until the temperature reaches 1000°C or higher, or they decompose without melting at all.
24 Intermolecular Properties and Molecular Properties 8.4Intermolecular Properties and Molecular PropertiesMelting a network solid would require breaking covalent bonds throughout the solid.
25 Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties 8.4Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular PropertiesDiamond is an example of a network solid. Diamond does not melt. It vaporizes to a gas at 3500°C or above.Diamond is a network-solid form of carbon. Diamond has a three-dimensional structure, with each carbon at the center of a tetrahedron.
26 Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties 8.4Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular PropertiesSilicon Carbide is a network solid. It has a melting point of about 2700°C.Silicon carbide, a network solid, is so hard that it is used in this grindstone to wear down the end of a hardened steel cutting tool to form a sharp edge.
27 Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties Simulation 8 Relate melting and boiling points to the strength of intermolecular forces.
28 Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties 8.4Intermolecular Attractions and Molecular Properties
30 8.4 Section Quiz.1. In a molecule, the atom with the largest electronegativity valuerepels electrons more strongly and aquires a slightly negative charge.repels electrons more strongly and aquires a slightly positive charge.attracts electrons more strongly and aquires a slightly positive charge.attracts electrons more strongly and aquires a slightly negative charge.
31 molecules stick to the positive plates. 8.4 Section Quiz.2. When polar molecules are placed between oppositely charged plates, the negativemolecules stick to the positive plates.molecules stick to the negative plates.ends of the molecules turn toward the positive plates.ends of the molecules turn toward the negative plates.
32 8.4 Section Quiz. ionic bond Van der Waals force covalent bond 3. Which of the following bond types is the weakest?ionic bondVan der Waals forcecovalent bondhydrogen bond
33 Chem ASAPConcept Map 8 Solve the Concept Map with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.