Presentation on theme: "Sweet Sorghum Improvement and Production in Brazil"— Presentation transcript:
1Sweet Sorghum Improvement and Production in Brazil Consultation on Pro-poor Sweet Sorghum Development for Bio-ethanol - IFADNovember 8-9, 2007Robert E. SchaffertEmbrapa Milho e Sorgo
2In the late 1970´s Brazil initiated a bio-energy program (Pro-Alcohol) anticipating an energy crises caused be a shortage of petroleum to meet Brazil's fuel needs.There was a strong incentive to develop technology for micro-distilleries (100L hr-1) and mini-distilleries (1000L hr-1)Embrapa´s sweet sorghum program was developed to provide raw material for these distilleries.Pilot Projects were successfully developed in the mid-1980’s at Sete Lagoas, Brasilia, and Pelotas to process sweet sorghum in micro-distilleries.
3(Embrapa Maize and Sorghum) The potential uses of sweet sorghum for food, fiber, fertilizer, ethanol, and methane gas production(Embrapa Maize and Sorghum)xxxxSilage
4Advantages of Using Sweet Sorghum vs. Sugarcane Sweet sorghum may be harvested 3 – 4 monthsafter plantingSweet sorghum production can be completelymechanizedThe sweet sorghum crop can be establishedfrom seedThe grain from sweet sorghum can be used asfood, feed or fuelThe bagasse from sweet sorghum has a higherbiological value than the bagasse fromsugarcane when used as a forage for animalsSweet sorghum is more water use efficient
5Integrated Rural Energy System Developed at SweetSorghumSugarcaneMicro-distillaryOther usesIntegrated Rural Energy System Developed atEmbrapa Maize and Sorghum 1980Integrated rural energy system developed at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum 1980xxxxxxxx
6Development of Sweet Sorghum Cultivars Breeding priorities depend upon how the product will be usedPanicles removed for food or feedSmall vs. large paniclesJuice is extracted from stalks and leavesNot feasible to separate leaves and stalksJuice fermented in micro- and mini-distilleriesJuice extraction less efficient in smallerdistilleriesBagasse used for forage or fuelStarch present in sorghum juice and stalkBiological value of sweet sorghum bagasse isgreater for sweet sorghum than for sugarcaneTillering vs. Non-tillering to control stalk diameter
7A Simple Flow Diagram of a Roller Mill Micro-distillery; Used in Establishing Breeding Priorities at Embrapa Maize and SorghumXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxA - roller mill, B - boiler, C - yeast treatment and distribution tank, D - juice distribution tanks, E - fermentation tanks, F – beer holding tank, and G - distillation column (Embrapa Maize and Sorghum)
8Industrial Planning J F M A M J J A S O N D Sweet SorghumPlantingHarvestingSugarcanePlanting and harvesting periods for sweet sorghum and sugarcane in Brazil. (Embrapa Maize and Sorghum)J F M A M J J A S O N DRatoon HarvestIrrigation Required
9Yield and Quality Goals must be Established Minimum Total Sugar Extraction – 80 kg 1t-1 biomassConsidering 60-65% Extraction EfficiencyMinimum Biomass Yield tha-1Minimum Alcohol Yield – 40L t-1 biomassConsidering:60 -65% sugar extraction efficiency90% Fermentation Efficiency90% Distillation Efficiency or 81% Industrial EfficiencyMinimum Total Sugar Content in Juice – 12.5%Establish minimum parameters for determining Period ofIndustrial Utilization (PIU - 80 kg 1t-1 biomass)Minimum PIU – 30 days
10Total Biomass Production of Two New Sweet Sorghum Varieties Developed at Embrapa for Micro-distilleries*
11Sweet Sorghum Nomenclature Average values of brix, total invert sugars, juice extraction, and fiber of selected sweet sorghum varieties grown at Araras, São Paulo, Brazil in 1981.VarietyBrixTotal invert sugars(% juice)Extraction(% sorghum stalks)Fiber(% sorghum stalk)Brandes16.714.763.212.5Honey13.011.173.011.6Sart12.469.814.8Rio16.414.257.616.1MN 150011.461.118.5MN 104814.113.456.522.0MN 103015.210.047.625.8MN 400810.610.574.912.0Williams13.570.510.1MN 4080-----45.726.6Wray19.316.867.5Theis71.5Redlan7.467.013.6Tx62310.87.064.0Source: Schaffert and Borgonovi (1980)Sweet sorghum variety names that begin with the letter or sound or R are high sucrose types and variety names that begin with other letters are low sucrose types. Redlan and Tx623 are non-sweet juicy stem female lines.
12Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x RIOPIU – 32 daysXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXXXThe interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total reduced sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of sorghum stalks during the maturity phase for the varieties Rio and Wray grown in Brazil,(Embrapa Maize and Sorghum)xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxWRAYPIU – 58daysXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxZzzz
13xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Sugar extracted ( Kg 100 Kg biomass)-1Percent water in the biomassPercent fiber of fresh biomassxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxTotal Sugars (%)XxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxBrix, Total Sugars, Fiber and Percent Water of four sweet sorghum cultivars at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, Brazil, 1986/87.BR 501 = Brandes, BR 505 = Wray, BR506 and BR507 are new derived varietiesTotal sugars (% juice)Brix (% juice))BR 505
14Period for Industrial Utilization Wray 9% Total sugarsWray 8% Total sugarsxxxxWray PUI 32 daysWray PUE 51 daysxxxxxxxxxx
15PUI 28 daysThe interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total invert sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of sorghum stalks during the maturity phase for the variety Rio grown in Brazil (Embrapa Maize and sorghum) .
16Brix, total sugars (%), fiber (%), and juice extraction (%) Sugar extraction (%)PUI – 35 daysThe interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total invert sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of stalks during the maturity phase for the variety Brandes grown in Brazil (Embrapa Maize and Sorghum).
17Brix, total sugars (%), fiber (%), and juice extraction (%) CMSXS 623 (Brandes Derivative)Brix, total sugars (%), fiber (%), and juice extraction (%)Sugar extraction (%)PUI 37 daysThe interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total invert sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of stalks during the maturity phase for the variety Brandes grown in Brazil (Embrapa Maize and Sorghum).Days after plantingThe interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total invert sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of sorghum stalks during the maturity phase for the variety CMSXS 623 grown in Brazil (Embrapa Maize and sorghum).
18PUI 54 daysThe interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total invert sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of stalks during the maturity phase for the variety Brandes grown in Brazil (Embrapa Maize and Sorghum).The interaction of refractometry Brix and percent total invert sugars in the juice and percent fiber, percent juice extraction, and percent sugar extraction of sorghum stalks during the maturity phase for the variety Wray grown in Brazil (Embrapa Maize and sorghum) .
19Biomass and Alcohol Production of two new Cultivars, BR506 and BR507, Compared to Brandes and Wray (t ha-1)Extracted Sugar Yield(kg 100 kg-1) (t ha-1)Alcohol YieldIdeal(L ha-1)81%EfficientRelative(% Wray)BrandesWrayBR506BR50747.444.648.852.07.210.99.184.108.40.206.75.02208294630623231178823862481261775100104110Embrapa Maize and Sorghum 1986/87
20Current Plant Breeding Strategies and Priorities Develop sweet sorghum 3 dwarf A and B lines (female) to be usedin hybrid development and production- Identify molecular markers for juicy stem and sweet juice- Incorporate genes for multiple stress (biotic and abiotic)resistanceEvaluate existing new sweet sorghum cultivars (approx. 50) anddevelop new sweet sorghum R lines (male) to be used inhybrid development and production- Incorporate genes for multiple stress (biotic andabiotic) resistanceIdentify molecular markers for tillering - Non-tillering desired to beable to control stalk diameter with plant population (betterextraction with large stem diameter)Develop transgenic sweet sorghum with sucrose isomerase gene(SI), a gene that regulates the transformation of sucrose toisomaltulose and thus can increase the sink capacity of sugarstorage (Wu and Birch, Plant Biotechnology Journal (2007) 5(pp )
21Plant Breeding Strategies and Priorities (cont.) Develop high yielding biomass cultivars for cellulose conversionto bio-energy- Identify molecular markers for maturity genes Ma5 and Ma6to be able to develop photosensitive (PS) sorghum biomasshybridsMa5Ma5ma6ma6 is photo-insensitive (PIS) and flowers in approximately 60 days regardless of day length.ma5ma5Ma6Ma6 is photo-insensitive and flowers in approximately 60 days regardless of day length.The hybrid between these genotypes, Ma5ma5Ma6ma6 is photo-sensitive (PS) and floral initiation is only induced with day lengths less than 12h and 20min.This can be useful in both sweet sorghum and biomass sorghum in locations farther from the equator where there is more variation in day lengths (McCollum et al. reported average yield increases of 25% of PS hybrids over PIS hybrids at Amarillo, Texas).
22Plant Breeding Strategies and Priorities (cont.) Develop high yielding biomass cultivars for cellulose conversionto bio-energy- Identify molecular markers for brown midrib low ligningenes genes brm-6 and brm-12Homozygous brm-6 hybrids and brm-12 hybrids have been reported to reduce lignin content in sorghum biomass by 50%
23Production Cost of alcohol from sweet sorghum in Brazil in micro-distilleries in November, 1980. ItemUS$Production Cost /ha320.00Cost/t stalks (30 t/ha)10.67Cost/t stalks (40 t/ha)8.00Cost/t alcohol (45 liter/t and 40 t/ha)0.22Cost/t alcohol (59 liter/t and 40 t/ha)0.20Cost/t alcohol (68 liter/t and 40 t/ha)0.17Source: Embrapa Maize and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil.The price of ethanol today (November 5, 2007) is about US$ 0.35 L-1 at thedistillery gate and US$ 0.75 to 0.90 at the pump, depending on the distancefrom distilleries
24Incorporação de Tolerância ao Al em Cultivares de Sorgo Elite Estamos incorporando o gene para tolerância ao Al em nossas linhagens elites em seis gerações usando a casa de vegetação em dois anos. O parâmetro usado é crescimento de raiz em solução nutritiva por sete dias.Usando este tecnologia estamos empilhando genes úteis em genótipos com tolerância ao estresse múltiplo.Estamos com ensaios no campo com três níveis de Al para quantificar o efeito dos genes para tolerância ao Al tóxico na produtividade e estabilidade de produção.Seleção p/ Tolerância ao Al em Solução NutritivaBR 007B SC 283Tol x Suc F3 ProgeniesLinhagemRecorrente FonteSusceptível x ToleranteCross tt x TTF TtBC tt x TtBC1F ½ Tt (½ tt eliminado em solução nutritiva)BC tt x TtBC2F ½ Tt (½ tt eliminado em solução nutritiva).BC4F ½ Tt (½ tt eliminado em solução nutritiva)BC4F ¼ TT ½ Tt (½ tt eliminado em solução nutritiva)BC4F3 100% TT and 97% Igual ao pai recorrenteRetrocruzamento Assistido para Desenvolver Linhagens de Sorgo com Tolerância ao Al Tóxico.Incorporação de Tolerância ao Al em Cultivares de Sorgo Elitee Desenvolvimento de Linhagens Isogênicos
26Intra-Specific Diversity for Al Tolerance in Sorghum SC283 and SC566 rely on the same locus AltSB for Al toleranceGenetic basis apparently narrow8 different Al tolerant sources x BR012Inheritance study and linkage analysis to markers in the AltSB regionSSR-based phylogenetic analysisAl tolerance gene diversity for pyramidation via breedingStronger alleles of AltSBDifferent haplotypes at AltSB for candidate gene validationFoundation for future association tests
27Desenvolvimento de Sorgo Mais Eficiente na Aquisição de P A identificação e conhecimento das mudanças no rhizosfero, mecanismos de aquisição e utilização de P facilitarão a manipulação destes parâmetros.Não existe conhecimento de parâmetros nos cereais correlacionados a eficiência de aquisição/utilização de P.GrãoRespostaClassePedigreeTolBaixa PAlta Pao PAlt/ha(%)BR 007BS1.954.862.49IRSC283T2.663.291.23E NBR 005R2.743.511.28Médio Ensaio2.163.601.43xxTem a necessidade de identificar ou desenvolver genótipos com diferenças na habilidade de adquirir e utilizar P eficientementeUtilizando condições de campo, solução nutritiva, e casa de vegetação, identificamos genótipos de sorgo contrastantes para aquisição e resposta ao PPlantas de Sorgo com21 Dias em RhizoboxxxxXxxxBR007B (IR) BR 005R (EN) SC 283 (EN)+ P P P P P PPelos de raízes dos genótipos SC283 (eficiente) e BR007 (responsivo) em estresse de PSC283BR007BR007BSC 283+P P
28Produção diferencial de Sorgoleone Sorgoleone per unit RFW (mg/g) em SorgoSC 283 – SEM FÓSFOROSorgoleone Production by Various Sorghum GenotypesaSorghum GenotypeRoot Fresh Wt(RFW) (g)SorgoleonemgSorgoleone per unit RFW (mg/g)% PurityRTx43220.127.116.1191.8RTx70781.8012.0098.7RTx4300.080.303.7594.9B Redlan2.6717.8080.2B Wheatland0.330.832.5078.3BR 007 B – SEM FÓSFOROa- three replicates of 25 seedlings each Fonte: Chandrashekhar I, et al.; J. Agric. Food Chem. 1996, 44, 1343−1347Photomicrograph of Sorghum bicolor roots showing a sorgoleone-rich oily exudate secreted from the root hairs (Bar=80 μm) and b closer view of a root hair with sorgoleone exuding at the tip (Bar=15 μm). Sorgoleone-rich oil from tip of root hairs also exudes from secondary roots originating either from c roots (Bar=125 μm) or d stem (adventitious roots) (Bar=350 μm)Fonte: F.E. Dayan, USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, P.O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, USA
29Hibrido Sorgo Forrageiro de Corte Hibrido Sorgo Forrageiro de Corte Desenvolvimento de Cultivares de Sorgo Forrageiro de Alta Qualidade (bmr6 bmr6)Linhagens A e B bmr6Linhagens R bmr6Desenvolvimento denovas linhagens bmr6 A/Be R com tolerância aomúltiplo estresseA/BTx 635A/B BR007A/B CMSXS205A/B CMSXS206A/B BR008A/B CMSXS156A/B CMSXS 157RTx2784RTx2785CMSXS912CMSXS225Hibrido Sorgo Forrageiro de CorteTx635bmr6AxTx2785bmr6RHibrido Sorgo Forrageiro de CorteTx635bmr6AxTx2784bmr6R
30Final RemarksEmbrapa has a relative large number (50 -60) of sweet sorghum varietiesavailable for characterization for quality and utilization in developingexperimental hybrids.The variety BR501 (Brandes) is tolerant to Al toxicity and is the restorerparent in two commercial forage sorghum hybrids. Brandes probablywas selected 25 years ago because it was tolerant to Al toxicity.Brandes was successfully used in two pilot sweet sorghum distilleries inJundiai, SP and Pelotus, RS.The proof of concept of sweet sorghum as a biofuel source has beendetermined. The next step is an economic evaluation forcompetitiveness with other available raw materials.Embrapa is currently evaluating the return to an active research anddevelopment program with sweet sorghum as a source for bio-fuels.
31Embrapa Maize and Sorghum Thank YouRobert SchaffertEmbrapa Maize and SorghumTel:
34Hibrido Sorgo Forrageiro de Corte Tx635bmr6AxTx2785bmr6R
35Fiber Increases and Juice Extraction Decreases with Time Percent fiber and juive extraction of cultivar Brandes at Araras, CNPMS/EMBRAPA, 1981 and 1982 (Schaffert et al. 1986).Percent fiber and juive extraction of cultivar Wray at Araras, CNPMS/EMBRAPA, 1981 and 1982 (Schaffert et al. 1986).Fiber Increases and Juice Extraction Decreases with TimeBrandesWray
36Juice Extraction Varies Between Cultivars Percent juice extraction of four sweet sorghum cultivars at CNPMS/EMBRAPA, Sete Lagoas, Brazil, 1986/87, BR 501 = Brandes; BR 505 = Wray.
39Agricultural and Industrial yields of sweet sorghum in Brazil. ComponentAgricultural YieldAlcohol yield(t/ha)(liter/t)(liter/ha per harvest)StalksRangeAverage37.7702639Grain2.2340748Total3387Source: Schaffert and Borgonovi (1980)
40Mean yield of stalk, fermentable sugar, alcohol, fresh biomass and seed of sweet sorghum in experiments at the BeijingBotanical GardenCultivarTheisM-81EWrayKellerBrandesRioStalk (kg/ha)9589766252Fermentable sugar (t/ha)10.69.610.310.56.46.2Alcohol (l/ha)6 1595 6075 9816 1313 6963 617Fresh material (t/ha)12512810610782Seed (kg/ha)6 6746 2131 4261 9603 5002 866
44Sugarcane (São Paulo averages) Comparison of juice between sweet sorghum and sugarcane in Brazil.Sweet SorghumTraitLiteratureNational TrialsSugarcane (São Paulo averages)Juice extraction (%)Retractometer Brix18 -21Sucrose (% juice)10 -15Invert sugars (% juice)1 - 4Total invert sugars (% juice)Source: Schaffert and Borgonovi (1980)
48Maximum dry matter production and maximum growth rates of several crops. MaturityAverage Growth rateMaximum growth rateCrop(t/ha)(days)(gm/m2 per day)Napier10636526-----Sugarcane701838sugarbeet473001431Forage sorghum30120224321019Sudangrass3316051Alfafa362501323Bermudagrass3523020Alga28Source: Loomis and Willian (1963)
49Location and Date of Planting National Forage Sorghum Trial /87 Embrapa Maize and SorghumLocation and Date of PlantingLinharesGoiâniaCapinópolisItuiutabaTaquariCruz AltaS.J. dos CamposMeanRelativeESGOMGRSSPCultivarBR601 (%)Biomass Production (t/ha wet weight)BR506 (V)46.355.243.355.541.959.350.852.8109BR507 (V)18.104.22.1687.339.855.768.149.5102BR601(H)44.154.347.655.166.048.6100BR126* (MV)19.139.636.635.025.532.336.032.166Biomass Production (t/ha dry weight)14.411.610.2NA13.417.718.714.610815.612.411.714.118.918.211512.012.714.818.314.313.57.416.915.49.911.811.585* Forage Maize Variety**
50Percent total sugar (Juice) WrayRioBrandesCMSXS623Days after plantingThe differences between four cultivars grown in Brazil for total invert sugars of the juice during the maturity phase of production (Embrapa Maize and sorghum).
51Percent fiber and juice extraction RioaCMSXS623WrayBrandesDays after plantingThe differences between four cultivars grown in Brazil for juice extraction and fiber content of the stalks during the maturity phase of production (Embrapa Maize and Sorghum).Percent fiber and juice extraction
52Average yields:StalksLeaves, peduuncle and headsTons/ha32.913.646.5Estimated approximate composition of sweet sorghum sugar varieties in the United States (Nathan, 1978)
53Average yields:StalksLeaves, peduncle and headstotalTonnes/ha47.419.366.7Estimated approximate composition of sweet sorghum syrup varieties in the United States (Nathan, 1978)