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 Eupnea: normal, quiet breathing  Apnea: cessation of breathing  Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing  Bradypnea: abnormally decreased rate of breathing.

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Presentation on theme: " Eupnea: normal, quiet breathing  Apnea: cessation of breathing  Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing  Bradypnea: abnormally decreased rate of breathing."— Presentation transcript:


2  Eupnea: normal, quiet breathing  Apnea: cessation of breathing  Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing  Bradypnea: abnormally decreased rate of breathing  Hyperpnea/Tachypnea: abnormally increased rate of breathing  Cheyne-Stokes: respirations gradually increase then cease entirely for a few seconds (often seen in dying patients)  Rales: rattling, gurgling sounds heard with breathing (seen in Congestive Heart Failure)  Hyperventilation: depth and rate of breathing are increased  Hypoventilation: slow, shallow breathing

3 Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System  Dyspnea  Hyperventilation  Epistaxis  URI (upper respiratory infection)  Laryngectomy  Pneumonia  Pleurisy  Epiglottitis  Pulmonary Embolism/infarction

4 Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System  Atelectasis  Pneumothorax  Tuberculosis  Influenza  Asthma  COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)  ARDS (Adult respiratory Distress Syndrome)  IRDS (infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome) (SIDS)  Occupational Lung Disorders  Lung Cancer

5 Dyspnea  Causes: airway obstruction, hypoxia, pulmonary edema, lung diseases, heart conditions, allergic reactions, pneumothorax, poisoning (CO)

6 Respiratory Distress  Pt begins to increase rate and depth of respirations  Followed by SOB (dyspnea)  Hypoxia may follow because of decreased O2  Pt begins gasping for air, has blurred vision, is cyanotic  Increased blood CO2 stimulates medulla to increase respirations, but with time the medulla is depressed and breathing rate slows  If untreated, apnea occurs  If onset is slow, Cheyne-Stokes develops  Then respiratory arrest to unconsciousness  Pupils dilate and pt goes into cardiac arrest  Pt has suffocated = asphyxia

7 Hyperventilation: Breathing Too Rapidly and Too Deeply  S & S  a. Carpopedal spasms (tingling, cramping of upper extremities)  b. Chest pain, anxiety  c. Perioral numbness, but not cyanotic  CO2 level is too low so treat by having pt. breathe into a paper bag  If breathing is shallow, it’s not hyperventilation

8 Epistaxis: Nosebleed  Blood vessels close to surface, so bleeding looks profuse  Treatment: pinch nostrils, lean forward, ice to neck

9 URI: Upper Respiratory Infection, Usually Viral  Sinusitis  Laryngitis

10 Laryngectomy: Usually From Cancer of Larynx  Airway must be rerouted by stoma formed by tracheotomy (tracheostomy is permanent)  Must use electronic voice box  CPR - bag to stoma

11 Pneumonia: Lung Infection - Viral, Bacterial, Fungal  S & S: fever, cough, chills, headache, myalgia, rash, dyspnea  Tx: antivirals, antibiotics, antifungals

12 Pleurisy  Inflammation of pleura surrounding lung  Fluid can be removed by thoracentesis ( procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest)

13 Epiglottitis  Usually in small children  Signs: drooling, tripod position  3. Tx: transport ASAP, do NOT try to look in the mouth as this can cause the throat to close off completely and may cause breathing to stop altogether

14 Pulmonary Embolism/Infarction  A moving clot into the vessels of the lungs  Lung tissue gets deprived of O2  At risk: recent post-operatives, immobile pts, those on birth control pills, trauma, blood clots in the legs, heart valve replacement pts

15 Atelectasis  Imperfect Expansion = Collapsed Lung

16 Pneumothorax  Air in thoracic cavity, lungs collapse  Trauma - lungs punctured by ribs or other sharp object  Spontaneous - weakened area of lung ruptures and releases air into thoracic cavity; more common in young, thin males; also occurs after surgery; Ca  Tension - collapsed lung gets pushed against heart and great vessels and other lung - TRUE EMERGENCY!  S & S: dyspnea, sharp pain prior to onset, weak rapid pulse, hypotension, uneven chest expansion (flail chest), neck vein distention, trachea will deviate to side opposite ruptured lung  TX: high O2, transport ASAP

17 Tuberculosis  Bacterial infection of lungs: Mycobacterium tuberculosis  S & S: cough, hemoptysis, low grade fever  Tx: long term antibiotic therapy; lobectomy of affected lung

18 Asthma  Episodic spasms of muscles of bronchi cause constriction  Interferes with expiration of air  Mucus overproduces and is thick so air flow decreases on exhalation and air is trapped in lungs  Pt must exhale forcefully, producing the characteristic wheezing sound on expiration  S & S: no chest pain usually, pt is tense/anxious/frightened, wheezing on expiration, increased pulse rate 120+, normal rhythm, neck veins distended, cyanosis, coughing  Tx: reassure and calm pt, check medications inhalant, position upright, O2, transport  Prolonged attack = status asthmaticus - Can be fatal!

19 Chronic bronchitis  Bronchiole lining inflamed  Excess mucus produced but cilia are scarred/paralyzed  Inhaled irritants  S & S: persistent cough, SOB, tightness in chest, dizziness, periodic cyanosis, “blue bloaters”

20 Emphysema  Chronic, alveoli lose elasticity and air is trapped in the alveoli, alveoli rupture then fuse into large irregular spaces  Excess mucus produced  Poor gas exchange  S & S: dyspnea on exertion, chronic cough, rapid pulse, irregular, B/P normal, wheezing, breathe with pursed lips, develop barrel-chest appearance due to trapped air, “pink puffers”  CO2 narcosis: medulla becomes insensitive to increased CO2 levels over time and only peripheral receptors respond

21 Bronchiectasis  Bronchi and bronchioles widen so blood is not O2 rich therefore pt is dyspneic, cyanotic, with foul greenish sputum

22 Cystic fibrosis  Pancreatic enzyme deficiency causes increased mucus glands, increased viscosity of mucus, more secretions and infections, scarring of membranes  Inherited  Tx: monitor VS, orthopnic position, loosen restrictive clothing, keep pt warm but not overheated, decrease stress, O2 (chronic: postural drainage)


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