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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory

2 Eupnea: normal, quiet breathing
 Apnea: cessation of breathing Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing Bradypnea: abnormally decreased rate of breathing Hyperpnea/Tachypnea: abnormally increased rate of breathing Cheyne-Stokes: respirations gradually increase then cease entirely for a few seconds (often seen in dying patients) Rales: rattling, gurgling sounds heard with breathing (seen in Congestive Heart Failure) Hyperventilation: depth and rate of breathing are increased Hypoventilation: slow, shallow breathing

3 Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System
Dyspnea Hyperventilation Epistaxis URI (upper respiratory infection) Laryngectomy Pneumonia Pleurisy Epiglottitis Pulmonary Embolism/infarction

4 Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System
Atelectasis Pneumothorax Tuberculosis Influenza Asthma COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) ARDS (Adult respiratory Distress Syndrome) IRDS (infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome) (SIDS) Occupational Lung Disorders Lung Cancer

5 Dyspnea Causes: airway obstruction, hypoxia, pulmonary edema, lung diseases, heart conditions, allergic reactions, pneumothorax, poisoning (CO)

6 Respiratory Distress Pt begins to increase rate and depth of respirations Followed by SOB (dyspnea) Hypoxia may follow because of decreased O2 Pt begins gasping for air, has blurred vision, is cyanotic Increased blood CO2 stimulates medulla to increase respirations, but with time the medulla is depressed and breathing rate slows If untreated, apnea occurs If onset is slow, Cheyne-Stokes develops  Then respiratory arrest to unconsciousness Pupils dilate and pt goes into cardiac arrest Pt has suffocated = asphyxia

7 Hyperventilation: Breathing Too Rapidly and Too Deeply
S & S a. Carpopedal spasms (tingling, cramping of upper extremities)   b. Chest pain, anxiety c. Perioral numbness, but not cyanotic CO2 level is too low so treat by having pt. breathe into a paper bag If breathing is shallow, it’s not hyperventilation

8 Epistaxis: Nosebleed Blood vessels close to surface, so bleeding looks profuse   Treatment: pinch nostrils, lean forward, ice to neck

9 URI: Upper Respiratory Infection, Usually Viral
Sinusitis Laryngitis

10 Laryngectomy: Usually From Cancer of Larynx
Airway must be rerouted by stoma formed by tracheotomy (tracheostomy is permanent) Must use electronic voice box CPR - bag to stoma

11 Pneumonia: Lung Infection - Viral, Bacterial, Fungal
S & S: fever, cough, chills, headache, myalgia, rash, dyspnea Tx: antivirals, antibiotics, antifungals

12 Pleurisy Inflammation of pleura surrounding lung
Fluid can be removed by thoracentesis ( procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest)

13 Epiglottitis Usually in small children
Signs: drooling, tripod position 3. Tx: transport ASAP, do NOT try to look in the mouth as this can cause the throat to close off completely and may cause breathing to stop altogether

14 Pulmonary Embolism/Infarction
A moving clot into the vessels of the lungs Lung tissue gets deprived of O2 At risk: recent post-operatives, immobile pts, those on birth control pills, trauma, blood clots in the legs, heart valve replacement pts

15 Atelectasis Imperfect Expansion = Collapsed Lung

16 Pneumothorax Air in thoracic cavity, lungs collapse
Trauma - lungs punctured by ribs or other sharp object Spontaneous - weakened area of lung ruptures and releases air into thoracic cavity; more common in young, thin males; also occurs after surgery; Ca  Tension - collapsed lung gets pushed against heart and great vessels and other lung - TRUE EMERGENCY!  S & S: dyspnea, sharp pain prior to onset, weak rapid pulse, hypotension, uneven chest expansion (flail chest), neck vein distention, trachea will deviate to side opposite ruptured lung  TX: high O2, transport ASAP

17 Tuberculosis Bacterial infection of lungs: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
 S & S: cough, hemoptysis, low grade fever  Tx: long term antibiotic therapy; lobectomy of affected lung

18 Asthma Episodic spasms of muscles of bronchi cause constriction
 Interferes with expiration of air  Mucus overproduces and is thick so air flow decreases on exhalation and air is trapped in lungs  Pt must exhale forcefully, producing the characteristic wheezing sound on expiration  S & S: no chest pain usually, pt is tense/anxious/frightened, wheezing on expiration, increased pulse rate 120+, normal rhythm, neck veins distended, cyanosis, coughing  Tx: reassure and calm pt, check medications inhalant, position upright, O2, transport  Prolonged attack = status asthmaticus - Can be fatal!

19 Chronic bronchitis Bronchiole lining inflamed
 Excess mucus produced but cilia are scarred/paralyzed  Inhaled irritants  S & S: persistent cough, SOB, tightness in chest, dizziness, periodic cyanosis, “blue bloaters”

20 Emphysema Chronic, alveoli lose elasticity and air is trapped in the alveoli, alveoli rupture then fuse into large irregular spaces  Excess mucus produced  Poor gas exchange  S & S: dyspnea on exertion, chronic cough, rapid pulse, irregular, B/P normal, wheezing, breathe with pursed lips, develop barrel-chest appearance due to trapped air, “pink puffers”  CO2 narcosis: medulla becomes insensitive to increased CO2 levels over time and only peripheral receptors respond

21 Bronchiectasis Bronchi and bronchioles widen so blood is not O2 rich therefore pt is dyspneic, cyanotic, with foul greenish sputum

22 Cystic fibrosis Pancreatic enzyme deficiency causes increased mucus glands, increased viscosity of mucus, more secretions and infections, scarring of membranes  Inherited  Tx: monitor VS, orthopnic position, loosen restrictive clothing, keep pt warm but not overheated, decrease stress, O2 (chronic: postural drainage)


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