Presentation on theme: "Diseases of the Urinary System Dee Dee Schumacher C.V.T.,V.T.S.(ECC), M.Ed. Casey Conway Jeannie Stall R.V.T. Google Images/ClipArt Alleice Summers."— Presentation transcript:
Diseases of the Urinary System Dee Dee Schumacher C.V.T.,V.T.S.(ECC), M.Ed. Casey Conway Jeannie Stall R.V.T. Google Images/ClipArt Alleice Summers
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) AKA feline cystitis, FUS Cause : Unknown Appears to be self-limiting in most cats (according to book) Symptoms: Hematuria, > frequent urinations Dysuria (painful urination),Inappropriate urination Dx: U/A, urine culture, x-rays Tx: Only use abx if necessary, change diet, use anti- inflammatory meds w/ caution May be recurring problem, there is no definitive cure
Canine Cystitis Bacterial urinary tract infection is the most common cause Symptoms: Increased frequency of urination, Hematuria, Dysuria, Frequent licking of the urethral area Dx: U/A, urine culture Tx: abx based on culture & sensitivity, Acute – tx for 10-14 days Chronic- tx for 4-6 weeks Relapses are common due to inadequate treatment
Feline Uroliths Multi-crystalline concretions composed of minerals w/ a sm. amt. of matrix ( mucoprotein ) AKA “bladder stones” (may be located anywhere in the urinary tract) Radiopaque or radiolucent Obese, older cats appear to be predisposed Small uroliths can become lodged in the urethra (obstruction) Symptoms depend on degree of trauma, obstruction –Hematuria –Dysuria –Inappropriate urination –Straining to pass urine –Vomiting –Collapse –Death May be asymptomatic
Feline Uroliths Dx: x-rays, ultrasound, PE Tx: diet that alters urine pH and dissolves uroliths for 4-8 weeks, abx Surgical treatment – cystotomy, uroliths Obstruction – must unblock urethra asap, supportive therapy PU (perineal urethrostomy): If uroliths can’t be removed from urethra
Feline Urethral Plugs Consist of small, varying amts. of minerals w/ large amt. of matrix( mucoproteins) Same factors associated w/ formation of uroliths Symptoms: –Straining to urinate –Vomiting –Dehydration –Collapse Dx: bladder is enlarged & firm on palpation, hx, x-rays, bloodwork- increased BUN, CREA, Phos. levels
Feline Urethral Plugs Must reestablish urethral patency asap! In azotemic cats, less anesthesia is necessary Do not perform cystocentesis until unblocked!
Urolithiasis - Canine Studies indicate prevalence < 1% in dogs Uroliths form in urine supersaturated with specific substances – minerals After formation – may pass out urinary tract, continue to grow in the tract, dissolve, or become inactive Clin.signs: Dysuria, hematuria
Renal Failure Filtration & waste management of the body Reduction in blood flow or damage to the nephron results in renal failure – acute or chronic Nephron unit is damaged & glomerular filtration declines, resulting in azotemia (build-up of toxins in body) Clin. Signs: Acute – oliguria, polyuria, fever, kidneys painful on palpation, v/d, anorexia, dehydration Dx: Phys. exam, Hx, U/A, blood work Tx: IV fluids, discontinue nephrotoxic drugs, intestinal protectants, diuretics May improve renal function, it may never return to completely normal levels, prognosis can be guarded
Chronic Renal Failure Common in older pets, irreversible & progressive decline in renal function, months to years Cats more affected than dogs Clin.signs: Dullness, lethargy, weakness, wt. loss, anorexia, v/d, polyuria, polydipsia, gait disturbances in cats, sudden blindness
Chronic Renal Failure Dx: labwork Tx: Supportive care & correction of imbalances-dehydration, electrolytes, GI symptoms IV or SQ fluids, diuretics, consider euthanasia ???
Urinary Incontinence Frequent in older pets Loss of voluntary control of urination Multiple causes: Neurologic, obstruction, bladder disease, hormone levels Clin. Signs: Owner reports pet “leaks” when asleep or exercising, perianal area is always wet Signs of concurrent UTI are present Older,SF, intact males predisposed Dx: u/a, x-rays, bloodwork Tx: based on determination of specific cause Phenypropanolamine (PPA)
Equine Cystitis – inflammation of the bladder, rare, dx same, tx same Urinary bladder prolapse – postpartum mares, replace bladder, avoid rupture, abx Incontinence – diff to treat, tx is usually symptomatic, urine scald Urolithiasis – rarely cause obstruction, if do- male horse, removal
Urolithiasis – Sheep & Goats Most commonly seen in wethers, rams, bucks that are on high-concentrate diets Common in feedlot & pet animals Similar clin. signs Dx: clin. signs, u/a, x-rays Tx: Amputate urethral process, cystotomy, urinary acidifiers