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FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Register-transfer Design n Basics of register-transfer design: –data paths and controllers.

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Presentation on theme: "FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Register-transfer Design n Basics of register-transfer design: –data paths and controllers."— Presentation transcript:

1 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Register-transfer Design n Basics of register-transfer design: –data paths and controllers. n High-level synthesis.

2 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Register-transfer design n A register-transfer system –is a sequential machine. n Register-transfer design –is structural—complex combinations of state machines –may not be easily described solely by a large state transition graph. n Register-transfer design –concentrates on functionality, not details of logic design.

3 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Register-transfer system example A register-transfer machine has combinational logic connecting registers: DQ combinational logic DQDQ combinational logic combinational logic

4 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Block diagrams Block diagrams specify structure: wire bundle of width 5

5 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data path-controller systems n One good way to structure a system is as a data path and a controller: –data path » executes regular operations (arithmetic, etc.), holds registers with data-oriented state; –Controller » evaluates irregular functions, sets control signals for data path.

6 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data and control + ctrl carry select

7 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data operators n Arithmetic operations – are easy to spot in hardware description languages: »x <= a + b ; n Multiplexers – are implied by conditionals. –Must evaluate entire program to determine which sources of data for registers. –Multiplexers also come from sharing adders, etc.

8 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Conditionals and multiplexers if x = ‘0’ then reg1 <= a; else reg1 <= b; end if; code register-transfer

9 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Alternate data path-controller systems controller data path one controller, one data path controller data path controller data path two communicating data path-controller systems

10 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Pipelines n Provide higher utilization of logic: Combinational logic

11 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Pipeline metrics n Throughput: rate at which new values enter the system. –Initiation interval: time between successive inputs. n Latency: delay from input to output.

12 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Simple pipelines n Pure pipelines have no control. n Choose latency, throughput. n Choose register locations with retiming. n Overhead: –Setup, hold times. –Power.

13 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Complex pipelines n Actions in pipeline depend on data or external events. n Actions on pipe: –Stall values. –Abort operation. –Bypass values.

14 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR High-level synthesis n Sequential operation –is not the most abstract description of behavior. n We can describe behavior –without assigning operations to particular clock cycles. n High-level synthesis –(behavioral synthesis) transforms an unscheduled behavior into a register-transfer behavior.

15 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Tasks in high-level synthesis n Scheduling – determines clock cycle on which each operation will occur. n Allocation – chooses which function units will execute which operations.

16 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Functional modeling code in Verilog assign o1 = i1 | i2; if (! I3) then o1 = 1’b1; o2 = a + b; else o1 = 1’b0; end; clock cycle boundary can be moved to design different register transfers

17 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data dependencies n Data dependencies –describe relationships between operations: »x <= a + b ; value of x depends on a, b n High-level synthesis –must preserve data dependencies.

18 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data flow graph n Data flow graph (DFG) – models data dependencies. n Does not require that operations be performed in a particular order. n Models operations in a basic block of a functional model—no conditionals. n Requires single-assignment form.

19 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data flow graph construction original code: x <= a + b; y <= a * c; z <= x + d; x <= y - d; x <= x + c; single-assignment form: x1 <= a + b; y <= a * c; z <= x1 + d; x2 <= y - d; x3 <= x2 + c;

20 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data flow graph construction, cont’d Data flow forms directed acyclic graph (DAG): single-assignment form: x1 <= a + b; y <= a * c; z <= x1 + d; x2 <= y - d; x3 <= x2 + c;

21 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Goals of scheduling and allocation n Preserve behavior –at end of execution, should have received all outputs –be in proper state (ignoring exact times of events). n Utilize hardware efficiently. n Obtain acceptable performance.

22 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data flow to data path-controller One feasible schedule for last DFG:

23 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Binding values to registers registers fall on clock cycle boundaries

24 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Allocation creates multiplexers n Same unit used for different values at different times. –Function units. –Registers. n Multiplexer controls which value has access to the unit.

25 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Choosing function units muxes allow function units to be shared for several operations

26 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Building the sequencer sequencer requires three states, even with no conditionals

27 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Verilog for data path module dp(reset,clock,a,b,c,d,muxctrl1,muxctrl2,muxctrl3, muxctrl4,loadr1,loadr2,loadr3,loadr4,x3,z); parameter n=7; input reset; input clock; input [n:0] a, b, c, d; // data primary inputs input muxctrl1, muxctrl2, muxctrl4; // mux control input [1:0] muxctrl3; // 2-bit mux control input loadr1, loadr2, loadr3, loadr4; // register control output [n:0] x3, z; reg [n:0] r1, r2, r3, r4; // registers wire [n:0] mux1out, mux2out, mux3out, mux3bout, mux4out, mult1out, mult2out; assign mux1out = (muxctrl1 == 0) ? a : r1; assign mux2out = (muxctrl2 == 0) ? b : r4; assign mux3out = (muxctrl3 == 0) ? a : (muxctrl3 == 1 ? r4 : r3); assign mux4out = (muxctrl4 == 0) ? c : r2; assign mult1out = mux1out * mux2out; assign mult2out = mux3out * mux4out; assign x3 = mult2out; assign z = mult1out; clock) begin if (reset) r1 = 0; r2 = 0; r3 = 0; r4 = 0; end if (loadr1) r1 = mult1out; if (loadr2) r2 = mult2out; if (loadr3) r3 = c; if (loadr4) r4 = d; end endmodule

28 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Choices during high-level synthesis n Scheduling –determines number of clock cycles required; n Binding –determines area, cycle time. n Area tradeoffs –must consider shared function units vs. multiplexers, control. n Delay tradeoffs –must consider cycle time vs. number of cycles.

29 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Finding schedules n Two simple schedules: –As-soon-as-possible (ASAP) schedule »puts every operation as early in time as possible. –As-late-as-possible (ALAP) schedule »puts every operation as late in schedule as possible. n Many schedules exist between ALAP and ASAP extremes.

30 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR ASAP and ALAP schedules ASAP ALAP

31 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Verilog model of ASAP schedule reg [n-1:0] w1reg, w2reg, w6reg1, w6reg2, w6reg3, w6reg4, w3reg1, w3reg2, w4reg, w5reg; clock) begin // cycle 1 w1reg = i1 + i2; w3reg1 = i4 + i5; w6reg1 = i7 + i8; // cycle 2 w2reg = w1reg + i3; w3reg2 = w3reg1; w6reg2 = w6reg1; // cycle 3 w4reg = w3reg2 + w2reg; w6reg3 = w6reg2; // cycle 4 w5reg = i6 + w4reg; w6reg4 = w6reg3; // cycle 5 o1 = w6reg4 + w5reg; end

32 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Verilog of ALAP schedule reg [n-1:0] w1reg, w2reg, w6reg, w6reg2, w6reg3, w3reg, w4reg, w5reg; clock) begin // cycle 1 w1reg = i1 + i2; // cycle 2 w2reg = w1reg + i3; w3reg = i4 + i5; // cycle 3 w4reg = w3reg + w2reg; w6reg3 = w6reg2; // cycle 4 w5reg = i6 + w4reg; w6reg = i7 + i8; // cycle 5 o1 = w6reg + w5reg; end

33 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Critical path of schedule Longest path through data flow determines minimum schedule length:

34 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Operator chaining n Operator chaining. –May execute several operations in sequence in one cycle n Delay through function units –may not be additive, such as through several adders.

35 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Control implementation n Clock cycles –are also known as control steps. n Longer schedule –means more states in controller. n Cost of controller –may be hard to judge from casual inspection of state transition graph.

36 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Controllers and scheduling functional model: x <= a + b; y <= c + d; one state two states

37 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Distributed control one centralized controller two distributed controllers

38 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Synchronized communication between FSMs To pass values between two machines, must schedule output of one machine to coincide with input expected by the other:

39 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Hardwired vs. microcoded control n Hardwired control has a state register and “random logic.” n A microcoded machine has a state register which points into a microcode memory. n Styles are equivalent; choice depends on implementation considerations.

40 FPGA-Based System Design: Chapter 6 Copyright  2004 Prentice Hall PTR Data path-controller delay Watch out for long delay paths created by combination of data path and controller:


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